gradually extended their dominion as far led from Syria to the spice-bearing reas Ormuz, and after the successful revolt gions of Yemen. Three thousand years from Axum in 378, brought not only the ago it was easier to travel through the whole of the southern coast under their length of Arabia than it is to-day. A cul. sway, but the western coast as well, as far ture and civilization existed there of which north as Mekka. Jewish influence made only echoes remain in Mohammedan tra. itself felt in the future birthplace of dition. Mohammed, and thus introduced those As we have seen, the inscriptions of ideas and beliefs which subsequently had Ma'in set before us a dialect of more primso profound an effect upon the birth of itive character than that of Sabâ. HithIslam. The Byzantines and Axumites en- erto it has been supposed, however, that deavored to counteract the influence of the two dialects were spoken contempoJudaism by means of Christian colonies raneously, and that the Minæan and Sa. and proselýtism. The result was a con- bæan kingdoms existed side by side. But flict between Sabâ and its assailants, geography offered difficulties in the way which took the form of a conflict between of such a belief, since the seats of Mithe members of the two religions. A vio- næan power were embedded in the midst lent persecution was directed against the of the Sabæan kingdom, much as the Christians of Yemen, avenged by the fragments of Cromarty are embedded in Ethiopian conquest of the country and the the midst of other counties. Dr. Glaser removal of its capital to San'a. The in. has now made it clear that the old suppotervention of Persia in the struggle was sition was incorrect, and that the Minæan soon followed by the appearance of Mo- kingdom preceded the rise of Sabâ. We hammedanism upon the scene, and Jew, can now understand why it is that neither Christian, and Parsi were alike over- in the Old Testament nor in the Assyrian whelmed by the flowing tide of the new inscriptions do we hear of any princes of creed.

Ma'in, and that though the classical writThe epigraphic evidence makes it clear ers are acquainted with the Minæan peo. that the origin of the kingdom of Sabâ ple they know nothing of a Minæan king. went back to a distant date. Dr. Glaser dom.* The Minæan kingdom, in fact, traces its history from the time when its with its culture and monuments, the relics princes were still but makârib, or priests, of which still survive, must have flourished like Jethro, the priest of Midian, through in the grey dawn of history, at an epoch the ages when they were “ kings of Sabå,” at which, as we have hitherto imagined, and later still “ kings of Sabâ and Raidân,” Arabia was the home only of nomad barto the days when they claimed imperial barism. And yet in this remote age alsupremacy over all the principalities of phabetic writing was already known and southern Arabia. It was in this later pe. practised, the alphabet being a modificariod that they dated their inscriptions by tion of the Phænician written vertically an era, which, as Halévy first discovered, and not horizontally. To what an early corresponds to 115 B.C. One of the kings date are we referred for the origin of the of Sabà is mentioned in an inscription of Phænician alphabet itself ! the Assyrian king Sargon (B.C. 715), and The Minæan kingdom must have had a Dr. Glaser believes that he has found his long existence. The names of thirty-three name in a Himyaritic text. When the last of its kings are already known to us, three priest, Samah'alî Darrahh, became king of of them occurring not only on monuments Sabâ, we do not yet know, but the age of southern Arabia but on those of north. must be sufficiently remote, if the kingdom ern Arabia as well. of Sabå already existed when the queen Northern Arabia has been as much a of Sheba came from Ophir to visit Solo- terra incognita to Europeans as the fertile

