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Fifth Series, Volume LXIX,

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No. 2379.– February 1, 1890.

From Beginning,
Vol. OLXXXIV.

259

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266 270

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CONTENTS.
I. GRANVILLE SHARP AND THE SLAVE-TRADE, Macmillan's Magazine,
II. CARDINAL LAVIGERIE THE SLAVE-
TRADE,

Blackwood's Magazine,
III. ZOE,

Sunday Magazine,
IV. A WINTER'S DRIVE FROM SEDAN TO VER-

SAILLES AND ROUND PARIS DURING THE
SIEGE,

Blackwood's Magazine,
V. ROBERT BROWNING,

Contemporary Review, VI. ROBERT BROWNING,

National Review, VII. BRAZIL, PAST AND FUTURE,

Contemporary Review, VIII. IN THE DAYS OF THE DANDIES,

Blackwood's Magazine, IX. A LUMBER-ROOM,

Contemporary Review, X. A BALLAD OF EAST AND WEST,

Macmillan's Magazine,

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For Eight DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the Living Age will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks, and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & Co.

Single Numbers of The LIVING AGB, 18 cents.

A SPRIG OF HOLLY.

And dear as the mountains around me, I FOUND it, a sprig of holly,

And dells where the waters run, It had fallen from an unknown hand,

And the peaks and pines, where forever shines In the home of the pine and myrtle,

The glow of a summer sun! Far off in this southern land.

No mist in the soft-toned valley, And I know not whose hand had cast it,

No wind in the unstirred tree, Or careless or rude with scorn,

No stain on the cloudless ether, Whether pleased with a brighter berry,

No wave on the breathless sea! Or pricked with its guard of thorn.

Yet dearer to me that vision But there it lay in the pathway,

Of home, and of Christmas bells ! Poor sprig with its berries three,

And it came to me all at the holly's call Like a waif or a stray from England,

In the heart of the Esterels. And it seemed as a message to me.

A. G. B. Then sudden there flashed a vision

Christmas Day.

Spectator.
Of a Christmas far away,
Of a firelight shed on a curtain red,

And the shouts of the children at play;
Then a fir-tree shone in the centre,
And around it a wondering ring,

IN SWITZERLAND, 1889.
Where the Snow King kisses the Fairy, The angel walking with me took my hand,
And the Fairy frowns at the King.

And said: “No longer here mayst thou

abide; And the dances ! the valsel the polka!

To the soft valleys and low-level land And Sir Roger must wait his turn; For with breath all aflame, the great Snap- Till in thy lowest home thou’rt laid to dwell,

Come down, and, humbly looking up, reside, dragon came,

And I have come, thither to be thy guide. And how blue all the tapers burn!

“My mountains, oh, my mountains, fare ye And awe is on childish faces,

well !” And as in all things below,

Weeping - “Oh, look on me once more! You must first begin, if you wish to win,

I cried. To suffer; a fact we know:

But thickest mist encompassed every head,

And darkness round each pinnacle was spread. So the Snow King puffs at his fingers,

One milky stream, from a great snowy And the Fairy pities his pain,

breast, And had he now kissed her and not his blis-Came down with me, singing to my unrest, ter,

Bidding me not lament, since it, too, came She would not have frowned again.

From the wild mountains, to the meadows And so through the long, bright evening,

tame; Until all the games are played,

From its dark, silent cradle, clamorously And child vows given (smile at them, Heaven!) Called by the voices of the sounding sea;

Leaving the rocky turrets of the earth, Forgotten as soon as made.

And the dark fragrant forests near its birth, For there must be kissing and cooing

Whose hairy talons clasp each mossy stone, Of birds in the nest at play,

Lest by the lightnings they should be o'erAs there must be wedding and wooing

thrown: Of birds full-grown, some day.

