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property which he has created, and then strip him of it en It would be a most interesting illustration of my argument tirely without giving him any remuneration for what we take to make a collection of all the editions of Milton, Shakspeare' from him.

Cowper, and others, that are now published by the cheap trade' Let us admit, however, that the rights of the author and the as they are termed by the magnates of Paternoster-row. public are not opposed to each other, but inseparably connected, Some authors, and Mr. Howitt among them I perceive, will and we shall get at a principle which will enable us to legislate only sell an edition to the bookseller ; but this plan has a for the benefit of each party simultaneously.

great disadvantage attending it, in that the bookseller has no It is just and reasonable that an author should get a fair pro- temptation to spend money in making it known; for whatever fit from every copy of his book that is sold, and that in perpe- he spends is so much taken from the profits of his edition to tuity.

add to the value of the succeeding one; it is like expecting a It is equally just and reasonable, that the public should have yearly tenant to lay out capital on improvements for the land. books supplied to them like food and clothes, by free compe- lord's benefit. tition, as cheap as possible, and that the valuation of the mind • These remarks might be considerably extended us to the ef. in the authorship should neither be left to the discretion of the fects likely to follow from such a sweeping alteration, but they tradesman or the caprice of the writer, but be fixed by compe- are sufficient to draw attention to the principle, and to invite tent authority at some equitable proportion, and in return for objections which may be discussed in a future paper. W. thus deciding the scale of remuneration to the author, the law

BURNARD THE SCULPTOR. should secure to him its regular and certain payment.

Cheapness must not be attained by robbery. Let the author's The following interesting facts we owe to a young friend.--Eds fair remuneration be duly paid for every copy printed, and the supply of editions to suit the wants of every class of custom of Wales which William Howitt has seen, for Burnard told me he

We frequently saw Burnard the sculptor of a bust of the Prince ers may safely be left to the management and competition of had taken it into the Journal Office. He is the son of a Corthe trade. I would therefore entirely repeal the present Law nish mason or bricklayer, a tall, large, rough looking man, with of Copyright, for which I wonld substitute one on the following great simplicity of manner and real genius. He dined with us principle, though of course the details might be much mo- twice and told us all his little adventures in the Palace. The dified.

little Prince sat to him cight days. A room was fitted up so 1st. Every work published should be entered in Stationers'

tear the nursery that he often heard what he called “a rumpus" Hall, with the name of the author and present owner of the

among the children. Miss Hillin was the Prince's attendant, copyright. 2nd. Every author and his assigns if duly registered, shall gentleman was fully aware of his own importance, and always

but though she familiarly called him “ Princey,” the young have a perpetual interest in his work, subject to the following expected a stool to be placed for him when he wished to rest his conditions.

royal feet. He was nerer still, but talked a great deal, and en3rd. An author's interest in his work shall consist of

per treated Burnard to let him model his own face, so Burnard cent. upon the published retail price of any edition, in what made him a cast to fill with clay, and amuse himself. With ever size or style it may be issued, which sum shall be paid to this he was very much delighted, and when he had filled his him through Stationers' Hall, before a copy can be sold.

cast, he brought it to Burnard to look at, and being full of fun, 4th. Any person shall be at liberty to print and publish any he merrily dashcd it in the poor artist's face. The Queen came H work, in any style, and at any price, and in any number, he into the room several times; "I could not forget sbe was the

thinks fit, but before he commences such printing, he shall Queen," said Burnard, “and at fir:t I felt nervous, but she give notice to the author or his assigns of such intended publi- talked to me, and her manner was extremely feeling and hind.". cation, with full particulars of the number he intends to print, Burnard's first attempts at anything like sculpture, were made and the price at which it is to be retailed to the public; and

upon his father's tomb stones; but when a young boy, he exwhen the work is completed, before it is announced as ready for ecuted a medallion which so pleased Sir Charles Lemon, that sale, he shall pay over to the author or his assigns --- per cent. he sent it to Sir Francis Chantry, in whose hands it remained upon the retail price of the whole edition, and at the same time for years. One day, Burnard accidentally meeting with Sir deliver to the author or his assigns, a declaration signed by Davis Gilbert, the late President of the Royal Society was ex. the printer, of the number of copies printed, which shall also amining with him some work of art; “Yos," said Sir Davis be printed on the first and last page of the work.

