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JOSEPH MAZZINI.

In the second volume, we would particularly recomLITERARY NOTICES.

mend to the reader the chapters on D'Azeglio, Gioberti, and Pius IX., as giving him a clue to the prevailing

themes of political and religious reform agitating, or Italy, Past and Present. By L. MARIOTTI. 2 vols. has resided so many years, and excited so much atten

rather influencing, Italy. As Joseph Mazzini, however, London, John Chapman, 1848.

tion in this country, it may be as well to quote a few MR. MARIOTTi's work is well-timed. Italy, at all passages regarding him. Many of our readers are protimes a deeply interesting subject of study, is just now bably not aware that he was the originator of the an object of lively attention. The phenomenon of a idea of Young Italy, Young France, Young Germany, reforming pope has excited the wonder of the whole Young England, etc. Vor are many aware how much civilized world, and the hopes of the progressive party Italy has outgrown his doctrine of physical force. in Italy to no ordinary degree. At such a crisis we want a work, written by a competent authority, which shall “ Amongst the swarm of exiles which the calamities enable us, at no great labour of research, to possess of 1831 drove to the French shores, a young enthusiast ourselves of a clear and comprehensive idea of the made his appearance, unknown as yet to the multitude, present condition of Italy politically, morally, intel- but uniting the boldest ambition to the nighest capalectually, and socially. We want to understand what cities; a man of firm principles; of that pale, bilions are the foundations for hope of advance there; to know temperament, so common in southern climates, whose whether the people give sufficient resting-place by their passions all obey but themselves—a man born to rule; national and personal qualities, for our sympathies and of that stuff of whicn, under favourable circumstances, congratulations. Perhaps we could not have a better Robespierres are made, or Napoleons; but who, in expositor of the required facts than Mr. Mariotti. He quieter times, are too readily set down as hommes has lived long in England, and is almost equally well manquis, or visionaries; a young student, a Genoese of acquainted with those for whom, as of whom he writes. good extraction and parentage-Giuseppe Mazzini. He writes the best English style of any foreigner that “It was in June, 1831, that he first made himself known ever came under our observations. There are, now and in France,—though his contributions to the Antologia then, slight indications of the want of perfect acquaint- Firenze, ought to have won him reputation before-by ance with our language ; but these instances are rare, his address to Charles Albert of Savoy, on his accession and the general style is vigorous, copious, and often to the throne of Sardinia, inviting him not to disappoint eloquent.

the expectations he had raised in Italy in 1820, when, As regards his views, also, he displays a great breadth being only Prince of Carignano, and presumptive heir to and liberality, soundness, and impartiality. He has the throne, he was hailed as King of Italy, and styled lived long enough amongst us to understand us well, and himself the chief of all the Carbonari in the country. speaks of us with a manly independence that, even That address of Mazzini was a flash of divine eloquence, while he criticises our national peculiarities, wins our such as never before shone over Italy. His companions confidence by its justice. Nor is he blind to the faults in misfortune gathered in adoration, and bent before his of his own country and countrymen. With every hope powerful genius. There was that in his massive brow, of them for the future, he details the weakness and in his dark commanding eye, that at once set him wants of both with equal patriotism and candour. He apart from the common herd. In the first prime of is soundly religious in his views without superstition or youth, a beauty of the first order, and a frank and bigotry, and a zealous reformer, at the same time that manly, yet winning and suasive address, gave him an he is an admirer of moral force. For these reasons we easy victory over men's minds through their hearts. avow that we rely very much on his statements, and are He did not fail to make the best of this well-deserved of opinion that no where else can the English reader popularity. Ere the year had elapsed, he became the obtain in so short a time, and so agreeable a manner, heart and soul of the Italian movement. He was the anything like so lucid and correct a view of “ Italy Past ruler of a state of his own creation-the King of Young and Present.”

