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MANILA, JANUARY, 1908.
A MONTHLY JOURNAL PUBLISHED BY
"THB PHILIPPINE TBACHRRS' ASSOCIATION"
JV8TO JULIANO, EMUr.—E. PA8TAN0, Manager.
Entered at foe Post Office if Manila as Second Glass Mali Matter.
ADDRESS aH communication*, regarding publications. advertisements, subscription* and business matter to a Box NTo. 1099.
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1907 has gone never to come again. Nothing is left behind but the memory, the accounts and the events that happened during its stay, Now that it has passed away, Ktile will it matter then to us. Let us forget it then: "Let the dead Past bury its dead."
Now, 1908 is here, fresh, and young and vigorous, foil of hope and promise. And dear friends, dear brethen, dear teachers, shall we (and can we) disappoint it? Shall we crown it with serrow?
O that will never be; we can not do it; we can not be «o heartless, relentless, feelingless! For we have a heart that breathes love for our mother country, and countrymen; a heart that breathes love for the good of the world; we have a heart and a soul—a living soul, a noble soul which longs for freedom and worships the Godess of Liberty. In a word we have a heart and a soul.
Therefore 1908, welcome! Be of good cheer; bright times await thee. The teachers scattered yesterday like the countless stars which are scattered everywhere under the great blue field of nature; but n>w, to-day under your eyes, the teachers gather a new strength and energy and no?/ like the raindrops gather one by one to form a till, a brook, a river an ocean!
1907, farewell; you have gone forever but your memory shall eternally drwell in the chambers of our laearts.
1908, welcome once more! Kindle our veins with the flame of enthusiasm and charge every atom of onr being with the heat of energy, wo that the sun from its throne in the heavens may behold us, not as scattered stones, hut as water-drops united into one compact mass.
Another committee is now created: the provincial committee of Bulakan. Its inauguration is a grand success which fortells that a bright future awaita the Association. Why is it a success? Because all teachera, without exception, have put their shoulders to the wheel. Because their superintendent is a gr eat inspirer, for,** a true American, he feels, it is his duty to help the Filipinos tohe united; and, as a true teacher, to help the Phil*1 ippine Teachers' Association to realize its nohle aims and desires.
Fellow teachers, this is the second committee Which has answered to our call, and, which is so successfully inaugurated. The Philippine Teachers' Association is now greatly strengthened, and it 8 power to carry out its purposes is vastly multiplied. £
Our brethren of Bulakan, you have set a worthy example—an example which deserves great honor.*;^|;
Who will be next to Bulakan? *
Iii organizing the different classes of a school, two problems present themseWeVbefbije <the supervisor,—namely the selection of teachers and of the size of the classes. In nrtmy cases, owing to the conditions which surround the school, large classes have been formed. Hwever, one hns but to consider the principles of school ad mi-i nistration to conclude that too much can not be said in regard to the disadvantages of having large classes
The only excuse that a government has for main-, taining free public schools is the education of the masses. Pupils then, goto school to receive education. Education as we nil know has three phases: moral intellectual and physical. It is therefore evident that while the pupils are in- the^rdc6ool-reoiia, the£teach>iC is .reapotisibiU;. not only for their moral and intellectual conditions but for their phisical condition kfe well. ?<;" • •
Now then, higieue' teaches us th'at' specially if a house is not well ventilated, as are .many*of the ,school- 4 houses rented by the government/,.its occupants if too' many in number, will render the air therein unfit for breathing. We all know the consequences of taking bad air into our lungs and from this we can infer that even from the view point of health, large classes are disadvantageous.
Experience teaches us that in a large class there is a tendency to nois^ and inattention on the part of the pupils This is easily explained if we bear in mind that children are children, and that the fact that they are many together in one room is of itself a strong templation to talk to each other, thinking that the teacher ran not see all at once what is taking pla^e in every corner of the room. Inattention soon follows and the teacher finds it 41 hopeless task of unfolding before his pu| ils the knowledge they most needed and for which they are sent to school, for unless the pupils give the teacher their undivided attention, however earnest and systematic he may be, his efforts will be of no avail and the pupils instead of learning only waste their time.