Gilbert, “ I never but once before saw anything so beautiful, 5th. The publication of any book before payment has been and that was when Chantry shewed me a medallion executed made to the author or his assigns, or any false declaration of by a poor Cornish boy." Burnard instantly recollected his the numbers printed, to be accounted felony, and the whole early effort but without betraying himself, asked what Sir edition to be forfeited.

Francis Chantry had said about it. “He said," replied Gilbert, 6th. All existing copyrights to revert to the authors, and

“that he would advise that boy to go on, for he would certainly their assigns, at the expiration of the present legal term of

prosper. This was very encouraging, and Birnard is now copyright.

progressing. This head of the Prince has been exceedingly A law on the principles of the above propositions is such as I admired, and he has been employed by several gentlemen in conceive would be substantially just to the author, and the Cornwall. public would have the benefit of free and unrestrained compe

XEW CITRAGGED SCHOOL. tition. It may be feared by some, that frauds on the author would be perpetrated, but when it is considered that many par- Blackfriars Road, are now nearly exhausted ; and, if public

We regret that the funds of the Yew ('ut Ragged School, ties are employed in the getting out of one book, and that as sympathy be not promptly excited on their behalf, the numerous legal editions would be cheap, there would be no temptation to sell illegal ones, this fear appears to be imaginary. A greater destitute children of that demoralized locality, must be left a objection may exist in the minds of some from the thoughts prey to ignorance, to crime, and to ruin. that our printing excellence would degenerate, bnt this is a

CONTESTS. fallacy. Is no fine linen worn since calico became cheap, and Then an d Now John Huss before the Council of Constanceare no Brussels or Wilton carpets used since common Scotch New Year Verses, by GoopwyN BARUDY---Day and Viglit at the have been manufactured ! To come nearer the point at issue ; Post-office, by GEORGE REYNOLDS (concluded ---The Port's Misa bound Bible can be bought for ten-pence halfpenny, but these sion, by HENRY SETTON ---The Royal Clock of Courtworsluipton, are not the only Bibles in use. It has frequently been remarked translated from the German for Howitt's Journal - 1 French that Milton and De Foc sold their immortal productions for a and Dishes, by SILVELVES... Peep at the Interior of New Eng

Soldier in Siberia, by WILLIAN KENNEDY---Fruits from l'lates mere trifle, while fortunes have been made by trading in their and, by W. Ilincks, F.L.S.---The Milliner---Literary Notices.-works. This is true, but it may further be said with safety, Weekly Record. that if they had been copyright works, and their publication restricted to one party, few fortunes would have been made,

and they would have been comparatively unknown to the pre- Printed for the Proprietor by Willian Lorett, of 16, South • sent time. It may be considered an incontrovertible truth, that no work can be thoroughly developed by one house, how.

Row, New Road, in the Parish of St. Pancras, County of ever complete their business arrangements,

Middlesex, and published by him at 171, (corner of Surroy
Street,) Strand, in the Parish of St. Clement Danes.

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No. 56.-VOL. III.

JANUARY 22, 1848.

OUR NATIONAL DEFENCES.-THE RATS IN THE likely that we should hear something of any preliminary STACK.

preparations for so important a thing as the invasion of

England, a thing not attempted for these ages past, and BY WILLIAM HOWITT. .

which Buonaparte with all his talent, power, almost

universal victory, and with the most burning desire to An old farmer, one John Bull, talking over the hedge conquer us—dared not undertake. It is rather likely of his rick-yard to his neighbour, expressed great alarm that before such an army invaded our coast we should at a rumour which had reached him, through an old sol. And an army somewhere, and a navy too to receive it. dier who lived on his pension in the village, that incen- It is scarcely probable that our men of war would all diaries were meaning to come and burn down his corn. contrive to get out of the way at such a crisis, and like stacks. He declared that he must apply to the magis- ordinary police, not to be able to be found when they were trates to have the yeomanry ready to keep the rogues in wanted. Let us see the French once on the water before awe, and to send him a detachment of police to guard we are seriously alarmed, and before we accuse our his rick-yard.

