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and such curios as “ The Bubble Ghostscribing adventures supposed to be reand his Son,” a “Throw for a Throne,” | ferred to in the Tempest; an early maintaining that Shakespeare's words jest-book possibly used by Shakespeare'; show Claudius to have been innocent of a collection of the plays and romances murder.

from which he may have drawn, entitled Macbeth,” too, has its numerous for- Shakespeare's Library; "and a rare book eign translations, its operas and travesties, known as “ Beware the Cat,” published in its studies of the original source in Holins- 1570. Then there is quite a list of books hed's chronicles, and its ingenious com- and articles on his art and work, his prementators. There was a Russian edition decessors, contemporaries, and succes. as early as 1837, one published at “ Der-sors. We have his "mental photographs,' venter in 1845, another at Posen in 1857, his “garden of girls," bis “England,” his and one at “ Jassi" in 1864. Madrid had “ Altenengland," his “morality," his “reli. “ ”

” an edition in 1818, and Stockholm in gion,” his self-knowledge, his genius, his 1838. “Romeo and Juliet,” is popular, humor, his folk-lore, and so We but not nearly so much so as might liave have “Shakespeare's Heroines,” the very been expected. “Othello," " King Lear,” “Girlhood of Shakespeare's Heroines ;." the “ Merchant of Venice,” the “ Merry we have the “ Learning of Shakespeare,” Wives of Windsor,” the “Midsummer the “Law in Shakespeare," " Shakespeare Night's Dream,” the “ Tempest,” are all and the Bible, Shakespeare and Shortfairly well represented in translation ; so hand,” essays on the varieties of mania is "Julius Cæsar,” but none so well as exhibited in some of his characters, the “ Hamlet and “Macbeth,” or even as “ Animal Lore of Shakespeare's Time,” “Romeo and Juliet.” There was a trans- the “ornithology” of Shakespeare, the lation of the " “ Merry Wives at Wilno in “ Natural History of the Insects mentioned 1842, a Bulgarian one of “ Cæsar"in 1879, in his Plays” (a gruesome subject), “ Unand a Greek one of " Lear” in 1870. The der the Stars," or his work in the light of English historical plays, as might be sup- astronomy, the “ Flowers of Shakespeare." posed, are not well represented by trans. Many have puzzled over the question of lations, if we except “ King Richard 111." his calling as demonstrated by his writA translation of King Henry VI.” ap- ings, and hence we have such books as peared at “Bánfalván” in 1862. There Was Shakespeare ever a Soldier?" are very few of " Measure for Measure, “Was Shakespeare a Lawyer ?” “Shake. and still fewer of “ Love's Labor Lost.” speare as a Physician,' Shakespeare as Of “ Pericles " there is, of course, a Ger- an Angler," as though a man following man translation (1838), for the Germans one craft, especially literature or acting, appear to excel all other nations in trans- could not learn something of another. lating, especially in the case of Shake. Then we have such works as " Shakespeare. Under the head of "

Pericles," speare and his Times,” the “ Rural Life of too, there is an Anglo-Saxon version of Shakespeare," Shakespeare in Germany, in the story of Apollonius of Tyre, on which America, “ in Griechenland,” and “ West the play is founded.

Indian Illustrations.” Of course, there The doubtful plays of Shakespeare also are “ Tales” and “Stories” from Shakeclaim a considerable space in the cata- speare, and equally of course, the irrelogue, and have been translated, at least pressible apologist with his “ Shakespeare by the Germans, and republished by the not an Impostor." Americans. Such are “ The Two No. Comparisons are another ordeal which ble Kinsmen, “ The London Prodigal,” the great writer has to bear, and hence we “ Thomas Lord Cromwell,” “Sir John have Shakespeare and Dante, Marlowe, Oldcastle,” “The Puritan, Locrine," Bacon, Molière, Goethe, Voltaire, Scott, “ The Yorkshire Tragedy,” “ The Fifth of Chateaubriand, and so on. We have his November," and so on. Of the sonnets, errors pointed out, his obscure passages there are a variety of translations and a expounded, his obsolete words, the prolarge number of “ Selections."

nunciation of English in his day, and one The miscellaneous literature of Shake- gentleman has investigated the position speare is very voluminous. With regard of the English adjective in his language. to the sources of his plays there are, in Some person discovers that he wrote bal. addition to some mentioned above, trea. lads on the Spanish Armada; another tises on the lives of Plutarch and the exposes the forgeries at Bridgewater passages of Aristotle and others which House; a third pens an imaginary conver. illustrate his writings, together with Rich's sation between him and the Earl of Southtract “News from Virginia " (1610), de ampton ; a fourth treats of his “ curse ;

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a fifth supposes his ghost to address the indeed, the other great poets. Thus we British army in the '45 to the tune of have the “Influence of his Poems on the “Britons, Strike Home;" and a sixth in Greek Nation,” " Tales from Homer," the geniously fabricates a series of double origin and growth of the poems, the “ True acrostics from his plays.