Italy: The first volume, of course, comprehends the past ; “He established himself at Marseilles as editor of a the second, the present. The author divides the first journal, called after the name of the new sect of which volume into periods, and heads all his chapters in both it was the intended organ, 'La Giovine Italia.' Seve. volumes with the name of some celebrated person who ral numbers of that journal appeared at different intermay be supposed to have influenced the era of his ex- vals in the course of that and the following year. Mazistence. Thus, in the first volume, stand at the head of zini wrote the best part of its contents. In fact, he successive chapters, the names of Dante, Petrarch, never was seconded by efficient contributors. Either beBoccaccio, Macchiavello, Michael Angelo, Ariosto, Tasso, cause the management of his vast plans of conspiracy Vittoria Colonna, Galileo, Alfieri, Napoleon. In the engrossed too much of his time, or because his genius second, Mazzini, Foscolo, Manzoni, Grosi, Pellico, Giusti, was wearied and exhausted at its very first start, his arLitta, Mayer, Anna Pepoli, Gioberti, D'Azeglio, ticles seemed to have lost not a little of that calmness Pius IX.

and serenity, of that dignity and temperance which Under these brilliant names we have a most able, characterised his first effort. The fretful jealousy of his clever, and charming exposition of all that relates to, or fellow-exiles was easily alarmed by what they called can bé comprised in a work of popular extent and cha- his imperious ambition, his sweeping exclusiveness. racter of the history, fine arts, politics, poetry, and phi- The most high-minded and generous of his associates losophy of the nation. We confess to having derived from fell from him one by one; and, compelled to rely on ita beiter notion of this interesting land, and its people, the co-operation of blindly-devoted but indiscreet and than from any other work. We are glad to learn from incautious partizans, he hurried on his insurrectional such an authority, of the firm hold that the moral force schemes, leading the more disgraceful than disas. principle has taken of the leaders of Italian progress, trous invasion of Savoy in 1833. Many an ardent paand of the daily evidences of a spirit of union and co- triot would have withdrawn from active life after so operation amongst them for the restoration in Italy, not signal a defeat. Not so Mazzini. Humbled, but not of shreds and patches, of petty principalities and petty disheartened—anxious to throw all the blame upon Geinterests, but of a great country, as it deserves to be. neral Romarino, the military leader of the expedition,

he widened still further the breach already existing aptly calls the tomb of living reputations, the great between him and the moderate party. Disappointed in world of London. Visited with awe and misgiving by his plans by the new and more Catholic associations of the few young Italians who would snatch a passport 'Young France,'' Young Poland,' 'Young Switzerland,' from the reluctant hands of a jealous police, dignifying and, finally, “Young Europe,' all of these based on his a few honest teachers and artisans, and others of his original notion—that of the expediency of trusting poli- humbler countrymen established in London into a natical movements with young, and consequently un- tional association--an object of the vain regrets and pledged and uncompromising leaders-a notion which, longings of the rising generation, of the mistrust and under the strangest modifications and misconceptions, rancours of the base Italian governments, who persisted was destined to make the tour of the globe.

in looking upon him as the unattainable head of the Mazzini's views, however, were at first perfectly cor- revolutionary hydra, rect, and had arisen from the conviction, of the utter impotence, imbecility, and even insincerity of the old

"By deepest pity here pursued,

And hate no less profound; Carbonari, who had hitherto had the upper hand in Ita

By love no fear could quell, by rage lian affairs. Mazzini undertook to break the idols of

No length of time assuage. the Italian patriots; to do away with the prestige of illustrious names--all was to be achieved by the peo- he resigned himself to a life of silence and loneliness, ple and for the people. The revolution should acknow- satisfied with the foundation of an Italian school for ledge no leaders, save only such as might spring from mendicant organ-boys, in which he employed all his its own bosom. The national cause should henceforth energies with the same zeal and earnestness as Macobey the impulse of new men, proceeding upon new chiavello displayed in his diplomatic transactions beprinciples-young belicvers, wedded to no preconceived tween two rival communities of nuns; and, like a man system, who would disavow and trample upon the cra- conscious of the extent of his powers, no less than of ven dictates of a timid, temporising policy, the wily, in the uprightness of his intentions, he was ' biding his trigues of foreign diplomacy, who would march straight time." to their aim, regardless of all odds and chances, trust.