navy and our army, to whom we pay twenty millions a year, “ Make yourself easy on that account," replied his of doing what they never yet did on any far less emerneighbour over the hedge, himself also a farmer," for gency than the invasion of their native land,—deserting the yeomanry and the police would saddle the parish their posts, and showing the white feather. with a heavy debt, and, to say the truth, the danger to The French once on land! Could such a thing be – your stacks is of another kind. The rats are in them why the poor old soldier at Hyde-park Corner must by hundreds, and if you don't thrash 'em out, it will be have no knowledge of Englishmen if he does not know of little consequence how soon they may be burnt down. that every man in the country would spring up a solThrash out your ricks, neighbour, and then you'll save dier; every gun, pike, pitch-fork and poker would be your corn both from rats and incendiaries."

converted into a weapon ; from behind every hedge and John Bull took the advice, found a legion of rats that out of every window, would pour forth the hail of death had already made dreadful havoc in the heart of his upon the invader. We would not give a pinch of snuff stacks, and conveying his corn to market, heard no for the ten ho ur's lease of any Frenchman's life belongmore of the incendiaries, who were believed to have ing to such an invading army. Let any one recollect existed nowhere but in the old soldier's brain, who was the national furor on the threat of Buonaparte'sinvasion. getting superannuated, and talked in his sleep. The enrolling of volunteers, the spirit that burned and

The war-cry of the last few weeks raised by a certain boiled in every bosom, from Land's-end to John old soldier who lives on his pension at Hyde-park Corner, o'Groat's! But enough! Punch has sufficiently shown has every day reminded us of the village John Bull. up the turnip-lantern scarecrow of invasion, and has Let the John Bull look to it, and do like the honest called out all the defensive force that is necessary,—the farmer, for the danger is the same, and the remedy is Brook-green volunteer. The French are dreaming of the same. The folly of the cry of invasion has been suffi. very different things to an English invasion.-Louis ciently shown by a variety of the ablest journals in the Philippe knows it--the meetings all over the country for country; we need not, therefore, go far into that part Radical Reform tell it him; he has too much at stake to of the question, but the roguery of the cry wants yet risk any such foolish speculation, and should he die, more fully demonstrating. We are now quite satisfied France will find enough to do at home in the unusual of the self-evident truth of the fact that our alarmist is ferment and commotion that will follow as an immediate like the old woman in the nursery song

consequence. “ There was an old woman, God help her!

Besides this, the merchants, manufacturers, and proWho lived in a hovel of dirt,

prietors of railways and other public works in France, She dreamed

that thieves came to rob her and skelp her, would do on such an occasion, as they did on the very And she cried out before she was hurt.

last menace of a breach with England, hurry to the Poor old woman, God help her!

capital with petitions and memorials against so prepos :

terous, wicked, and suicidal a thing as war with Great Every man is quite satisfied that while we have been Britain the certain ruin of them and of millions of accusing the French of designs upon us, they have been their fellow subjects. thinking more of what they shall do with Abd-el-Kader,

What then is the real cause of this war-cry in Enand busying themselves with plans of reform of their gland? The matter is no mystery-it lies plain and own grievances. We have been reckoning without our open to the day-light; no child can be so childish, no host; counting our Gallic chickens before they are fool so foolish as not to observe it. It is simply hatched; begging the French to come and invade us, this. There are at the War-office some 20,000 applicawhether they are inclined for it or not, and poor old tions for commissions that no commissions can be found Wellington—there could be no stronger proof of his for. Luckily for us, the love of peace has been a growsuperannuation, of his being no longer the prudent ing feeling in Europe. We have not sent out our general that he was-has been obligingly informing them soldiers to butcher our continental neighbours and get of all our weak points, and of the best way of getting butchered themselves. The breed of butchers, therefore, to London with the least loss of time and labour. Every body is quite satisfied too, with the plain fact, The old butchers sit idle at home, except such as we

has grown excessively, and they long to be at work. that before the French invade us they must put their send out to butcher the East Indians and Chinese, and army in motion ; that this will not be done without a the sucking butchers are growing numerous.