Nature and Design of the Iliad,” “Ulysses The doubters are also in their place, as delineated by Homer," “ Homeric Flora some asking " Who wrote Shakespeare?" and Mineralogy,” “The Sense of Color in

“Was Shakespeare Snapleigh?” and Homer," the topography of Troy, the others, more bold, discoursing on the age of Homer, the original genius of “Shakesperean Myth,” or the “Great Homer, his post-epic or imitative words, Cryptogram."

· Apology for Homer," Homer and His birth, life, and death is another Virgil, 'Homer and Dante, Homer and fruitful source of literature. We have Goethe, “ Homeric Doubts,” the “ Prebooks on his pedigree, his coat-of-arms, tended Tomb of Homer," and so forth. his birthplace, school, and home, the Dante has a fraction of one volume

rogues and vagabonds” of his youth. to his share, but the entries being all in Shaxpere or Shakespeare ? Was A ap close type, it does not compare well with Roberts that butcher's son of Stratford. the written and printed lists of Shakeupon-Avon who is recorded by Aubrey as peare and Homer. There are many having been an acquaintance of Shake. translations of the “Divina Commedia,” speare in the early days of the great poet? including one in the Catalan tongue, And was Shakespeare an apprentice to G printed at Barcelona, one in modern ap Roberts ?” We have fac-similes of his Greek, and another in Hebrew; but apindentures, his coat-of-arms, his will, the parently not so many as in the case of traditional history of his crab-tree, the “ Hamlet” and the Iliad. "actors of his time,” and descriptions of Molière has about half a volume, written his house; his last days, his grave, his and printed. His plays have been trans. death-mask, busts and portraits, his mon lated into most of the European lanuments and centennial celebrations, with guages; but there are comparatively few odes and lines commemorative of his comments upon them in the catalogue. genius. Lastly, we have an account of some of the English adaptations have how his skull was stolen and found, and rather curious titles; for example, " The of an interview between his ghost and Irish Doctor, or the Dumb Lady Cured," David Garrick.

from “Le Médecin malgré lui.” Charles We may liken Shakespeare to one of Reade, we know, translated the “ Malade those prodigious trees, the giants of the Imaginaire” into “ The Robust Invalid.” tropical forest, rearing its lofty crown Corneille has a good many pages and a high over its fellows, and spreading wide variety of translations. Goethe has about its enormous branches, encumbered with half a volume, printed, including translaan airy wilderness of creepers, parasites, tions and a miscellaneous literature which and winged tenants, some of which tend reminds us of Shakespeare. " Faust” is to support and beautify their foster-parent, the leading work, and has been translated and others only harboring in its shade to into most European tongues, including blight and strangle, or to ravage and Servian, Greek, Ruthenian, Hungarian, destroy

and Hebrew, with selections in Romaic. Homer has two volumes of the cata- Tales, operas, legends, and parodies, in logue to himself, and has apparently been English, French, and Italian have sprung translated into a greater diversity of lan- from “Faust,” and a flourishing literature guages than Shakespeare. There is, for of comment. instance, an edition of the Iliad in Gaelic, Schiller, a voluminous writer, has two of 1813, and Books I to 8 in the Irish volumes, but not yet printed, as in the case Ogamic character, dating from 1844. A of Goethe. There are not so many transRomaic edition dates as early as 1640 ; lations of any of his plays as there are of and there is one published at Liptzk in “Faust; but the “ Song of the Bell” 1504. Of the Odyssey there is a French appears to be popular; and “ Don Carlos edition dated Lutetiæ, 1566,” and an- has appeared in English, French, Italian, other “ Parisus, 1582." An Erse transla. Spanish, Dutch, and Hungarian. tion was brought out in 1866; but the Milton, like Schiller, has two volumes Iliad appears to be the more widely ap. of the catalogue, chiefly written. The preciated of the two. The comments “ Paradise Lost” has appeared in the upon Homer run in much the same principal European languages; and there grooves as those upon Shakespeare and, lis a Welsh translation of 1865, and a Manx