Below these iron-footed giants grey,

Soft velvet carpets, with sweet blossoms gay, And little Alice is sleeping

Spread on the lowest steps of that steep way; Wide-mouthed in a wide armchair,

And here, disconsolate, I weeping lay, One fat round arm fast keeping

Until the angel on my shoulder laid That idol with flaxen hair.

A tender, pitying hand, and to me said : When — hark! Is it “ten" there striking?

Lo! I have come to smooth thy downward And look! Do the lights burn low?

path,

And lead thee gently to thy home beneath; Then sudden is heard the terrible word,

Dry thy vain tears, and hush thy weak lament, Away! it is time to go!

To strengthen, and support bhee, am I sent. And I started, and lo! the holly

Look up once more

look ! And each Lay bright in the pathway there,

awful head With the dark-hued sheen of its prickly green In the departing light glowed ruby red. Guarding its fruitage fair:

Now hast thou seen that last great glory

well?And I love it, my sprig of holly,

My angel said, and at her feet I fell. Though it boast but its berries three;

My mountains, oh, my mountains, fare ye For whatever it seem to others,

well! It was surely a message to me.

Temple Bar. FRANCES ANNE KEMBLE.

TRADE.

From Macmillan's Magazine. a Jew, who happened to reside in his GRANVILLE SHARP AND THE SLAVE- master's family. Religious controversies

arose, and in each case Sharp was met The International Congress at Brussels with a similar argument; the Socinian and the recent speech of Lord Salisbury declaring that he erred in his interpretaat the Guildhall have directed public at- tion of the New Testament from want of tention once more to the question of the knowledge of Greek, while the Jew attribslave-trade. The very name of slavery is uted the inferences which he drew from now abhorrent to the ears not only of En passages of the Old Testament to his glishmen, hut of men of every Christian ignorance of Hebrew. Determined not to and civilized country. Half a century ago be bafiled, this apprentice lad, whose England paid many millions out of the schooling had finished at the age of fifnational purse to compensate the West. teen, devoted his spare time to the study Indian slave-holders for the liberation of first of Greek and afterwards of Hebrew, their negroes. Since then slavery has been with the astonishing result that in after abolished in the Southern States of Amer- years he carried on successful controver. ica, as one result of a long and cruel civil | sies with the leading Greek and Hebrew war; Russia, half-civilized as she is, has scholars of the day, and actually invented emancipated her serfs; and we are now a rule with regard to the use of the Greek working with other European powers for article in Scripture which has since been the suppression of the slave-trade on the very generally adopted. east coast of Africa. But it is perhaps But it is with the philanthropic efforts not generally remembered that this indig. of Granville Sharp, rather than with his nation against a traffic in human flesh and literary achievements that we have to deal, blood dates back for only a century, and although doubtless his controversy with that the origin, the foundation-stone, as it the celebrated Dr. Kennicott on a point of were, of the war against slavery and all its Hebrew scholarship trained his remark. attendant horrors was one somewhat ob- able intellect for the part which he subsescure and now almost forgotten individual, quently took in a great legal strife. It Granville Sharp.

was in the year 1765 that a seeming acciThis great philanthropist was born in dent turned his active sympathies towards 1734, and was the son of Thomas Sharp, the wrongs of the African slaves. His Archdeacon of Northumberland, a man brother, William Sharp, who was one of well known in his day, and grandson of the first London surgeons of his day, the still better known John Sharp, who opened his house every morning for the was chaplain-in-ordinary to James the Seco gratuitous relief of the poor, and on one ond, and was afterwards made Archbishop occasion a negro, named Jonathan Strong, of York, by William the Third. In 1750 appeared in a miserable condition to ask his father, who had a large family, with. for medical aid. It appeared on inquiry drew him from school at Durham and that he had been the slave of a lawyer at bound him apprentice to a linen-draper Barbadoes, named Lisle, who had first named Halsey, in London; and he contin- destroyed bis health by barbarous treatued to be connected with trade until the ment and then turned him adrift in the year 1758, when be obtained a clerkship streets. The Sharps befriended him; he in the Ordnance Office.