All over good deal of stir and observation in France--and that the country the aristocracy who used to find a fine vent all this stir and observation is not likely quite to escape for their surplus progeny in the great European slaughthe vigilance of our Government, or our journals. We terhouse, don't know what to do with their children. have such things as a numerous embassage, consuls, All civil offices, commissionerships, and what not, all agents, correspondents of newspapers daily on the alert peaceable professions are full, the church has more for news, and daily writing thence; besides merchants parsons than preachers, more expectants than livings. and proprietors of railway shares, and their employés and therefore, the only chance is to raise the cry of and agents all on the qui vivè about their interests, wolf, and get a militia and other soldiery on foot. In besides hundreds and thousands of English subjects living short, the Rats are in the Stack, and much as they get to in the chief cities of France, who in case of a war devour, cry“ more ! more!" find their numbers rapidly must cut and run. Out of all these sources it is rather increasing, and want to extend their ravages.


There lies the real danger ! that is the real cause of this MILLIONS, and for the past quarter, of nearly A MILLION outcry! We agree with the old Duke so far, that there AND A QUARTER, that we are asked to burden ourselves, is imminent danger, and more that there is need of with at least half a million a year inore for National war; But the danger_is not from without, but from Defences! Why, the poor old Duke must be haunted within--not from the French but the Normans. There with all the apparitions of the armies that he has slain in is need of war, but war of another kind and directed | foriner days, and fancies that they are arising to invade into a different quarter. The enemy is already in tho We shall have to publish the account of another camp-the plunder is going on. The rats are in the Haunted House, that at Hyde Park Corner, and its aged stack—the old Aristoc-Rats who, since the Norman in- and afflicted occupant, vasion, in increasing numbers and ever growing auda Now, does it never occur to you, that there is still ancity, have been tugging at the vitals of John Buli.

other object in this cry of invasion ? If you look at the We are tempted here, like Abernethy, to say to all condition of both England and Ireland, if you see the those credulous patients who can imagine that their dis- imperative necessity of immediate and able measures ease is the fear of invasion—"Read my book”-Read for domestic relief and retrenchment, does it not strike “John Hampden's History of the Aristocracy;"* and you that the alarm is one of those delusions which are leam what it is that ails you. See there the fearful employed to divert your attention from the real evil exposée of the English Aristocracy, which from age to and the demand of a remedy, to an imaginary one? Is age has been extending its places and its power till it not this cry of invasion merely a ruse to get over the has swallowed up your whole constitution, Crown, session and the winter once more with empty talk inChurch, State, Colonies, Offices, and Taxes; has swamped stead of wise, prompt, and statemanlike measures ? your commerce, ruined your manufacturing system, re But let us at length answer to the war-cry!

Let us duced your population to beggary, overwhelmed you have war, but not with the French. Let us thrash out with a debt which is sinking you in national perdition, our stacks, and squander the rats while we have any and raising all other nations on your ruins.

corn left. In other words, let us put a stop by one bold That is what you should look at: that is what you prompt, and universal movement to the system of profhave to fear. With such stagnation in your trade, snch ligate waste and corruption that is going on at home. distress in your manufacturing districts; such bank. Sixteen years of the Reform Bill, which was to have done ruptcy amongst your merchants, and starvation amongst such wonders, which was to have originated such your people, as never were known before, you are sweeping retrenchments, such active measures for trado coolly asked to plunge yourselves once more into war --and what is our condition ? Every year our distress that your vultures may flesh their beaks. There are so deepening, our trade perishing, our work houses full, our many younger sons unprovided for in that class that ledgers loaded with catalogues of bankruptcy; and our

cannot dig, aud who to beg are ashamed,” that your government standing stock-still in the possession of all property and persons are to be still further invaded. the unabated places, pensions and sinecures, which they They ask you to revive that war-spirit that you are denounced as so atrocious when in the hands of others. every day so wisely, so religiously, growing out of,

We want a militia, indeed! It should be a moral to renew all these jealousies with France which have force militia ballotted out of every class, grade, and caused a rain of blood from age to age, and cursed you school of reformers, to march down on this citadel of do. with the heaviest debt and the proudest aristocracy mestic corruption, and throw it open to the light of day, which ever cursed any nation. They ask you to give Englishmen should cure themselves of this dreadfil up your persons and your purses, your businesses, and cacoethes loquendi ; which has got such hold on them. your fire-sides, the society of your wives and children, They have talked long enough of their grievances, they to become once more the mechanical marching machines should come to action--they should shew the same front of despotism--the green geese driven to market by those that they did for the Reform Bill, now for a better who never either reared, lodged, or fed you.