fields and ruins of Arabia Felix. But The visit need no longer cause aston- here, too, the veil has been lifted by recent ishment, notwithstanding the long journey exploration. First, Mr. Doughty made by land which lay between Palestine and his way to the ruins of Teima, the Tema the south of Arabia. One of the Minæan of the Bible (Is, xxi. 14; Jer. xxv. 23; Job inscriptions discovered by Dr. Glaser vi. 19), and the rock-cut tombs of Medain mentions Gaza, and we now have abun. Salihb, wandering in Bedouin dress at the dant evidence, as we shall see, that the risk of his life through a large part of cenpower and culture of the Sabæans extend tral Arabia. He brought back with him a ed to the frontiers of Edom. From the earliest times the caravans of Dedan and by the Maonites of Judges x. 12, the “Mehunims” of number of inscriptions, which proved that embody is distinctly Arabic, though prethis part of the Arabian continent had senting curious points of contact with the once been in the hands of Nabatheans who Semitic languages of the north, as for ex. spoke an Aramaic language, and that the ample in the possession of an article ha. Ishmaelites of Scripture instead of being The antiquity of Lihhyanian writing may the ancestors of the tribe of Koreish, as be judged from the fact that Professor Mohammedan writers imagine, were an Müller has detected a Libhyanian inscripAramæan population, whose language was tion on a Babylonian cylinder in the Brit. that of Aram and not of Arabia. The ish Museum, the age of which is approxiSinaitic inscriptions had already shown mately given as 1000 B.C. that in the Sinaitic peninsula Arabic is as We gather, therefore, that as far back much an imported language as it is in as the time of Solomon, a rich and cultured Egypt and Syria. There, too, in pre- Sabæan kingdom flourished in the south Christian times, inscriptions were en- of Arabia, the influence of which, if not graved upon the rocks in the Nabathean its authority, extended to the borders of characters and language of Petra – in- Palestine, and between which and Syria scriptions in which a fertile imagination an active commercial intercourse was caronce discovered a record of the miracles ried on by land as well as by sea. The wrought by Moses in the wilderness. kingdom of Sabâ had been preceded by

* It is possible that a Minæan population is meant Tema bad traversed the highways which 2 Chron. xxvi. 7.


Since Mr. Doughty's adventurous wan. the kingdom of Ma'in, equally civilized derings, Teima and its neighborhood have and equally powerful, whose garrisons and been explored by the famous German epi-colonies were statı, ned on the highroad graphist, Professor Euting, in company which led past Mekka to the countries of with a Frenchman, M. Huber. M. Hu- the Mediterranean. Throughout this vast ber's life was sacrificed to Arab fanaticism, extent of territory alphabetic writing in but Professor Euting returned with a val. various forms was known and practised, uable stock of inscriptions. Some of the Phænician alphabet being the source these are in Aramaic Nabathean, the most from which it was derived. The belief important being on a stêlê discovered at accordingly that pre- Mohammedan Arabia Teima, which is now in the Museum of was a land of illiterate nomads must be the Louvre. About seven hundred and abandoned ; it was not Islam that introfifty are in an alphabet and language which duced writing into it, but the princes and have been termed Protoarabic, and are merchants of Ma'in and Thamud, cec. still for the most part unpublished. Others turies upon centuries before. If Mohamare in a closely allied language and alpha- medan Arabia knew nothing of its past, it bet, called Lihhyanian by Professor D. H. was not because the past had left no Müller, since the kings by whose reigns records behind it. the inscriptions are dated are entitled A power which reached to the borders kings of Lihhyân, though it is more than of Palestine must necessarily have come probable that Lihhyân represents the into contact with the great monarchies of Thamud of the Arabic genealogists. The the ancient world. The army of Ælius rest are in the language and alphabet of Gallus was doubtless not the first which Ma'in, and mention Minæan sovereigns, had sought to gain possession of the cities whose names are found on the monuments and spice.gardens of the south. One such of southern Arabia.*

invasion is alluded to in an inscription The Minæan and Lihhyanian texts have which was copied by M. Halévy. "The been mainly discovered in El-Ola and inscription belongs to the closing days of El-Higr, between Teima and El-Wej – a the Minæan kingdom, and after describing port that until recently belonged to Egypt how the gods had delivered its dedicators

on the line of the pilgrims' road to from a raiding attack on the part of the Mekka. The Protoarabic inscriptions, on tribes of Sabâ and Khaulân, or Havilahi, the other hand, are met with in all parts goes on to speak of their further deliver. of the country, and according to Professor ance from danger in the midst of Misr," Müller, form the intermediate link between or Egypt, when there was war between the Phænician and Minæan alphabets. the latter country and the land of Mazi, Like the Lihhyanian, the language they which Dr. Glaser would identify with the