was admitted into St. Bartholomew's Hos. But already in the young apprentice we pital, and after a time he recovered suffisee the extraordinary force of character ciently to be placed in service. But as and intellectual capacity which afterwards ill-luck, or, as the sequel showed, gooddistinguished the man. Brought up, as luck would have it, about two years afterhe had been, in an orthodox clerical fan. wards Jonathan was recognized in the ily, and firmly convinced of the truths of streets by his former master. Seeing the the Christian revelation, he was during negro apparently in good health again, the his apprenticeship brought into contact lawyer determined to recover what he first with a Socinian and afterwards with 'called his property, and with the assist.

was

ance of two officers of the lord mayor suc-, first step was naturally to obtain the ceeded in kidnapping Strong, intimidating best legal advice, and with that view his new master to whom he appealed for he employed a leading solicitor, and reprotection, and lodging him in gaol. From tained Sir James Eyre, afterwards lord thence the negro wrote a letter to his for-chief justice of the Common Pleas. And mer benefactor, Granville Sharp, who, this was the result after considering the undeterred by the evasions of the authori. case, his solicitor brought him a copy of ties of the prison, insisted on seeing him, an opinion given in 1729 by York and and then with characteristic decision (to Talbot, the attorney and solicitor-general quote from his diary)“charged the master of the day, affirming that a slave coming of the prison at his own peril not to de- from the West Indies to Great Britain or liver him up to any person whatever who Ireland does not become free, and told might claim him, until he had been carried him that it was hopeless to attempt any before the lord mayor, Sir Thomas Kite, defence, as Lord Chief Justice Mansfield to whom Granville Sharp immediate!y held the same opinion. went and gave information that a Jonathan Ninety-nine men out of a hundred would Strong had been confined there without now have given the case up in despair, any warrant, and he therefore requested but fortunately for the cause of humanof his lordship to summon those persons ity, Granville Sharp was the hundredth. who detained him, and to give Granville “ Thus forsaken by my professional deSharp notice to attend at the same time. fenders,” he wrote some years afterwards, This request was complied with.” “I was compelled, through want of regu.

The diary then goes on to relate a lar legal assistance, to make a hopeless stormy sitting at the Mansion House, at attempt at self-defence, though I which Sharp found himself confronted by totally unacquainted either with the practwo persons who claimed the negro; one tice of the law or the foundation of it, a public notary, who produced a bill of having never opened a law-book (except sale from the original master to a Jamaica the Bible) until that time when I most planter, named Kerr; the other man reluctantly undertook to search the innamed Lair, the captain of the vessel in dexes of a law-library which my book. which Strong was to be taken away. The seller had lately purchased.” lord mayor having dismissed the claim, The junior clerk in the Ordnance Office Lair seized the negro by the arın, and told attacking the lord chief justice on a point bis lordship that he took him as the prop- of law might, as in the case of his controerty of Mr. Kerr. But Sharp, again equal versy with Dr. Kennicott, be compared to to the occasion, promptly charged the David in his combat with Goliath ; and, captain with an assault, and he at once like his Hebrew predecessor, the modern quitted his hold.