cause,--for a thorough Parliamentary and Government My good fellow countrymen, I think you are grown Reform,--a complete sweeping out of the Augean stable somewhat more rational than that, I think you have of corruption. If that be not soon done, the mass of the something better to do. Do you want a ballotting for people reduced to wretchedness and despair, will be like the militia again ? Do you want to be marched off the ass in the fable. They will, when told of invasion, from your homes, your looms, your spades, or your ask whether the enemy can increase their burdens or dishops, to lounge in barracks and polish belts with pipe- minish their food any more than their present masters, clay, or to have your money taken for substitutes. Now and will be indifferent to whom rules them. Till this is that is precisely what this poor old duke is asking for. done, till Reformers really unito and force on retrenchThis poor old man is either a willing tool or an unhappy ment, and the entire freedom of trade-till parliamentadupe of the aristocracy. He knows as well as we do rians shorten their speeches and lengthen their demands that we already pay Twenty MILLIONS FOR OUR MILITARY -till we thrash out our stacks and squander the rats, we AND NAVAL ESTABLISHMENT, while the whole civil go- shall never be free from fresh demands upon our purses rernment of the country costs but Sıx MILLIONS! If and our patience--nor from danger of real war, TWENTY MILLIONS A YEAR is not enough to defend authoritic leeches and vampires may live. this country, in the name of common sense what will

We are glad to see the Peace Society taking the field be? If we pay more than three times the amount of against this artful and interested cry of invasion--wo all our civil Government for soldiers and sailors, and give their address in the Record. But let every real they are not enough to defend us, it is high time that we Reformer take the field too. Let there be meetings in adopted Cobden's notion, and reduced our establish- ) every town and village to remonstrate against any inments and expenses altogether, and trusted to God, and crease of our military expenditure, and demand the fulthe common interests of mankind.

filment of the pledges of the Whigs for retrenchment in But let it be remembered that it is in the midst of un- every department of the state. To that we must come, exampled distress, scarcity of money, and with a revenue and ihe sooner the better. The truth can be no longer showing a deficiency for the past year of upwards of Two concealed, that there is no remedy for the distress and

ruin that every year sink the nation deeper and deeper, • A Popular History of the English Aristocracy. By John taxation, representation, and commercial code. We

but a prompt, sweeping, and unflinching reform in our Hampden, jun. Published by Effingham Wilson, Royal Ex-must take off the restrictions from our trade, and put change.

that our

them upon our rulers. Let those who will not work, be He had learned to swim at school, and quickly rose to they of what class they may, be refused relief either the surface. The ship, however, was by this time befrom the parish or the nation. Let all blood-thirstyness yond the reach of his voice, which was lost amidst the nurtured in idleness be cured by the reduction to low sound of the winds. diet, and the offer of a spade and mattock to win

Oh, what wild anguish it was for poor Percy Johnhonest bread with. The most dangerous enemies are stone to see the ship sail away into the darkness, deaf to notoriously those of a man's own house. All we want all his cries; Here we must leave this unfortunate youth is union and resistance to them. Till then we are every the waves for his life, yet not knowing in yhat direc

who would “

go to sea ;” and while he is struggling in day and every hour suffering from invasion-invasion of our rights, of our property, of our profits, and our per- tion to make his efforts, we must say a few words about sons; and the real object of a militia, which can be of one of the islands of the South Atlantic Ocean, called no use against the French, may, in the moment that we

South Orkneys. may be roused to seek redress from our own misrulers, to be uninhabited. But that is a mistake. It is in

This island, like many others of its class, is considered be only discovered too well.

habited by a large colony of Penguins, as fine a race of bird-people as any in the world. They are wonderfully

active, intelligent, and aecomplished. Their abilities KING PENGUIN,

are displayed, not only in the air and the water, but upon the earth. They fly well; they swim and dive to

admiration; and they always walk bolt upright. Their A LEGEND OF THE SOUTH SEA ISLES.

