“Both, both!” said Stephan, and went back again small, all went well; but now the cottage was again into the dwelling-room.

mortgaged, one acre sold and vanished in daily bread, Nobody could talk long with the grandmother, for she and nowhere hope of better times. was become quite childish, and was always playing To burden your housd with a debt, is like making over either with the cat or with beans; she also was always your home to the evil one; there is a ghost in the house wanting you to hear her repeat a verse out of the hymn which suddenly rends holes in the thickest walls, and book, so that she might not disgrace herself in the breathes coldly upon you from its concealment. school. To-day Stephan was in no humour for this; he It seemed now to Stephan very draughty in the room, seated himself behind the table, beneath a large framed for he had just thought of the debt and called up the picture with a large seal, and waited until lights and ghost. He asked himself how he could ever release supper came.

himself, and became dejected. Thou sayest, dear reader, I can see daily such things This often happened: he was not qualified to invent as these if I only walk a couple of paces, and even this plans for his deliverance, and he was utterly without is not the greatest misery; I know far more terrible dexterity. suffering.

A person sinking into poverty is like a ship-wrecked Give heed whether something is not going on here mariner standing on a little island in the middle of an more than thou can'st so easily observe; whether here ocean; he stands forlorn, and witnesses how the never in this little hut the greatest human struggle be not pausing waves loosen and swallow for ever piece after fought out; whether heroic deeds be not here achieved, piece. He still stands upon a fragment which bears bolder and more difficult than the campaigns of kings, him, and at length feels this also sink, together with which are chronicled for ages in the books of history. himself.

The supper being so long in coming, Stephan fetched The very worst which can happen to one sinking a light, and now we can see what that large framed pic- into poverty is that state of discouragement which preture signifies. It is the honourable discharge of the vents him from making use of his powers, and which Rifleman, Stephan Huber, who served eleven years in despairingly allows misfortune to overwhelm him. the 5th Regiment. The ink has turned yellow, the coat Stephan led a dull, introverted, monotonous life. He of arms on the seal has dissolved, and the flies hold their was ready for any work, and worked away at it induslast autumnal man@uvre on the flat expanse of glass. triously, yet although the proverb says—“ labour has

Stephan sits there and stares into the light: the child a bitter root but sweet fruit,”—he was no longer aware on his knee sits equally still, with immoveable gaze, as of either. No work was difficult to him; but neither though lost like her father in many thoughts. He sees had he the consolation of feeling that in it he had done nothing that surrounds him; as in a dream his past life his duty. His soul seemed covered up and buried as it like a shadow passes before him.

That was a merry day when he marched away to mi Thus yesterday he had seen how the body of his litary service, for neither father nor mother wept his eldest child was sunk into the earth, yet had remained departure; he was early an orphan. From the service unmoved. When he saw the coffin, he thought where he of his first employer he entered the regiment, where all should get the money to pay for it; and when the pas. served like himself. The years fled away, he himself tor spoke words of consolation and blessing, he thought knew not how, and when the prescribed term of service that he should have to pay for these words. “Death is was over, he received bounty-money and remained as a not without expense!” murmured he to himself. substitute another five years. The lace sewn upon his Therefore, late in the night he had had a sharp disleft sleeve alone shewed his age, otherwise he seemed pute with his wife, because he upbraided her for her laas young as ever to himself, and he now acquired a little mentations, and she him for his hard-heartedness. He property through the service. In the last year or two now sate silent, lost in the recollection of the time when he became acquainted with his Margaret. Great as was he stood alone and free in the world, when so many the number of his comrades in the barracks, Stephan human lives were not yet bound up in his, and his past now perceived how solitary and forlorn was his condition; life seemed a lost paradise to him. He did not think of he should now belong to some one in the world. Days the many vexations of those times (and thus it is alfull of joy and sorrow arrived, for henceforth the solmost ever when we think on the past), how he was dier's life was irksome to Stephan, and after a year of never his own master, or how often he had cursed his faithful waiting he requested his discharge, and with life. He saw only now the misery about him; the money he had lying in the regiment's fund he re- and how different it had been when he had to care for deemed the mortgaged cottage and two acres of land of no one in the world. A horrible thought must have Margaret's mother's, returned with her into her native arisen in him at this moment, for he started as if struck village, and there they dwelt together with her mother. by lightning, and his face flushed crimson ;-the child