David was destined to conquer with the The slave-owner was not, however, go- sling and the stone of his own abilities ing to let his prey slip from his grasp so and of faith in the justice of his cause. easily. He at once instituted a lawsuit Without instruction, without assistance, against Sharp and his brother James for discouraged by several legal authorities, having obtained the liberation of the including the celebrated Blackstone, to negro, and knowing the former to be a whom he appealed, and deserted, as has inan of peace, he endeavored to intimidate been stated, by his own lawyers, for two him by demanding “ gentlemanlike satis- whole years be devoted himself to his obfaction.”. Sharp's reply is characteristic ject "faint yet pursuing." of the man and of his sense of humor: “I Before the final term at which he had told him that as he had studied the law so to answer the charge against himself and many years, he should want no satisfaction his brother, he produced in manuscript his that the law could give him.” To this tract “On the Injustice of tolerating Slavsatisfaction Sharp now addressed himself, ery in England,” in which he defended the and he gave it in a manner which would course which he had taken with such bardly have been thought possible. His | learning, research, and closeness of argument, that the preconceived opinions of mutual consent of Lord Mansfield and the lawyers among whom it was circu. Sharp. It was similar to those of Strong lated were shaken to their foundations, and Lewis, Somerset was a Virginian and the coursel for the prosecution were negro who had been seized and conveyed so intimidated that they declined to per- on board ship by his former master, a Mr. severe with the action.

Charles Stewart. He appealed to Sharp, Sharp thus remained master of the who at once took up the case, and aced field in the first skirmish of outposts, but it in the hands of eminent legal counsel. it was only to be the prelude to a general We have no space to enter into the de. assault on his main position. Already in tails of this celebrated trial. The counsel his tract he had boldly carried the war on the side of the negro were led by Mr. into the enemy's country, and, basing his Sergeant Davy, while Mr. Dunning and arguments on an act of Charles the Sec. another appeared for Stewart. Sharp sup. ond, had declared that not only the seller plied Davy and his coadjutors with his of the negro, but all who had aided and notes on the trial of Lewis, and appears to abetted in the transaction were liable to have borne the whole, or at least the main heavy fines and costs; and it was but a part, of the expense; but to the eternal short time before the force of his reason- honor of the bar it must be stated that the ing was again to be felt. Another negro, whole of his counsel refused to accept any named Lewis, had been kidnapped by his recompense for their services. Unfortuformer master, a Mr. Stapylton, and car. nately there is another side to the picture. ried on board a ship bound for Jamaica. Dunning, who defended Stewart, was the Sharp obtained a writ of Habeas Corpus, same who at the trial of Lewis had held up had it served on board the ship, which Sharp's tract and declared his readiness had been detained in the Downs, and to maintain in any court of England that brought back the negro in triumph. The no property could here exist in a slave. case was subsequently tried at the King's Granville Sharp's opinion of his conduct Bench before Lord Mansfield, and in the was expressed in a manner very severe course of it a Mr. Dunning, who had been for so charitable a man. “ And yet after retained as counsel on behalf of the negro, so solemn a declaration he, Mr. Dunning, held up Sharp's tract in his hand and pub-appeared on the opposite side of the queslicly declared that he was ready to main-tion (against James Somerset) the very tain in any of the courts of Great Britain, next year ! This is an abominable and that no man could be legally detained as insufferable practice in lawyers, to undera slave in this country. The wary chief take causes diametrically opposite to their justice seems to have evaded the real own declared opinions of law and common point at issue by discharging the negro justice." on the ground that Stapylton had failed The case was opened in February, 1772, to prove that he was even nominally his before Lord Mansfield assisted by the property; but he practically refused to three justices, Ashton, Willes, and Ashpass any judgment upon the slave-owner, urst. To use the words of Mr. Prince a proceeding against which Sharp indig. Hoare, Sharp's biographer, "the cause nantly protested.

of liberty was no longer to be tried on But the trials of the cases of Strong, the ground of a mere special indictment, Lewis, and of two or three other negroes, but on the broad principle of the essenhad not decided the question of the ab. tial and constitutional right of every man stract right of slaves to freedom in En- in England to the liberty of his person, gland. Public opinion continued to fuc- unless forfeited by the laws of England.”

on the subject, and that of Lord The counsel for the negro based themMansfield was known to be adverse to the selves mainly on Sharp's now celebrated slave.

argument, that “all the people who come At length in 1772 the case of James into this country immediately become subSomerset presented itself, and appears to ject to the laws of this country, are gove have been selected as a test case, with the erned by the laws, regulated entirely in

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