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one, dated Douglas, 1796. Milton does space, and a greater variety of translations. not seem to invite many commentators; "Evangeline" is a favorite work, which, but the comparison between him and the besides its many European editions, has Dutch Vondel is wortby of note. Chaucer been published in Portuguese at Rio de has twelve printed columns of the cata- Janeiro, in Brazil, in German at Milwau. logue, and Spenser some forty written kee, and French at Quebec; while “Hiapages. Byron has twenty-seven closely watha " has found its way into Russian printed columns and more; their well. and Dutch, amongst other tongues. Victhumbed condition attesting the poet's tor Hugo, however, is more polyglot still, popularity. Indeed, the dirtiness of the and occupies fifty pages of the catalogue. pages is the best indication of an author's Scott, as poet and novelist, has two volfame; and in looking at the edges of the umes to himself, and has appeared in most catalogue one can generally tell whether a of the European languages. volume contains a popular writer. Selec- Dickens has twenty printed columos, tions from Byron have appeared in most well thumbed, and a great variety of transof the European tongues, including Polish, lators, including Hungarian, Dutch, Ru. Bohemian, Dutch, Icelandic, and Rouma thenian, and others. Thackeray has thirtynian.

two written pages, and some scattered Burns, in spite of his rustic dialect, has German, French, Italian, and Danish thirteen closely printed columns, well translations; but “Vanity Fair ” in Spanthumbed, like Byron's; with several Ger- ish has appeared in Mexico (Las Feria man and French translations, and a Swed- de las Vanidadas), and there is a Schieish, published at Helsingfors.

dam edition of the “Virginians.” BulwerShelley has some forty written pages Lytton has fourteen printed columns and well thumbed, but few or no translators. many European translations of novels or Tom Moore, on the contrary, is well trans-plays, including certain in Greek and lated, especially “ Lalla Rookh,” one pub- Hungarian; in France he appears to be lished at Jönköping. Wordsworth, though particularly popular, perhaps because of occupying five well-thumbed pages, is ap- his official connection with the country. parently innocent of foreign translation, if George Eliot has three printed columns, we may judge from the cata sue. Ten- and a translation or twoin German, French, nyson has fifty written pages, and some of and Italian. “Silas Marner,” too, appears his poems, notably the “ Idylls,” have apo as “A Raveloei Takacs ” at Buda-Pesth. peared in the leading European languages, Charles Kingsley has only some twentyincluding Hungarian, Spanish, Dutch, and four written pages, and but one translaDanish. Longfellow has nearly as much tion, namely the “Heroes,” in Greek.

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The first discovery of remains of cave- spot where the fireplace had been, a grave 5 dwellers in Scandinavia has been made in a metres in length, 242 metres in width, and cave in the Great Carl's Island, in the Baltic, 3.2 metres in depth. There are alternate a couple of miles west of the Island of Goth- layers of ashes and charcoal, interspersed with land. Last year a farmer, while digging for remains of the animals named above. The mould for a plantation, discovered in a cave bones of “domestic” animals decrease in or grotto layers of ashes and charcoal mixed quantity downwards, whilst those of seals inwith bones. The latter, having been for-crease. The explorer found, at a depth of warded to the Royal Museum at Stockholm, 24 decimetres, fragments of coarse pottery of were found to be the bones of horses, bul. a primitive kind and some chips of dint; at a locks, pigs, birds, and fishes. In consequence depth of 28 decimetres an implement of flint; of this discovery, Professor G. Lindström and in the lowest layer, at 32 decimetres commissioned Dr. L. Kolmodin to carry out depth, two small drills of bone. Several of excavations in this cave in a scientific man- the fragments of pottery found below a depth ner; and the result is that indubitable remains of 24 decimetres bore traces of simple ornaof cave-dwellers have been found. The cave mentation. Everywhere in the layers were is situated about 20 metres above the sea- found bits of granite and chalk, clearly showlevel, and consists of two parts, an outer one, ing that they had been split by fire. Most of about 12 metres long and 7 metres wide at the the bones had been split or crushed, and the mouth, and an inner one, about 9 metres long marrow extracted. Among the remains was and 1% metres wide; the latter leading into a part of a human cranium. It may be added transverse gallery, running south-west and that the island on which the discovery, was north-east. Dr. Kolmodin began by exca- made is only a couple of hundred acres in exvating the layers at the mouth of the cave, tent, and uninhabited. and here he encountered, almost in the exact

Nature.

Fifth Series, Volume LXIX,

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No. 2381,- February 15, 1890.

| From Beginning,

Vol. CLXXXIV.