During his long soldier-life Stephan had grown un on his knee, frightened by this start seized him by the used to village life ; he had worn gloves too long; but chin. Stephan's countenance brightened, he lifted up labour soon drew a tanned skin over his hands which the child and kissed it fervently. It was as though by could not be drawn off. Every kind of work was at this kiss, he would beg pardon for the black thought first disagreeable to him, but that did not matter much, which had sprung up within his soul. a healthy man soon finds himself at home in any toil. He went with the child into the kitchen to his wife Yet one very sad effect remained ; Stephan had forgot- with whom, since last night he had not exchanged a ten how to provide for himself. In the barracks was word. food, and firing, and lodging, and everything comfort "Shall you soon be ready ?" asked he. able, and all, as it were, of its own accord, and all in “I have only two hands!” she replied gruffly. She its regular routine, did you only fulfil your ordinary was angry from last night, and thought Stephan also duty. Now, Stephan was his own commander, and his was angry. But in a mild tone he asked, own regiment, and this was very burthensome to him; he *, Cannot I help you ?”. would much rather have entered another service again, Margaret did not hear the mild tone and said, and thus have a fixed work and fixed wages. But this “No. Go back again. Men are only in one's way was not to be found, and it was well Margaret had a in the kitchen. Do you hear how the child cries? Go, firm character.

I can't be at two places at once." During the first years, whilst the family was still Stephan obeyed, but full of anger; he thought he

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had been so full of love, and had yet been so harshly which said a great deal, but which in fact asked retreated; he forgot that his wife could not divine what proachfully and bitterly, "Am I to get nothing to-day ?" was passing within him, and that in reality he had ex- It had hitherto been a rule with Margaret, before she pressed none of his feeling to her.

put a morsel to her own lips, to peel with astonishing Strange! When people begin quarrelling and dis- dexterity, the very best potatoe of the whole heap, puting, the most timid become eloquent; yet, has a break it in two, put in some salt, and give it to her husword of love or reconciliation to be spoken they writhe, band. This little act of kindness went on while she and cringe, and stammer, or fancy that the others must ate. To-day however she was a long time about it, for see and know of their own accord what is passing in their she was rather out of humour, and therefore he cast at hearts.

her that glance of which we have said so much. The Stephan angrily rocked the child, who, with its little wife saw in it only reproaches and anger. And what closed hands laid on its breast, soon fell asleep,—until right had Stephan to her kindness! Could not he peel he had alınost Aung it on the floor, and then he stopped. for himself what he wanted to eat? So thought MargaHe was doubly irritable, for he was hungry. In an ret, and handed the potatoes as she peeled them to the empty stomach gall soon overflows; thou canst remark children, as if to show favour to them because their this the hour before dinner, and this hour with the father was so out of humour with her. poor,-unhappy wretches !-often extends through the With that Stephan smiled to himself, and partly out whole day. Thus may be explained why they so often of a really kind-hearted desire for reconciliation, though excite themselves about trifles, and torment each other. partly also out of a suppressed feeling of revenge, that The bitterest fruit of poverty is often, alas! discontent she might experience something of his sufferings (so with yourself and those about you.

mixed are often the sentiments and actions of men) Full of anger, Stephan awaited the evening meal. he laid a potatoe which he had himself peeled before It is true a piece of bread still lay in the cupboard; he Margaret. looked at and examined it, and then laid it back in its " Eat it yourself," said she obstinately, “and you place un-decreased in size. To-morrow was only Sa- have not even washed your hands after your stoneturday, and no bread could be bought before Sunday. breaking!”