The English Government thought proper to draw him ing to God only, and themselves, and the sanctity of from his retreat. The unknown writer of anonymous their cause.

articles in the “ Westminster Review” was dignified into In the pursuance of such principles, the apostle was

a dangerous political character. By a base treachery gradually left alone. The hopes of the lovers of Italy which, up to the present time, was deemed utterly un. began to be grounded on mild and moderate measures. English, the Secretary of State made himself subservient The revolution was to be effected by the ascendancy of to the demands of foreign espionage, outdid, by superior moral force. D'Azeglio, Balbo, and the party now at cunning, the dirtiest tricks of the most abject continental the head of the Italian movement, gained the ear of the police, and, upon detection of his flagrant abuse of multitude. Mazzini was left to himself, and the few power and breach of confidence, he attempted to vin. closely acquainted with him, whose devotion to the lof-dicate his conduct by the wilful repetition of long-ex: tiness of his mind and heart was paramount to all pru. ploded, long-forgotten falsehoods against the man he had dential considerations. In common with all men of wronged. really transcendent abilities, of truly elevated character,

"Mazzini came out of that disgraceful contesi with all it was the lot of Mazzini to be cordially hated by such the honours of the day. That insane persecution secured as knew him least, and would, nevertheless, have been for him, in England, that public respect and sympathy his worthiest associates; and loved with utter blindness to which his talents and integrity, no less than his misby those who could neither comprehend nor aid himfortunes, would otherwise have entitled him. It had Certainly, none of his intimates ever voluntarily fell not, however, nor could it, add much to his reputation away from his friendship; but subservient affection, or influence in Italy. New ideas had long been springill-judged deference, contributed no less than ill-groun- ing up in that country, to which Mazzini was, from the ded aversion to obstruct his judgment and hurry his de- first, too utterly a stranger ever to be willing to adopt liberations. Out of so many who sided for or against them. The principles of Liberty and equality,'' Uniiy him, Mazzini never had a friend or an enemy worthy of and Independance, on which the National Association him: hardly ever an agent that was not a passive in- was originally based, were no longer deemed practicable. strument in his hands. Together with a gentleness. Their very uiterance was deemed in the highest degree an almost feminine tenderness of outward manner-he impolitical. Mazzini's position was now untenable; combined the utmost stubbornness of conviction, and and, as he was too well known for his unconquerable the fiercest intolerance of contradiction-Co-operation consistency and tenacity of purpose, he was left to with him must imply blind uncontradicted compliance. perish alone, or with those few blind enthusiasts-like

“ Involved in rash attempts against all governments, the ill-fated Bandiera and their accomplices-who still condemned to death in Italy, banished from France, continued true to the militant faith of Italy. proscribed in Switzerland, he finally sought the only “It would not be reasonable, however, to conclude refuge against political persecution—the free soil of Old that any well-meaning Italian entertains ideas greatly England. With a shattered constitution and a broken at variance with Mazzini's, as to the justice of his counheart, a disappointed man, in spite of all his assevera- try's claims to the full enjoyment of her independent tions to the contrary, he engaged in the harmless pur rights; or to fancy that any remnant of feudal or pasuit of a literary career, diving, perhaps, too deeply into trician interests might clash with the spread of purely the dreams and vagaries of French communism, and republican principles; or that the least shadow of loy choosing his associates among the English radicals and alty lurks in Italian hearts in behalf of any of the royal socialists, a grovelling, calculating race, as widely re- dynasties now in existence. We have said it; iho moved from the chivalrous disinterestedness of the Italiaus are all, at heart, republicans. Were the des. Italian republican, as a London fog from the golden tinies of the country to be settled to-morrow by the vapours of an Italian summer evening.

return of universal suffrage, the result would most un"In a vain endeavour to bring their ideas to bear doubtedly be what Mazzini, and a thousand before him some resemblance to his own luminous, however Uto-proclaimed, “The Italian Republic one and indivisible."" pian theories, Mazzini was gradually sinking in silence and oblivion, engulphed in what Count Pecchio not un

Manzoni.

THE WEEKLY RECORD.

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REPORT ON THE CULTIVATION OF HALF AN ACRE OF LAND.* On the 16th of November, 1846, two kind friends placed £10 in the hands of Edward William Bannan, aged then sixteen years and two months, that he might make his first step in life, in order to maintain himself. ORIGINAL STATE OF THE GROUND.