I do not mean to say that when a class is noisy and inattentive the teacher has nothing to answer for, in other words, I do not want to be understood that I am shifting the responsibility of the noise and inattention to the pupils. No, indeed no. But I do mean to say that a teacher's power of control, like everything, has its limits, and when, having too many pupils to look after, he fails to keep each and every one of them <juiet and inattentive, thereby rendering his work unsatisfactory, J do not think it just to claim that his failure is due to his inability to teach.
Parents suffer sacrifices in order to send their
children to school. Although they feel no little uneasiness to see their children separated from them durin the long school-hours, they nevertheless &snd them to school in the hope that they shall not grow up like a fruitless tree on a barren soil. What must the teacher offer to the pupils to recompense their parents9 sacrifices? What better recompense can he offer them but his be4 and most willing service! He must give each pupil as much of his attention as possible and help him in every way so that when the boy goes home his parents will h*ve no reason to complain that while they are enduring privations at home their boy is sitting in one corner of the school-room neglected by the* teacher. Now I ask, is it possible in a large class for,, a pupil to receive *s much'of the teacher's attention as he would if he is in amall class? rJThe answer must forcibly be ;<no". In la<*ge classes therefore a pupil receives less attention as than in small classes. When pupils go to school day after day bnt receive little attention, sooner or later we will find th*m leaving our school one after another. To the school itself, this is a backward step for instead of promoting former pupils we find ourselves constantly losing them.
To sum up, large classes are disadvantageous in that first, they are dangerous to the health of the pupils, seconds, that they create a tendency to noise and inattention on the part of the pupils thereby making them lose their precious time; third, that the teacher finds too many to look after, and last but not the least,each pupil receives less attention than in a sma'l class.
The size of the classes of a school must therefore' command the attention of both supervisor and principal. Large classes reduce the number of teachers bnt the result fills far below our expectation. Small classes increase the teaching force of the school bat they result in better work and that is what we are aiming at;—to have the best possible school.
CALLE LBMERY N.o 415, TONDO
I know you will be intere-ted in knowing a subject o! which you have dreamed very little; but I have the hesitancy of treating any subject fearing that I might make a bid mistake. However, [ will tell you about the ANTI-CHILD SLAVERY LEAGUE, •of which I h.-ive been a member for morn that one year. In knowing the purpose of this League, vre may able to break the band that binds the limbs •of our little countrymen rnd take them out of the •dark dawn of their e;.rly life history.
"At first let me repeat to you the creed of the ANTI CHILD SLAVERY LEAGUE. The Creed Committee believes in the right of every child to health -and education, the child h.bor interferes witli that right; the child h.bor is in itself cruel and'wa-teful; that it is a mentally, morally, and physically injurious 4,o the child and it is disdnct menace to the nation.
Let us think for a moment and consider the creed of this League. Its magnitude is so great tint I feel it is our duty here in the Philippines to apply it to our people. In so doing we will uplift the poor children oppressed and crushed down by their parents. During their childhood they must be sent to School to receive schooling. Such children must -continue to study until they are .sixteen years old and until they can read fluently and write legibly ■-simple sentences in Engish or Spanish language.
I believe you femember and see many instances in your districts that there are many able-bodied parents who are content to live in idleness upon the labor of their little chidren as servants. This is a kind of slavery which must be stamped out. This case is true to a great extent. There are men who take the earnings of their little ones—gotten, it may be -at the cost 6f . an eatly deStrr or*'life of ignorance and misery-spend them for luxury, drink cock-fight -or ^elf-indulgence.;
Last year I succeeded in getting some children to school. They were indeed in' wifeched conditions. Four Of them were looking after some carabaos and horses out of the sunshine every day. Three of them were fishing out every day for the support of strong vigorous parents laying in idleness at their homes. I went to see their parents and explained to them the importance of having their children sent to school while they are young. I told them* that it is not enough that one class of Filipinos shall be educated but it is necessary that all children1 shall be developed in mind and soul till the true meaning of
liberty shall become a part of the life of the whole, people. Therefore their parents realized the impo-_ tance of the health and education of their little ones. Consequently they sent them to school and they have gone in the struggle for the almighty dollar to support their families.
If these needy parents who depend upon the la-* bor of their little children, can remedy their immediate necesities and not employ them in any work that interferes with their studes; their children w!H be more helpful to them after the pursuit of their careers; because their earning capacity hns already been developed. Their ability to read and write any foreign language [or their own dialect] intelligently will lead them to adopt better means of living.