At length Margaret brought the pot full of boiled po Stephan bit his lips and at length growled out, tatoes, poured them out on the table, and placed salt "where will you find the baker that has always clean near them. She then folded her hands and said grace. hands when he kneads his dough ?" Stephan in a low voice repeated it after her. But what He shut his pocket-knife ; rose from the table and manner of prayer is that, when your heart is full of an left the house. ger against your neighbour, whilst words of devotion No sooner was he out of doors than he began to storm are on your lips ? How can your soul arise to the High- and swear to himself, the whilst an inaudible but deep est when laden with such a burden? Does not such voice replied to him, prayer become mere lip-worship and litany ?

“I am, after all, the most miserable man in the True, thou wilt say if prayer were forbidden to all world,” thought Stephen (' that is how the question such as are unjust and harsh towards their fellow men, may be,' remarked the voice). Must I not labour for wife many lips would long since have forgotten how to say and children, and tire myself to death like a horse, in amen, and on the church benches there would lie the wind and weather ? ("and the wife, she must stop at dust of years!

home with the sick mother and the crying children, But nevertheless think whether we have a right to slaving and caring for them without peace or rest.') i fold our hands, instead of opening and extending them never get a good word for all my trouble. (“It is a to reconciliation and the aid of others.

question whether thou hast not received more good But now we will observe our couple at supper; truly words than thou hast given’.) Every penny of my by looking on, one does not eat a single morsel. wages I give up and don't keep anything for myself.

All is silent, for no one will speak a word. The little (Do then thy wages belong to thee or thy family ? and girl whom Stephan had placed on a chair near him, at has thy wife a secret hoard of her own ?-) I never buy length breaks the silence by asking,

anything good for myself! (“Does thy wife eat roast Where then is our Anton ?"

meat and salad privately?') I hav'nt known these Peter replied with a wise look,

many weeks the taste of a drop of beer! ('Does thy “Oh, he is in heaven before now, and is eating his wife drink wine every day?') And no thanks for all supper with our Lord God. Our master says there this! (What thanks then dost thou want, when thou are many million miles between the earth and the sun, only dost thy duty ?') She treats me like a dog; for but that when you die, you are there in a minute.

all my kindness nothing but an ill-return; I never know Margaret heaved a deep sigh, large tears stood on her a happy minute. (Oh, how thou liest to thy own eyelashes ; Stephan looked at her with compressed lips ; soul! How cans't ihou have forgotten the hundreds of one did not know whether it was anger and compassion hours and days when her good heart made thee happy, which spoke in hiin.

and strengthened thee, and couldst thou not wind her "Be still and quiet at your supper!” he cried to the round thy finger with only a kind word ?') My home children.

is hateful to me; my life is hateful to me? if a bullet With difficulty he compelled himself to swallow some might only be shot through my head! ('Do thou shoot potatoe, but it seemed to him as if his throat were tied the evil thought, that would be much wiser!') And up. He muttered to himself, “It would be a good then when I was dead she would find out for the first thing if one were dead!” and then leaning back in the time what she had had in me. ( Yes indeed, what? chair he shook his head, as if to get rid of the re- A husband who has often allowed himself to be overcome membrance of that which had irrevocably happened.

and who now adds to his troubles, by tormenting him. We often are wonderfully successful in getting rid of self,') If I could only go out into the wide world and oppressive thoughts : it was so with Stephan. It is never know about anything more! (From me howtrue that he no longer felt hunger ; but he now deter- ever thou wouldst know something ; I should go everymined to eat, because now was the time for doing so

where with thee!)”. and he remembered that he had experienced the pangs Thus thought Stephan to himself, and thus strove the of hunger. At moments like this, whatever people put voice of conscience to make itself heard within him; into their mouths tastes like dry straw.

but he would not listen to it. In a while Stephan looked at his wife with a glance

(To be continued.)


Full his cup, to overflowing !

See him, now his race is run,
One last grateful look bestowing

On that meek and chastened one!
Thus she scattered blessings round her,

Thus the heaven-ward path she trod,
And the hour of vespers found her

Ever nearer to her God !
Now she sleeps! be silent, sorrow !

