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ever young she is, she has now become a chaperon, and may THE WEEKLY RECORD.

serve as an escort for ladies much older than herself. If she were still a woman, this would be rather odd; but having become a sort of undefined animal, she may do anything, and

what she wants is merely a particular sort of dress, like the GOVERNESSES.

policemen, that every body, who meets her, may directly know Sir,

that he sees a governess, and not be deceived by her appearance, You have been good enough to advocate the cause mistake her for a woman, and address her asma lady walking of governesses, and in your last number I see held forth, that by herself. they themselves might greatly improve their condition, by ta The number of young compatriots of mine, who, pale and king a higher view of their duties. Allow me, sir, to refute dejected, sick in mind and body,---might sit as so many originals this assertion; I speak from experience, and that tells more to the much admired picture of “A Governess," seen in the than any theory. I give you the inferences drawn from facts, exhibition two years ago,-is not small, sir, and it is most as they come almost daily under my notice, and form a past, painful to watch the effect of the slow poison administered which will remain a dark spot in my memory, from years that daily to them. They feel they cannot raise themselves in a tell ages in one's life. Yet, on my part, no self-esteem was profession, that will never honour them, however much they wanting, and I had at the same time the highest notions about may honour it, - and this conviction takes away the stieducation, that any school or system can set up; I believed it a mulant, necessary to every right-minded man or noble employment, that it might grace any person, who under- upon God's earth, whatever their employment may be. stood the sacredness of its duties, till I heard people say, when Novels and "Little Rebecca" have hitherto not improved the seeing some one unknown to them—the stranger was not a condition of this unhappy class of beings; if facts would tell lady, but a governess. I started at this piece of information, better, I should be most happy to furnish them. and looked bewildered round, till I convinced myself of the full

I am, Sir, your's, truth of that remark. A governess is not a lady ;-for the

A GERMAN GOVERNESS IN LONDOX, common laws of society, considered any where and every where

ON THE PERNICIOUS EFFECTS OF ABBATOIRS

IN as a matter of course, are done away with, whenever she shows

TOWNS. her face. But what then is she? I could not clearly see this. There is no rank, no grade, nor station, which I could discover, We are rejoiced to find that that powerful engine-public that such a well-born, well-bred, well-educated animal might be opinion-is at length brought to bear upon the disgraceful old long toand no class of society certainly will claim her as its remnant of our barbaric ancestors-Smithfield-with all its own; I therefore came to the conclusion, she must be a species horrors. Influential names are appended to a prospectus for of her own,-a fine nonentity,-created by the Almighty for the abolition of Smithfield as a cattle market; and for the the exact purpose of teaching children, of eating, sleeping, and erection of Abbatoirs in the suburbs of London.

So far good, being extremely happy, and cheerful--a quality always to be for all circumstances connected with cleanliness in our city, are expected as a matter of course.

of vital importance ; for thus not only would the slaughter of Mrs. Jameson, like me, speaking on this subject from experi- animals be effected at a distance from its inhabitants, but as a ence, asserts in her essays on governesses :-that she never met consequence, their reeking hides would no longer clog the footwith one, who, after the lapse of two years, had not lost her ways, in Leadenhall and other markets. Still the plan, if health and spirits. She says this of her countrywomen, who adopted, would be but temporary, Smithfield itself was selected are well able to endure more, as being in their native atmos- as the most appropriate spot, for the purpose to which it has phere in the reach of some friends or relations, but I speak of so long been applied; it was once a spacious field, outside the foreigners, and in particular of Germans from the shores of the walls ; the wants and cupidity of man have erected buildings Rhine and the Elbe, where one is rarely to be found, who does not which closely encompass this space, and have brought it into the aspire to mental cultivation, where every babe is taught to rate heart of London. mind above matter,-and these little Germans could rarely af. Thus with cemeteries : it has been wisely enacted that they ford a smile, after having resided six months in a schoolroom. shall be situated in the precincts of large towns; but most inWhen stating this as a fact, I speak of the rule, and not of the efficient have been the government precautions hitherto; an act exception, which I can name in this case as well as in any other. should be passed, to prohibit the erection of habitations, within I speak moreover of the young, the intelligent, of those, whose a certain distance of the cemetery; if a quarter of a mile, for birth and education did not intend them to find in foreign lands example, were the required space; that space might, with the the means for their subsistence.--I speak of refined and highly best results, be devoted to agriculture; and thus pure air cultivated minds.

would be imbibed by the inhabitants. “What do they want?”-is the question frequently asked, In consequence of the neglect of this necessary law, popuwhen I have told a long “ Jeremiad” of one or the other of lous neighbourhoods spring up almost simultaneously with the these poor victims. It is perfectly true, that they have all the formation of, and abutting on the cemetery. Nor can we doubt best things, that “vulgar minds struggle for”--they have that if the projected markets and abbatoirs in the suburbs, money, clothes, and comfort, and food; and what can they want should be commenced, they also will be surrounded by dwel. more!