Edomite tribe of Mizzah (Gen. xxxvi. 13). The Minæan and Lihhyanian texts have been There was yet a third occasion, however, edited and translated, with an important introduction, on which the dedicators had been res. by Professor D. H. Müller: “Epigraphische Denk- cued by their deities 'Athtar, Wadd, and mäler aus Arabien," in the “Denkschriften d. K. Akademie d. Wissenschaften zu Wien," vol. xxxvii: Nikrâhh ; this was when war had broken 1889.

out between the rulers of the south and of


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the north. If the rulers of the south were say only. But my notes may none the the princes of Ma'in, whose power ex- less tend to show that he was too severe. tended to Gaza, the rulers of the north | So few of the tourist race trouble Sardinia ought to be found in Egypt or Palestine. that they may also be acceptable for their Future research may tell us who they information. Even in Italy the island is were, and wben they lived.

regarded, somewhat romantically, as But the epigraphy of ancient Arabia is country where old marble palaces of the still in its infancy. The inscriptions al- times of the Arragon rule may be bought ready known to us represent but a small for a song, and where it costs nothing to proportion of those that are yet to be dis. live. And the average Italian, who knows covered. Vast tracts have never yet been anything about it, imagines that it is a traversed by the foot of an explorer, and barbaric land where he will find no cafés there are ancient ruins which have never with chairs set in the sun or the shade, yet been seen by the eye of the European. and the like concessions to the dissolute What bas been accomplished already with tastes of civilization. the scanty means still at our disposal is Every evening a mail packet steams an earnest of what remains to be done. from Civita Vecchia into the red glow of The dark past of the Arabian peninsula the declining sun, and reaches Sardinia ten has been suddenly lighted up, and we find or twelve hours after she starts. This is that long before the days of Mohammed it the shortest route. It is also, I think, the was a land of culture and literature, a seat most impressive; for one then lands with of powerful kingdoms and wealthy com- the mails in the Aranci Gulf at four or merce, which cannot fail to have exercised five o'clock in the morning, and the pican influence upon the general history of ture of the broken mountains, which grip the world.

the gulf like the curves of a forceps, rising phantasmally against a cloudy, star-bespangled sky, stays in the memory. The dawn breaks before the train leaves for

Cagliari, and allows one further to see From The Cornhill Magazine.

the islets of ruddy granite in the pale AMONG THE SARDES.

purple water, and the long, undulated On the whole the ancients seem to have tongues of land which bind the bay. had no good opinion of Sardinia. It was Rocks and slopes alike are matted with a a capital corn-field, but a very undesirable tangle of wild mint, thyme, lavender, cis. place of residence. There was no better tus, and gorse, and the perfume of the air province whither to promote an obnoxious is ravishing. Two or three white houses Roman of rank. If he did not die of the with vermilion roofs, and the longer white fever, he might be disgraced for his in- body of the railway station, are all the ability to control the Barbaricini, or moun signs of human life in this the northern taineers of the Barbagia district.

terminus of Sardinia. But, ere we depart, Cicero, in particular, is very hard on a score of yellow-skinned natives gather the island. True, he congratulates his from Heaven knows where, to see us off. brother, Quintus Tullius, on being sent | As types of manhood they are not very there. But it is a sardonic congratulation. imposing. The moist air may not be very "You could not,” he says, “ be in a better good for the lungs, but it is odd to mark place to be forgotten by your creditors." these sons and daughters of the soil At another time he warns him: “ Take shielding their mouths with cloaks and care of your health, for, although it is shawls, as if they were in peril of fire. winter, remember that you are in Sar- damp: dinia." Elsewhere, in his legal capacity, This is one's first experience of the as the opponent of Tigellius, the Sarde Sardes, and I do not know that subsequent poet, whose advocate he was to have been: closer acquaintance alters the idea it gives II esteem it,” he says, an advantage of them.