PRESENT STATE OF THE GROUND. His first step was to become the tenant of half an acre of The ground is now cropped for spring and winter, It is garden ground. The staple of the land was good, but now free from reeds and stones. The compost heap is quite owing to the negligence of the former tenant, it was decayed and fit for use, it is worth 108. Some of the stones full of weeds and large weed roots, and contained a vast have been used to pave a pig sty, some have been given away vast number of stones. A drain which ran through it from the to neighbours, and the rest are saved for any future use.

The higher to the lower part had been neglected, so that the water drain has been cleaned out and deepened, and it effectually it ought to bave carried away, flowed over and saturated a carries away the surplus water. The crops now in the ground large portion of the garden. He trenched the whole of the are brocoli to the number of 710, brocoli 474, savoys 255, ground, from eighteen inches to two feet deep, as the soil re vanack and Sprotboro' cabbages 150, lettuces 435, Cornish quired it, removed all the stones into a heap, and gathered cabbages 312, eight pounds, onions to shoot into scallions, a bed together all the weeds and weed roots, and mixed them with of turnips twelve feet by eight feet, and some small beds of red lime and salt, so as to form a compost heap with them. In all Dutch and flatpole cabbages, onions, carrots, and also 60 heads these proceedings he was assisted up to April, 1847, by his of celery. brother, Richard Harrison Bannan, aged twelve years and eight months.

THE RETURN THE EXPENDITURE OF THE MONEY AND THE CROPPING.

£. £. $. d. Did not commence till 1st June, 1847, and the Implements, tools, etc.

2 10 3 amount of money received from that time Manure 2 6 until the present day, is

10

2 1 Seeds and roots

2 16 0 The following seeds have been saved, and their Rent .

2 6

value at present prices is Onion 17oz.

0 8 0 Total £10 9 3 Parsnip 14ļoz.

0 3 7 Lettuce 6oz

0

4 105 The ground was cropped as follows in square yards of three Carrots loz.

0 3 feet each way. Yards. Peas, 1 quart of Flack's Victory

0 010 Potatoes, followed by brocoli, borecole, and gavoy 708 Ditto, half-pint Early Warwick

0 2 Beans 305 Scarlet runners 2,000

0 1 8 Peas 172 Potatoe seed

0 2 6 Onions 200 Leek joz

0 3 Parsnips

50 Also in band 187lbs. onions at 1d. per lb.

0 15 7 Carrots

165
130]bs. parsnips at id. per lb.

0 5 3 Parsley

40
40lbs. carrots at fd. per lb.

0 2 Scarlet runners 156 The compost is worth

0 10 0 Lettuces

18 Estimated value of crops should all turn out Shalotts

40 favourably

5 14 10 Onions for seed

22 The Implements are as good as new and still worth

2 10 3 Parsnips for seed Celery from seed

$21 2 9 Potatoes do., do. Swede turnips

288 Radishes

75 Blank grown with currant bushes

108 Seed beds

126 Cabbages

72

3

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6 6

2,563

Tho pig

MANAGEMENT OF THB CROPS.

RESULT. The potatoes were planted in winter from 5 inches to 9 The potatoe crop was fair, some of the sets were destroyed in inches deep, and were manured with stable dung. As they the ground by slugs, but the frost did not injure them. came out, the ground was immediately filled with brocoli, borecole, cabbage, and savoys.

The carrots aud parsnips were sown in drills and manured The carrot and parsnip crops were good. with guano.

The beans were grown on the stiffest ground and manured The bean crops were good. with guano. The peas were manured with guano.

The pea crops were good. The swede turnips were slightly manured with guano.

The swedes failed, owing to the very dry summer.

had all that was produced. The radishes were not manured.

The radishes failed from the birds carrying away the seeds, in

spite of all precautions. The shalotts were manured with guano.

The shalotts were a good crop, but were attacked by mildew

after thay were housed, and four-fifths were spoiled. The lettuces ditto, ditto. The onions were sown broadcast and manured with guano.

The onions a good crop. The scarlet runners were manured with guano.

Scarlet runners very productive. The cabbages were manured with guano.

The cabbage crop was fair considering the dryness of the summer. The radishes having failed, the bed was used to prick out Fine plants were produced. cabbages and other plants from the seed beds.