You will be interested to know that Roosevelt, FW> sident of the United States is now a member of .the AST! CHILD SLAVERY LEAGUE and man^ pro- . miuen Americans are members They carry forward to, the best of their ability the aim of the League—the, Bruising of public sentiment in the cause of titer, children.
Some of the States in America have childi labor Nw, L t us hope that the Insular Government will enact a law in the matter of cfiiid protection, that is to prohibit the employment of iwxy child under sixteen years old at any time when tto public schools are iu session.
It the Inst meeting of the Z^mbales Teachers* Associat'on, the President said em hatically that the Tae.'hers* Association shall do all in its sphere to, promote the interest and education of the community^ The spirit of the Association is the great for«*e in the. social uplift of a people and the mighty power that shall nerve the Filipinos to do what the civilized people have accomplished
Fellow-Teachers, you know now the" purpose and the aim of the ANTI CHILD SLAVERY LEA0Ugfc and you can realize its importance. Let us put oui* shoulder to 'the'wheel and work steadily for the welfare of the Filipino children. Let us try to get the information in our communities which involves all matters con* nected with child labor/we all must help them tV> reach the height of enlightened life. In helping the poor children in this way, we shall be the key that would opett* to our people the poor of liberty and sucoess, and tor who helps a child helps humanity. :--v;
Normal Institute, Iba, Zambales, P, L, r ^#?'
July 5th., 1907. - r^QW'
Afmofct *«faf> pfcrsoW Jocfe* upotf the wart* ofcerffence as the name of an enemy, because perchance very fe# people tiriderstand it and particularly of its importance And tfcefulness to any sort" of organization* H 16 observed thtit ft is detested at present by many people alid especially repugnant to the ears of the youth. Iti fact it'seems that no person wishes to obey neither In the family, in the school, in the society nor in the army. Why? What makes us appear rebellious to obedience? Do we confound obedience With sfaverytf #6. tHo *e degrade ourselves if we do obey? Kb. wiiy do ffot the members of any society conf&rrti to the word! obedience knowing that it is one of tm most immutable laws which serves not only for tne advancement of the association where they belong but also for the development of human life? It may bb th&t a certain indocility or caprice makes us appear rebellions id obedience. Ah! Let tie conquer it courageously. Let us then meditate for a moment; we understand that in every thing there is an eternal law tfafltt should be discovered and to which it is necessary to conform. Why should we not be Within the sphere of that Ww? There are laws for the development of Jhtiman life, law which presides the gravitation of tha j4ftftet& and the laW of nature which controls the natural courses of all things. In reality of truth, outside of liny one of these laws there is only anomalies, accidents apd destruction. It is comprehensible that JU6 wh6 ddes not conform to it is often exposed to fall iflto the deepesi and dangerous precipice of the darkeli error. Therefore We may deduce that obedience is the purest sourse of strength, the base of union and <rf &tdzh It is one of the most indespensable conditio* til the righteous life and of liberty.
We can also say that obedience is tha proclamation, by the individual, of the great fact of union. l"o repuse obedience, is to break off the chains which
rftfft* the mankind and protolamirig the individual sa~ perior to the erganization. That powerful virtue of obedience unites the members of a society as themortar or cement unites the stones of a wall aftA makes of it a substantial and compact mass. By experience is clearly demonstrared that the highest manifestation of life has always consisted in an assoeieK tion governed by rules and principles and founded on* voluntary obedience. So I hope that there will besome days on which trough reason and conscience, pea* pie should consent to be as a spoke [ray] in thewheel and follow orders. I do not mean to reduce man to the condition of a machine, but to practice union through conviction and not blindfolded.
I shall try to explain to our roaders the nature^ of obedience we recormmend. We recommend obedienee through conviction; because blind obedience consigns your intelligence and conscience to the control of ano* ther thus becoming a merely passive instrument or apparratus. Blind obedience is pernicious, because it destroys character, deforms conscience and also makes the man incapable of guiding himself. Such obedience is the mother of slavery, but obedience through conviction ia liberty because liberty consists in bending hiswill to the law which is at the foundation of all things
We call therefore the attention of our readers especially of those who are members of some society that we must practice obedience for it is the only means to escape from slavery and to progress any society as well as to advance human life to its lofty culture. Before closing this item 1 should repit and request you to be obedient through conviction because those who are blindly obedient ate mere bars which serveas great embarrasments that hinder the unity and the perfection of man.