All regretful musings cease!
From our thoughts of her we borrow,

Help to reach the land of peace!
January, 1848.

SHE was neither young nor pretty,

Not one earthly charm had she
When God sent her to our city,

A devoted nun to be.
None knew whether saint or sinner,

She had been ere here she came,
We knew that the soul within her,

Was an upward tending flame. But the world was all unable,

With its dimmed and cloudy sight, To conceive how robes so sable,

Could enfold a soul so bright. Grief intense oft known to David,

In the whelming water-flood; Grief by which the world was savéd

When the Saviour sweated blood. Grief that probes our inmost nature,

Too intense for words to paint, Turns the passions of the creature,

To the ardour of the saint. So with her! so pure and holy

Was the air she seemed to breathe ; None so loving, none so lowly,

Ever dwelt the heavens beneath.
When the sufferer saw he blessed her

Of her sympathy secure,
And the father who confessed her,

Ne'er had known a nun so pure.
Her's was not a life of dreaming ;

She to all who wept, seemed linked; Love for every sinner gleaming !

Self-love only seemed extinct.
Oft-times tending wounds unsightly,

Oft-times breathing tainted air ;
By the sick-bed daily, nightly,

Bringing consolation there. To the soul in life's last stages

Breathed the hope of holier balm, Then unto the Rock of ages

Bade him look, and he grew calm. For she found him oft surrounded

By the outward aids of sense, Dwelling in a credence founded

On the spirit's impotence. Impotence to grasp the vision

of the Saviour's dying love ; Deeming that in it's transition

From the flesh to things above, Thought would never dare to enter

Unsupported into space Guideless, where to find the centre

Christ, —its final resting place. But that sister's faith had borne her

To a higher, holier sphere And she gently led the mourner

Far beyond his trifles here. Onward pressing, upward soaring,

Earth diminished and grew dim, Lost in loving and adoring

What were earthly types to him!
If the sinner at the æra

Of conversion needed these,
As his view of heaven grew clearer,

They were banished by degrees.
Soon he held it profanation,

Aught of earth with heaven to mix; And before that revelation,

Dropped his very crucifix!


BY FREDERIC ROWTON, Honorary Secretary to the Society for the Abolition

of Capital Punishment.



PROPER PRINCIPLE OF PUNISHMENT DEFINED. We will now proceed to investigate certain other pleas put forth by the defenders of the gallows in support of that admirable and benevolent institution. We have inquired into man's moral commission to strangle his brethren : we will next endeayour to ascertain whether he has a political right to do so. Government, accord. ing to a particular tribe of philosophers, derives a right to kill from the surrender of that individual right to avenge which each man possesses in a savage state. Let us see if these great philosophers are correct.

The theory of these political sages is obviously based upon the doctrine that government is a compact or agreement, by which the mass of men give up into the hands of a general administrator the natural rights that belong to them in a condition of independence. This doctrine may, I think, with certain unimportant modifications, be admitted : it seems the only rational and consistent principle on which governmental authority can be founded.

Our only question is plainly as to the extent and nature of the rights which the ruler receives from the community. Amongst the rights possessed by the indivi. dual in his natural condition, is there a right to take the life of a fellow-creature ? If there be, then he has the power to surrender it to the ruler: if there be not, then, of course, the ruler cannot possess such a right by popular delegation.

Now, it must be perfectly clear that man has no general right to kill his fellow.creatures, for if he had, there would be no criminality in murder. The right to kill, if there be one, must strictly be limited to a moment of actual peril, when the individual attacked would certainly lose his life were he not to destroy his assailant. I, for my part, am prepared to go beyond this, and to assert, that not even the peril of death can justify the destruction of an assailant. I know of no moral system which permits the commission of evil for the prevention of evil : certainly the doctrine is radically inconsistent with the principle that if we are smitten on the one cheek, we are to turn the other also to the smiter. The plea of self-defence, however, prevails so universally, that I am willing for the sake of argument to waive my extreme opinion on this matter, and to adopt for the moment, the general belief. Our ca us will not suffer by this admission.