As the beans came out, the ground was cropped with brocoli. The crop is going on well.
As the seed beds were cleared they were sown with stone turnips. The dry weather is much against this orop which is light.
The swedes were replaced by cabbages.

They are going on well.
The onion, carrot, and parsnip ground was intended to be
sown with turnips before potatoes, but the dry weather pro-

* Drawn up by the cultivator himself. vented this being done, and the ground is fallowing for potatoes.

THE ANTI-SLAVERY BAZAAR, BOSTON, UNITED STATES. and the boys so many hours out of it?” Or it is,-“ Perad

We extract the following from the description of this bril- venture the boys might get cold, and their parents will be anliant Bazaar by our friend H. C. Wright, in the Liberator :

gry."

And the dusty, musty, smoky, rank-smelling school. I am in Faneuil Hall. It is 5 o'clock p.M., Christmas-day.

room remains so to the end of the chapter. Teachers in geneI am sitting on the platform, at the south end of the hall, facral seem to have no idea of the necessity of pure sweet air ; ing the door of entrance at the north end. The hall, as I look or, if they have, do not make the slightest effort to procure it. off from the platform, seems like a forest of evergreens; over They are great in the knowledge of words; but, too often, the platform are standing three beautiful cedars-one behind small indeed in that of things. I wonder if it ever yet came it and one at cach end-so that I am really sitting and writing into a schoolmaster's noddle that a school-room shou'd absobeneath cedar trees, and hid under their branches.

Across the lutely have no smell. Why, the bodies and the garments of platform is a line, fastened at each end to the cedars, and on

the young should be sweet and pure, and fragrant as the linen the line hangs a splendid black satin visite, or cloak, the work that hangs on the line; and the air which they breathe, both

The human frame and contribution of Mary Welsh. On the left of the platform in the school and out of the school, as pure. is the Book-table, where sits Maria W. Chapman ; on the right necessarily has no evil odour ; so far from it, that in all well. of it is the Edinburgh-table, and down in front of it is the constituted perfectly cleanly individuals, the person is actually Glasgow-table. · Down further, in the centre of the hall, and fragrant. I know no author, ancient or modern, except glodirectly under the immense gasalier, is the Toy-stand,-a large rious Homer, who adverts, eren partially to this fact, and he circular counter, or table, covered with all imaginable toys for but utters the veritable and delightful truth. children, of all materials, forms, sizes, and shapes, from the

In vain have I adjured the schoolmaster- Sir, I beseech New Haven fish-wife, of Scotland, with her creel on her back, you to consider, each boy-cach of those boys, breathes not less going to market, to the splendid wax doll from Bridgewater, in than twelve hundred times in an hour. Reflect, I beg of you, England ;-a toy which is the admired of all doll admirers. inhaling and reinhaling a vitiated atmosphere. Only think,

what the consequences must eventually prove, of continually That table is, at this moment, surrounded by admiring and enchanted children, making the hall ring with their merry and de. it poisons the blood, deteriorates the frame at large, and paves lighted exclamations. It is impossible to sit here and look the way for deadly discase." But such entreaties are seldom down upon that enraptured throng of children, and not feel successful, because people in general, and tenchers of the that it is good and pleasant to be here. It is worth a voyage young are not always an exception, will not look to remote over the Atlantie to see that table and the delighted little ones consequences; the present is their only concern.

If they who at this moment surround it. To crown the enchantment,

could only pierce the veil of the future—if they could behold the toy stand is embowered in beautiful high arches of ever-,

the fevered and perishing structure, the ravages of hidden degreen, and the gas-lights reflect a glorious light upon the whole cay, the early sepulchre, and refer it to its primary sourcema group. On each side of the hall are two rows of tables, or poisonous, because tainted and ill-renewed atmosphere—thes stands, and several women attending at each—some standing would take these matters to heart, and no longer condemn behind, and some in front of the tables, to accommodate the their pupils to a putrid and ritiated air, and life-springs tainted purchasers. On the right of the entrance-door to the hall, is at their souree; else; why is it that boys and girls at school the Provision-table, covered with all sorts of fruits and vege- should so often grow pale and sickly, unless it be owing to this table food and ice-creams. Ice-creams in winter; The ther. most unjustifiable circumstance; or, how is it that teachers mometer is nearly to zero. No accounting for taste. The hall