Still there is scarcely under God's sun a being existing, lings for the convenience of persons employed in the operaaltogether so degraded, that it would do without this trifle, tions; and in no great length of time, every monster slaughter which must outweigh all the substantial advantages a governess house, would become a similar nuisance to that of Smithfield enjoys,—this is the respect for her employment.

and its accessory-Newgate Market. Till no7 we knew only one class of men despised on account In the course of the masterly evidence given before a comof their work,--and this man was the executioner ;-his pro- mittee of the House of Commons, by Mr. Smith of Deanston, fession was frequently not a matter of choice, but descended relative to “ Railways, and their effects on agriculture,” that from father to son, as a sort of curse, and the family-tie becom- gentleman, with his usual acumen, introduced the subject of ing thereby stronger, might somewhat heal the wound which the Abbatoirs; and being interrogated respecting “the advantage contempt of the world inflicted on the wretched individual. of transporting the carcases of animals, as compared with the old ‘But a foreign governess in England has not this solace. On the system,” the reply was,—“ Without á railroad it is impossible contrary, she is alone in her exile, with her grief and her sor to transport fat cattle, any greater distance than from 50 to 70 row all alone, for she will not even mention to her absent friends miles, without great deterioration : but railroads will afford the what she suffers.

means of transporting cattle 300 or 400 miles, with great ad. Every servant hates the very name of a governess, and serves vantage ; and in carcases they may be transported 700 miles ; her unwillingly; the lady of the house is so condescendingly and in that way, may be brought from the most distant parts to civil, that her manner would scarcely suit a queen on the con- populous districts, at a very small additional expense, which, tinent, and the children must not love a foreigner too much. with the expense of transporting either beef or mutton in the The eldest son may fix her through his glass, without bowing, carcase, does not amount to one-third of a penny for 500 miles ; and any gentleman walking in at luncheon does look at her, so that you may have meat nearly as cheap in London, as you as if she were a piece of furniture, and if he did otherwise, if have it at Inverness." he showed her the civility due to any other lady, he would be Mr. Smith continued his luminous evidence; but for our im. laughed at—and an Englishman will rather be rude than ex-mediate purpose, the foregoing will suffice. We wish to suggest pose himself to ridicule.

that immense advantages would accrue to both London and the As to society, the governess must find that for herself, How country, if an absolute prohibition were to be given against the

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introduction of live cattle, sleep, pigs, and poultry; or, at all ing hand may reach them, more forward and fortunate in the events, that they should be placed under restrictions, hereafter strife than themselves. Nor is this to be wondered at, bread to be considered. Our reasons are numerous namely, in the is not now earned by the “ sweat of the brow;” the drops are first place, the contemplated buildings for the purposes of wrung from the very heart till its well springs are dry, and all slaughtering the animals, and disposing of the offal, could be high and holy hopes forgotten. It appears to me that at preerected at one-fourth of the expense proposed, for the suburban sent a large portion of the community require to be instructed abbatoirs. In the second place, no rural neighbourhood what in the advantages to be gained from an enlightened and just Goever need be desecrated by the "sounds and sights unholy,” vernment, guarded by responsibility from corrupt desecration which must inevitably attend the contention of drovers, with like the present. And a still larger portion require to be in. the victims of their brutality, when both are collected in large formed of the right meaning and use of Government. They see numbers. Thirdly, the expense of re-conveying into the coun. something like the car of Juggernaut set in motion by the craft try those portions of the beasts, which, in large towns, consti- of those who profit by it, and supported by extortions and oblatute a nuisance; but are invaluable to the agriculturist. tions from slaves and fools, whom in grateful return it crushes Fourthly-That an extensive abbatoir cannot be conducted with under its wheels into the dust, and they fancy if they could only that attention to cleanliness, which one on a small scale could overturn and get quit of this machine, they might without farand would be, now that Commissioners are to be appointed for ther trouble swing up to heaven in a basket. Could they effect the surveillance of rural districts. By the facility of convey- the overturn they would find out their mistake; whereas, a litance afforded by railways, every small farmer, butcher, poul- tle pains and patience would convert the car into a serviceable terer, and pig-killer, who may prefer to avoid the middle man, waggon to carry us all over the rough roads of this world as and trade on his own account, could supply bis salesman in smoothly and comfortably as may be. It almost scems drivel London with prime joints, reserving the inferior parts (all of in a world of change to predict changes. But that compelled which, under the present, as well as the projected, system of by human wretchedness will be very unlike the gradual and beestablishing suburban slaughtering houses, must be sent to the neficial changes that take place in the moral and physical world, capital); so that cheap meat in the country, such as would be when neither warped nor checked. However, it will be our purchased by the poor and which is now too scarce-they own faults if we suffer; for with due preparation we might en. could then obtain in sufficient quantities. Fifthly—The village ter into a new and better state of things, noiselessly and barn. butcher has continual opportunities to adapt the refuse of his lessly, and gently as into a cloud. stock to the purposes of manure, if he be an occupier of land ;