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Granting, then, that the State possesses the right of The more we think of this divine right theory, the more destroying human life in self-defence,--that is, for the we become persuaded of its utter childishness and actual preservation of existence, and with no other pre- folly. Look at it. Poor, weak, blind, faulty, misjudgtext: we must now inquire whether, even upon this ing man, set up as the judicial representative on earth ground, the execution of a murderer is justifiable.

of the all-wise, all-powerful, infallible God of the uniThe argument in the affirmative is twofold: first, that verse! Does that seem a probable arrangement? Does the murderer must be destroyed to prevent him from it appear likely that the Almighty would delegate his murdering again; and, secondly, that he must be de- authority to a being that has neither the strength nor the stroyed to prevent others from destroying.

wisdom to wield it to advantage ? Does it seem possiif the murderer can be prevented from committing ble that the sword and sceptre of omnipotence should more murders by any means short of killing him, then, be committed into mortal hands ? Can any one believe of course, liis destruction cannot be justified. It is that the power to inflict the irrevocable doom of death only in the emergency of a threatening moment that the is delegated to fallible humanity-to be exercised, too, right can be said to exist in the case of an individual, upon humanity? In my opinion there cannot be a more and if he can prevent his own destruction by any other impious and blasphemous idea. For it in effect says, means than the destruction of the life of his assailant, that the Supreme is either unable or unwilling to govern he is bound to adopt those other means, and is guilty the Creation he has formed, and is obliged to delegate of murder if he do not. Precisely the same with the his authority to a creature ! State. If it can restrain the murderer by any other And when we look at the list of sovereigns who we means thnn by killing him, it has no right to destroy are told have been God's vicegerents for governing him. Now, it must be evident that sufficient means mankind, the theory becomes as absurd as we have can be readily devised for any murderer's future re- found it to be unholy. From Saul, who was given to straint. The prison which is strong enough to hold the the children of Israel in God's wrath, down to the madman is surely strong enough to hold the murderer. monarchs of modern experience, kings seem rather to The proper prevention of future evil from the culprit is, have been representatives of Satan than of God. consequently, simply an affair of stone and mortar. It The Manassehs, Nebuchadnezzars, Neros, Caligulas, is a matter for the mason, not for the hangman. Upon Henrys and Georges, are unfortunately but types the ground, therefore, of any injury the murderer may of nearly the whole fraternity. Which of them has hereafter do to the State, his destruction is not justifi- not “shed innocent blood." like the first, or used the able. Self-defence can be sufficiently ensured without “sword of justice" with the blind fury of a savage killing him.

idiot-like the last ? Will any man in his senses be 2. But it will be urged that it is rather to prevent daring enough to say that Richard III, was a minister others, than to restrain him, that the murderer's life is of God ? That Henry VIII, was a vicegerent of Heataken: it will be said that this murderer's destruction ven? That Charles II, was the Almighty's represenis our best means of self-defence against future mur- tative ? That Robespierre was the commissioner of derers. In this case, the plea of self-defence is even Deity? If there was such a man alive, I can only say less properly applicable than in the other. For here that I heartily pity his credulity, and regret for the we strike the blow actually before we are attacked !-a credit of humanity, that there should exist a mortal so sort of self-defence which it is difficult to reconcile with like the animal that browses on the thistle. any known principle of logic.