As we

run through the land that I am not pleading for a man more towards the capital, we see more of them. pestilential than his country.” Perhaps The railway stations here, as in the Amerthere was more of the bully than the judi- ican States, seem to be the trysting spots cial spirit in these and the like utterances; of the adjacent villages. A big slate is but such abuse, from so great a man, was set conspicuously on every station wall, sure to hit its mark.

with the day of the week and the date In this paper I do not propose to enter chalked upon it. The people may there. the lists with Cicero, who probably never fore pretend that they muster by the train set foot in Sardinia, and spoke from hear- for their education. Anyhow, there they are; and as nearly each village in Sar- | These have of course attracted the engi. dinia boasts of a costume differing from neers who were summoned to set a rail

. that of its neighboring village, we have a way in the land. Thus we are eternally kaleidoscopic picture of colors and very between mountains, and nearly always on old fashions in the course of our jaunt. the level. Many of the mountains are From early times the Sarde women have volcanic, and old lava streams are to be had a name for the indelicacy of their distinguished between their shorn cones dress. Dante (Purg. xxiii. 94) taunts and rounded humps and the valleys. Here the ladies of Florence in his day with and there we steam across spacious areas being even less decent than certain of of nothing in the world but gum cistus their Sarde sisters. Unless they are at bushes, blooming their very best. It is work in the fields, the latter wear their as if a snow-storm had come upon the skirts long enough. But stays they ab. land, and each flake had stayed unmelted hor; and it is the meagre white linen where it had fallen. Then there are oak covering they draw, or do not draw, over woods, interspersed with cork.trees reft of their shapely bosoms that has gained them their bark; and under the oak myriads of this censure. But what a Sarde woman asphodels lift their pale, stately heads. neglects in one particular, she atones for All this is, however, the exception. in another. Her festa bodice, for example, The eye gets accustomed to level meadwould dazzle British eyes. It is of satin, ows, broken by purling brooks with ferny any color you please, and heavily broid- banks, from which the yellow oxen give ered with gold and silver lace. The us iazy stares of greeting. A few shaggy thing is of course valuable. It may have shepherds, mounted, and with guns slung been her grandmother's, or her grand to their shoulders, also grin at us from mother's grandmother's; and, God willing, these watering.places. Otherwise there is it will survive to be the pride of her grand- not much to keep one in mind that this is daughter's granddaughter's soul. On festa Sardinia. days she wears other inherited treasure in Not much; but something. For whether the shape of filigree gold trinkets, ear. we are in the woods, or going dryshod rings, necklets of triple fold, armlets, and through a swamp, or groaning up to a new brooches. A rich farmer lady of Sardinia watershed, every now and then we pass a is then a sight to see, and, discreetly, to building like a Martello tower, or a windlaugh at. Her fortune is veritably all upon mill shorn of its sails. These are the her person. And the jingle of her pre- famous noraghe, about which so much cious metals, as she struts cumbrously has been written. To this day the world under a large green sunshade, ever and cannot determine whether they were temagain glancing to see that she has dropped ples or guard-houses, or an ancient form none of her, ornaments, is enough to turn of cottage, or sepulchres, or altars of saca Jew crazy with avaricious desire. Festa rifice. They are of massive construction, days occur daily in this or that part of the so that the modern Sardes in search of island, for the local calendar is notably convenient building material cannot do rich in martyrs during the Diocletian per- more than lift the upper stones from them. secution, and so one sees many of these This explains their ruined state whenever bullion-clad dames at the railway stations. they are near a village. But there are The men, too, are picturesque, with their many hundreds of them in the wilds, on guns and sheepskin jackets (the mastruca), remote plateaux and elsewhere, far from but they are not to be compared with the habitations, and thus guarded from the

What is a black Phrygian cap to spoilers. Some are half hid among the a headgear of scarlet silk pocket-handker- woods, and overgrown by ivy and scrub. chiefs ! and how trivial is a white cotton Others stand nakedly on the spurs of the skirt, short, and belted at the waist (the mountains, whence they are landmarks for common apparel of a man), by the side of a score of miles. Others, again, are set the ample gown of a large dame, covered in the plains, with commonplace surroundin front by an expansive silk apron io a ings of meadow-land and grain-fields. The design of green and blue flowers ! latter-day Sardes accept them as an essen