themselves are so often victims of dyspepsia and disease? I is comfortably warmed by two stores. There are thirty-four

have often been tempted to wish there were no doors to school. different tables, and I could not begin to give an account of the

rooms and factories; the pent-up vitiated atmosphere would variety, beauty, and richness of the articles now lying on these thus hare some chance of renewal. Boys and girls, too, would tables, and hanging around and over them, on lines at:ached be better alternately standing and moving about, than sitting to evergreen bowers and arches, that rise over and around the

so habitually: Never, I think, shall I forget a girl of twelve various stands. It is certain that this National Bazaar owes -barely twelve, whom, not long since, I was requested to

I found her in a hot close much of its attractions and its value to the Anti-Slavery hearts see, in the course of my vocation, and hands in Great Britain and Ireland. This Bazaar has done, room, tormented with flies, and in the last stage of decline. and is doing more to cement these two great nations into one,

Ere my next visit she had expired. ." And, ah!" said the be. and to secure and perpetuate mutual love and peace, than all reft father, as I gazed at the pallid features of the poor de. the Government Ambassadors and Treaties that ever passed parted sufferer ; "she was so fine a child, no one in the school between them. This affair is a Treaty of Peace between indi- was her equal at her buoks ; she was always at her lessons.”vidual hearts; and let the individual liearts in the two na

“What hours did she go at?" I inquired. “Why, first, from tions be knit together in brotherly sympathy, each wishing and

seven to nine ; then from ten to three; and then from six to labouring for the good of the other, and no governmental or- eight; she was such a learner, there was no keeping her from ganization could ever dash us one against the other in dea:lly spent the greater part of the day in school ; and what time re

In short, I ascertained that this young victim conflict.

mained besides her meals and sleep, was occupied with lessons; DEFECTIVE VENTILATION OF SCHOOLS.

no exercise, no recreation, and thus was her young existence

nipped in the bud, all that he might parse so well, and spell i Dr. M'Cormac, of Belfast, has turned the attention of the But it is needless to pursue this topic further; suffice it to say, public to the subject of the Ventilation of Schools.

No places schools, colleges, factories, shops, workshops, dwelling-houses, could require it more. We have been astonished by the great hospitals, places of Worship, are all abominably ill ventilated, neglect of this most important particular in the far greater or rather not ventilated at all, except in so far as the air finds number of schools that we have entered in every part of the casual admission, and as it were by stealth. kingdom. In too many of them the air has been fætid and stifling-in fact, not only disagreeable, but deleterious. Dr.

CONTENTS. M'Cormac says

First Love-A Battle of Life and Death, a Tale, by BERTHOLD Schools everywhere are ill ventilated. I hardly ever saw a AUERBACH, translated by Mary HOWITT--The Sister of Charity perfectly ventilated school-room, public or private. The mo. - Capital Punishment, by FREDERIC Rowton, No. VIII — ment one sets foot in the crowded precincts, that moment the CHILD'S CORNER---Things Present, and Things Unseen, an Innostrils are invaded with a peculiar heavy, sickening odour, troduction to the Study of History, by MARY GILLIES— Visit to commingled with dust, and smoke, and ashes; for, rarely are Miss Edgeworth, by WILLIAM HOWITT-The Scaffold, by GEORGE school-rooms washed, and rarely are they well aired, even HUME--The Rich and the Poor, by RODERT STORY — Literary during the scholars' absence. We have thus a condition Notice Italy, Past and Present, by L. MARIOTTI—Weekly of the vital fluid quite repugnant to the health and physical Record. well-being of the young creatures condemned for many hours to inhale the polluting medium. In vain have I reasoned with teachers. Perhaps, after much entreaty, they will open the PRINTED for the Proprietor by WILLIAM LOVETT, of 16, South lower part of a window-for the upper, perhaps, is not made

Row, New Road, in the Parish of St. Pancras, County of to open--but as for thorough adequate ventilation, they have

Middlesex, and published by him at 171, (corner of Surrey no idea of it. How," they will say, “can the room be close, Street,) Strand, in the Parish of St. Clement Danes.

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