Kings the representatives of Heaven! I can believe Besides, it is found, as we have already proved at most doctrines sooner than that. Brethren, unless length, that the infliction of death upon murderers does heavenly tribunals were very different from human ones, not prevent other murders, but actually produces them. there were but small chance of justice for any man! How the plea of self-defence can be made to agree with If the laws of this world were samples of the laws of the fact, that the measure meant for self-defence, in the world to come, alas ! for the great multitude of creases the crime, I confess myself at a loss to understand. mortals! What I have read and seen of human govern

Upon any ground, then, this plea of self-defence fails ment has led me to see in it rather the antagonist than to support the conclusion that the gallows is justifiable; the representative of God. I find that the thrones of nay, it absolutely leads us to a totally opposite result: the world have produced the greatest monsters of manfor in the investigation we find that self-defence is best kind. The impious, the idiotic, the lascivious, the promoted by a discontinuance of the punishment. blood-thirsty, the hypocritical, the ambitious, the ty

But there is another sort of Governmental right which rannical, the revengeful of our species find their chief has been often pleaded when the acts of a ruler have been examples amongst our kings. Search the records of called into question, and which is not unfrequently the world for the worst of man's crimes, and it will urged as a settler” of the question before us :- I mean be found that a ruler has been the criminal. the “divine right” of sovereigns. Into this topic I pro I shall be told, perhaps, that history has its Alfreds pose now for a moment or two to inquire,

as well as its Herods ; its Davids as well as its Sauls; Power-say the believers in this comfortable theory its Victorias as well as its Marys. I acknowledge it -Power always comes from the Almighty: it is derived readily and thankfully. It would be hard, indeed, if (according to Dr. Paley)" by immediate donation from with a line of rulers so bankrupt in virtue, we never by the Deity;" and its possession is a proof that the holder chance could get the small dividend of a good one ! of it is the representative of the Almighty on earth; and these I cheerfully confess to be Heaven's reprewhich being the case, God's right to take life may be sentatives, as all good people are, whether kings or lawfully exercised by his vice-gerent, the ruler. Re- clowns, princes or peasants. But because there have sistence, (says Calvin) “cannot be given to the magis- been one or two good sovereigns amongst many thou. trate without at the same time resisting God*" I do sands of bad ones, it is somewhat too bad to say that all not suppose that many of my readers, nay, I cannot be- monarchs must be the representatives of Deity and lieve that one of them, can believe so silly and mis- repositories of Almighty Power. chievous a doctrine :--but as some few elderly ladies The theory of the Divine right of rulers inevitably (of both genders) in other circles contend for it, we leads to one of two conclusions, both of which are fata! will be gallant enough to answer them, because of their to the plea under examination. Either rulers are right

in everything they do: or they may possibly be wrong.

If they are always right, then we must defend Manas. • Inst. lib. IV. cap. 20, sect. 23.

seh's slaughters, Herod's impiety, Nero's ferocity, and



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Charles's licentiousness :-if they may go wrong, then throughout it; for the wide window was covered they may be wrong in inflicting the punishment of death, by vine leaves, and the bright sun came streamand cannot offer the plea of divine right with any title ing in through them with checquered rays. As to success.

the wind stirred the leaves, their shadows quivered So much for the sublime theory that rulers are and danced on the walls and floor of the room, and commissioned representatives of God, when they choke covered them with lovely forms and colours. The a man on the Improved Drop at Newgate. I sincerely children were delighted with their happy home and beg the reader's pardon for reviewing it at such length. threw their arms round their mother. It must not be supposed, however, that I deny the

After a little while she took them to the window, right of a government to punish at all. I only wish ** What lovely green leaves !” they said. She asked to define the proper principle of Punishment: a few them if they would not like to see what was beyond ? words upon that subject, then, will not be out of place.

They pushed aside a branch of the vine and saw the Now I hesitate not to say that the only principle on wide, distant view. It stretched away miles and miles, which man can safely or morally inflict punishment on

over plains, and hills, and forests. They saw winding his fellow man is that of future prevention. He has no rivers, and still lakes, and villages, and towns. Here right to punish crime for its intrinsic demerit--that will and there a large mansion or casile; sometimes pleasant 11 surely be done by a greater and juster judge. He country houses ; oftener little cottages and huts. They has no right derived from the community he governs ; saw too, pasture land with sheep and cattle, and fields for the moral judgment of one individual by another is of growing corn, and wide waste commons, and rocky in no wise permissible by morality. He has no inherent hills. The little vine leaves close to their eyes had shut right divine in virtue of his governmental office, as

out all this wide world from them. They exclaimed in is proved by his errors and inability. What theory wonder and ran out upon the green sward to see all remains, then, but this--that his sole commission is to

round. protect society by the exercise of those powers (and

On every side but one, the view stretched away in those alone) 'which society has the right to delegate varied beauty into the blue distance, where the sky to him?