The scenery of Sardinia, or rather such tial feature of their country; they do not of it as the mere railway traveller sees, is even puzzle their wits about them. For less spectacular than the people. The merly incantations and midnight spells island, as a whole, is very inountainous, were worked within and around them; but nature has left a series of broad, long they were ransacked for treasure; or they flats from north to south, linked to each served as convenient haunts for the ban. other by gentle rises and depressions. I dits who swarmed in the land. But now




they are nothing but so many ruined tow-deal of their water, and much fever is the ers, whispering of Carthage and Tyre, result. At such a time they are to be avoid. who had a hand in their building; of the ed, save by the hardy native fisher who Saracens, who wrecked multitudes of plunges to the neck into their tepid depths, them; and of the various popes of Rome, in quest of the cockles which abound in who for centuries preached in vain against them. the Sarde idolaters that probably wor- The pope Pius V. in his day described shipped within them. The Sardes of the Cagliari as “ Hortus coelestium planta. nineteenth century offer no explanation of tionum.” I believe the phrase was due them. If you question them on the sub- to the discovery of an infinite quantity of ject, they shrug their shoulders, that is bones under the cathedral, which bones all.

were, without impartial inquiry, assumed Cagliari, the capital of Sardinia, is a to be the relics of some of Sardinia's sufficiently interesting city of the hot many saints. From his Holiness's point southern type, fringed with prickly pear, of view, Cagliari may be what he calls it, and having gardens of orange-trees set but to the ordinary person of unsublimed about with palms. It is very old, of intelligence and weak legs it is only a

Phænicians, Greeks, Romans, white town built at the base of a rock, Saracens, Spaniards, and Italians have all and rising with the rock itself to the ab. had a hand in its creation or mutilation. surd height of about four hundred feet One may here stumble over ruins, and above the sea. The narrow streets all muse in an amphitheatre, to one's heart's pivot from the summit of this terrible hill. content. There is a whole suburb of an. They are, moreover, cobbled, so that the cient sepulchreş, hewn in the rock, most toil of climbing them is piquantly alloyed of which have been turned into donkey. with a little pain. And they are used by sheds or cow-houses. To guard them the occupiers of the tall houses on either selves from the flies, these quadrupeds side as drying-grounds for the clothes thrust their noses into the niches that from the washtub; so that, though the once held honored dust. Only one of town is enlivened by the perennial supply these sepulchres is protected. This is of crimson petticoats and blue bodices called “the Viper's Grotto," because of which hang thus between heaven and the two vipers chiselled on its elaborate earth, the pedestrian is bedewed by a rain pediment. The inscriptions hereon un. that is not wholly celestial. fold a pathetic tale. One Philip, a Roman, But in spite of these drawbacks Cagliari bis wife Pomptilla, and their family were is an agreeable place, especially for those here interred. Pomptilla seems to have who live on the top of the hill and are given her life for her husband's, and the under no obligation ever to descend it. different verses commemorating the sac. It has old towers and old churches, and rifice suggest that the poets of Sardinia from its eyrie one may see Bruncu Spina, were here summoned to a competitive ex- the highest mountain of the island, some amination on the subject - for their com- seventy miles distant, on the one side, and mon immortalization. From the tomb one nearly to Africa, across the sea, on the looks down at the stagni, the blue bay of other side. Of its ancient towers, the one Cagliari, and the distant mountains of the called the Elephant appeals most strongly south-west corner of Sardinia.

to the imagination. It gets its name from These stagni are a pleasant or unpleas- the carven elephant over the mouldering ant feature of Sardinia, according to the portcullis of its entrance, and it was

In winter and spring they are erected, as its inscription tells us, in the bright and innocent enough. Cagliari is year 1307, when the Pisans held Cagliari. flanked by their broad glistening ex- The builder of the pile, " Magister Cappanses, one of them being not less than ula Joannes," has for six centuries ad. thirty miles in circumference. For most vertised himself as a man "never yet of the year, scores of thousands of fla- found remissful in his undertakings.” It mingoes may bere be seen standing knee- is a pity he has not lived long enough to deep in the water. Late in the spring, profit by the reputation this tower would however, they withdraw to Africa to certainly ere this have procured for him. breed. The Sardes call them by a name It was here that, in 1671, they suspended meaning “the red people.” Of old they in an iron cage the heads of a number of were esteemed good to eat, though modmen who had conspired together and as. ern experimentalists say they are tough. sassinated the viceroy, a person obnoxious But in summer the stagni lose this ele. to them. For sixteen years these heads ment of color. They also lose a good | were allowed to grin changefully at the

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