personal appearance, in the way of feather fashion, is By R. H. HORNE.

most cleanly and peculiar. They invariably wear very

long and very white pinafores, tied across the breast CHAPTER I.

with black strings; and the sleeves of their coats-com

monly called wings—are also black. Upon this island PERCY JOHNSTONE was the only son of an English they lead an industrious and satisfactory life, passing merchant, and had just left school full of all manner of their time chiefly in fishing, or else in walking about the desire to see the world and make his fortune. His fa- rocks, and staring at things in general. They dwell in ther was rich; but Percy had a great notion that he peace and excellent social arrangements under the mild should like to make his own way in life, and show his sway of a sagacious and public-spirited King. friends what he would have done if his father had been a poor man.

His father commended this feeling of independent action and industry in his son; he nevertheless wished

CHAPTER II. that Percy would at once go to work in his countinghouse under his own eye. But Percy had read many

One morning at day-break, as King Penguin was leaddelightful books of voyages and traveis--those of Bruce ing his bird-people over the rocks, by way of a march and Humboldt, Captain Cook, and Belzoni, and Gulli- before breakfast-perhaps also with some thoughts of ver, and Sinbad ;-and he had also heard many extra- finding a breakfast—he descried an object at a distance

over the sea. ordinary stories related by captains of merchant-ships

Weequim squawk squee!cried all the who sometimes dined at his father's house. He longed youngest and least experienced Penguins, which in Pento go to sea. His pen was assiduous in the counting- guin-language signifies, "What wonderful, odd thing do house, while his thoughts were wandering far away.

we behold!”

It is a floating nest,” replied the King, Perceiving this, his father, consented that he should with that calmness which characterizes great experience make one voyage, in order to ascertain if it was a real and wisdom, “and what you imagine to be many wish and aptitude for a nautical life, or only a romantic wings flying over each other, are in truth impostor

These nests I have fancy. That you may have a true experience,” said wings fastened upon tall bare trees. his father, “I cannot agree to your going merely as a

often seen before upon the water ; they are called ships,

On receivpassenger: you must be instructed on board in all the aud belong to a race of birds called men.duties of a sailor.” Percy consented with alacrity, ing this piece of information, all the young penguins and in a few weeks he went to sea in one of his father's flapped their little black wings, and cried out “ Psher vessels, bound for Monte Video and Rio de Janeiro.

squee—is that all !” Many are born who have a passion for a sea-life until

“But what do I behold!” exclaimed King Penguin, they try it. Some like it after trial; but they are very and is flapping upon the waves yonder! Surely it must

one of the bird-men has surely fallen out of the nest, few indeed. sea, or else take to it so very young, that you have be so—the floating nest has swiftly sailed away, perhaps scarcely time to know what a shore life is. Percy was unconscious of its loss. Or have they sent him to do seventeen years of age before he had been three weeks us some mischief with a pop bang? I have heard of such at sea; he found that it did not suit him at all; and at

things. the end of six weeks. he made up his mind that he would

Why comes he hither?” cried all the young pennever be a sailor.

guins. After Percy had recovered from sea-sickness, and

“Does he bring a pop-bang under his wing, I woncould endure a gale of wind without many qualmy sen

said all the elder Penguins. sations, he still found the greatest difficulty in keeping

I do not think so," said the King. awake during the night-watch, especially the midwatch.

“ Is he good to eat ?" cried all the young penguins, Week after week passed, and it was just the same. He

flapping their little black wings. continually crept under the lee of one of the deck-boats

“ Silence!” exclaimed the King. Whereupon all the to sleep. as he could not hold his head up from fatigue young penguins looked down at their toes, or hid their and drowsiness. This being soon found out, he was

long noses in their white breast feathers. obliged to find another place. Again and again his re

Oi course, every one who reads this, guesses that it treats were discovered, till one night when the vessel must be poor Percy Johnstone, concerning whom King was running fast before the wind, he got out into one tions. It was indeed the unfortunate youth, who once

Penguin and his people are making all these speculaof the quarter boats, which are slung at a ship’s sides, felt quite a passion for a sea-life-and who had had in doing which he missed his hold, and fell overboard




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