seemed to bend down to meet the earth. On one side Punishment, in the strict sense of penalty for guilt, the rising slope of the hill with its rocky summit was all man has no right to inflict. Paley admits this when he they could see. says, “The proper end of human punishment is not the

"Let us climb up to the top of the hill,” they said. satisfaction of justice, but the prevention of crimes.'

So their mother went with them. It was very steep but Blackstone says precisely the same. There is no need the wild flowers sent up a delicious fragrance at every that man should have the right of adjudging penalty to footstep, and the fresh air blew round them. crime, for the punishment of guilt as guilt is provided

They reached the top at last, and found a firm platfor elsewhere :-and there is ample reason why he form of dark rock on which they rested, and looked should not possess the power, in the fact that he has round at the world that lay beneath them. Now it not strength to wield it. The compensation, or satis- stretched out far beyond what they had seen before. faction of justice, nowise falls within man's province. From the height they had reached, they could see To judge motive is in no case his duty : the absence of country, fertile and beautiful, and the blue sea in the power to see the heart, from whence motive proceeds, far distance, beyond the point at which the sky had is proof of this at once. His sole business is to wield before seemed to meet the earth. Hills that had looked the right transferred to him by the community for the high, now looked like little hillocks. Their home lay temporal good of those under his care : anything beyond at their feet and seemed to have become half its size. this, it will be found as absurd to attempt as it is im- Cottages and woods, houses, flocks and villages that possible to achieve. To any punishment (short of seemed large and numerous before, were like so many taking life) that will undoubiedly prevent social evil, little points. he may have recourse; but any inflictions proceeding leaves, but there the beautiful world was,” they said ;

“We could not see it when we stood behind the vine farther, or aiming higher, are indispensible. property, liberty, and social comfort, he may interfere,

and we could not see it before we climbed to this rock, because they are things gained by the institution of but there the blue sea was.” society; but life he must not touch for it is the gift of

“And now you cannot see beyond that line where God, and God only has the right to dispose of it.

sea and sky seem to meet,” said the mother, “ but the (To be continued.)

great world stretches on. If we could go to that point, again we should find the circling sky overhead, and

should see more and more of the varied world all round CHILD'S CORNER.

us, and another line where the earth and the sky meetanother horizon as it is called. You must be able to

imagine this extent of world that you cannot see. You THINGS PRESENT AND THINGS UNSEEN.

must be able to think of the world we live in, not as if

it were the small space under your eyes, but a great An Introduction to the Study of History. globe of varied surface of sea and land, rolling round By Mary GILLIES.

the sun in space, carrying with it the light blue veil of A Mother took her two children out of the great city air that clings to it all round on every side, so that go to a house on a high hill, and there resolved to live. where you will to any part of it, you see, if you look She said, “ their father was of pure and noble nature, np, this transparent blue air, through which comes to and I will train them up to be worthy of him.”

you the light of sun, and moon, and stars." The air was free and sweet, as all mountain air is. when the world had seemed to them like a flat plain,

The children sat side by side and thought of the time The soft turf grew up to the door, and no sound was with the blue sky for its roof. But now as they looked heard all night.

The children opened their eyes the first morning, and over the wide view and the distant sea, they fancied saw from their windows the green sloping side of the that they were conscious of the grand movement of the hill that led to the rocky summit, and above it the clear great globe which carried them round with it and blue sky, with white clouds that slowly sailed across when the white clouds sailed over the mountain and They rose and went into the room where their hid the sun, they said " a thick white spot has come in mother waited for them. Everything there was cheer- the clear, blue veil.” ful and graceful, and a soft green light was spread wide view. The sky remained blue over their heads,

As they looked, a change came over one part of their

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