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CONTENTS. I. Two New UTOPIAS,

Contemporary Review,
II. MARCIA. Part II.,

Murray's Magazine,
III. THE POSITION OF WOMEN AMONG THE
EARLY CHRISTIANS,

Contemporary Review,
IV. MR. STEVENSON'S METHODS IN FICTION, National Review,

V. THE HOME OF CHARLOTTE BRONTE, Longman's Magazine, .
VI. THE MOUND BY YELLOW CREEK,

Blackwood's Magazine,
VII. POET'S FRIEND. JOSEPH SEVERN, Temple Bar,
VIII. AN INTERNATIONAL CENSUS OF HALLUCI-
NATIONS, .

Murray's Magazine,
IX. A SEQUENCE OF SONNETS ON THE DEATH
OF ROBERT BROWNING,

Fortnightly Review,

406 417 424 428 437

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For FIGHT DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the Living AGB will be punctually forwardeä for a year, free of postage

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks, and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & Co.

Siogle Numbers of The LIVING AGE, 18 cents.

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ALL life must fade. The scented damask rose;
The hawthorn buds that burgeon on the spray;
The dews that dry before the sun away
All these, to man, a tale of death disclose.
Yet Life stands smiling o'er these transient

woes:

'Tis true, he says, the crimson rose must fade; Sweet hawthorn buds lie scattered on the plain; The dews no longer pearl the grassy lawn; Yet flowers of May spring forth to deck the

shade, Dewdrops dissolving fall in summer rain, Roses in odorous sweetness live again, And silver starlight melts in golden dawn. Then shrink not, man, nor faint and fear to die; Life crowns thy death with immortality. Chambers' Journal.

M. C. R.

When Summer, lingering half-forlorn,

On Autumn loves to lean,
And fields of slowly yellowing corn

Are girt by woods still green;
When hazel-nuts wax brown and plump,

And apples rosy-red,
And the owlet hoots from hollow stump,

And the dormouse makes its bed; When crammed are all the granary floors,

And the hunter's moon is bright,
And lise again is sweet indoors,

And logs again alight;
Ay, even when the houseless wind

Waileth through cleft and chink,
And in the twilight maids grow kind,

And jugs are filled and clink; When children clasp their hands and pray,

“ Be done Thy heavenly will !” Who doth not lift his voice, and say,

“Life is worth living still ? "

IS LIFE WORTH LIVING?

BY ALFRED AUSTIN.

I.

Is life worth living? Yes, so long

As Spring revives the year,
And hails us with the cuckoo's song,

To show that she is here;
So long as May of April takes

In smiles and tears farewell,
And windflowers dapple all the brakes,

And primroses the dell;
And children in the woodlands yet

Adorn their little laps
With ladysmock and violet,

And daisy-chain their caps; While over orchard daffodils

Cloud-shadows float and fleet, And ouzel pipes and laverock trills,

And young lambs buck and bleat; So long as that which bursts the bud,

And swells and tunes the rill, Makes springtime in the maiden's blood,

Lise is worth living still.

IV.
Is life worth living? Yes, so long

As there is wrong to right,
Wail of the weak against the strong,

Or tyranny to fight;
Long as there lingers gloom to chase,

Or streaming tear to dry, One kindred woe, one sorrowing face

That smiles as we draw nigh;
Long as at tale of anguish swells

The heart, and lids grow we
And at the sound of Christmas bells

We pardon and forget;
So long as Faith with Freedom reigns,

And loyal Hope survives,
And gracious Charity remains

To leaven lowly lives;
While there is one untrodden tract

For Intellect or Will,
And men are free to think and act,

Life is worth living still.

V.

II.

Life not worth living! Come with me,

Now that, through vanishing veil, Shimmers the dew on lawn and lea,

And milk foams in the pail; Now that June's sweltering sunlight bathes

With sweat the striplings lithe,
As fall the long straight scented swathes

Over the rhythmic scythe;
Now that the throstle never stops

His self-sufficing strain,
And woodbine-trails festoon the copse,

And eglantine the lane;
Now rustic labor seems as sweet

As leisure, and blithe herds
Wend homeward with unweary feet,

Carolling like the birds;
Now all, except the lover's vow,

And nightingale, is still;
Here, in the starlit hour, allow,

Life is worth living still.

Not care to live while English homes

Nestle in English trees,
And England's Trident-Sceptre roams

Her territorial seas!
Not live while English songs are sung

Wherever blows the wind,
And England's laws and England's tongue

Enfranchise half mankind !
So long as in Pacific main,

Or on Atlantic strand,
Our kin transmit the parent strain,

And love the Mother-land;
So long as in this ocean realm,

Victoria and her line
Retain the heritage of the helm,

By royalty divine;
So long as flashes English steel,

And English trumpets shrill,
He is dead already who doth not feel
Life is worth living still.

English Illustrated Magazine

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