I remain, respected Editors, and if he be not, may have instant communication with the

Your obliged and faithful servant, farmers in his neighbourhood, to whose fields or mixens the

J. B. offal could be conveyed before it became offensive; and sixthly

ARISTOCRACY AND THE MIDDLE CLASSES. a shamble, whether in the metropolis, or in mere hamlets, be

Scotland, May 4th, 1848. ing the nucleus round which various trades collect, would, if Sir, confined to the latter localities, tend to draw away from the

You are mistaken if you think that the middle overwhelming, still increasing, magnitude of London, those classes dont feel the baleful influence of the aristocracy, as much trades wbich depend on the slaughterer : thus tanners, hide as the people—they are only “biding their time." Vuny of factors, glue makers, bone digesters, tripe manufacturers, the middle classes were deceived at the time of the second parchment-makers, even cats?-meat vendors, with their filthy French Revolution. Hack writers were employed to frighten piles of garbage, must not be omitted—these, and many other them by articles “on Parliamentary Reform and the French noisome avocations (which swell the objectionable bulk of foul Revolution,” (vide Blackwood's Magazine for 1831-2,) the fal. matter, now in constant fermentation, in the midst of our sity of which now appears. Those of them who supported the dense population,) would of necessity be drained off innocuously aristocracy at that crisis are now treated with contempt, and into the country; where, from the smallness of these nuisances, loathe the name of “Conservative" in consequence. and their distance from one another, no possible injury could In the towns they are taxed for the support of the poor exaccrue to the health of the community.

patriated wretches who are forced upon them in thousands by We are quite aware that we should meet with many objections ihe "clearings" of the Highland Lairds; why ratlier should not to these sanitary suggestions : every man whose interest would these deer-stalking magnificoes be compelled to receive the imbe jeopardised, will be violent in his deprecation of them; but portation of an "Army of Labour" upon their broad acres, at these persons are the dust in the balance; they constitute that present reserved for a few wild muir-fowl? What right hare small number which must suffer, when any public benefit is to they to oppose the Laws of Nature, and prevent the Earth being be achieved. It unfortunately is always thus in all those great “ replenished and subdued" by the labour of man. let them undertakings which cause innovations; and we ought not to

“Be wise in time, 'tis madness to defer." flinch from the performance of a duty which world! ensure the

We are, Sir, health and well-being of the million, because we may put to

Tour obedient servants, temporary inconvenience a few individuals, and cause them the

TWO OF THE MIDDLE CLASSEX. loss of a few pounds.

ARRIVAL OF THE ICARIANS IN TEXAS ; AND DEPARIn all sincerity of purpose, the foregoing suggestions are of

TURE OF A SECOND DETACHMENT. fered for consideration in quarters where benefit may arise from

M. Cabet announces the receipt of a letter from the first dediscussion of their validity; and although the advantages con- tachment of the Icarians, the particulars of which be proposes templated may never be realized to their full extent, a modifica- to give in the next Populaire. It is dated the 23rd of April, fronu tion will surely be effected, and our end be so far attained.

Shevreport, on the Red River. From fifteen to twenty young • It should be remembered that our remarks are borne out most Icarians were also to embark, on the 30th of May, from Havre, satisfactorily, not only by Mr. Smith's evidence, quoted above, as a second detachment, full of energy, courage, and devotion. which states that “carcases niay be conveyed 700 miles without The Revolution has naturally interfered extremely with the ori. deterioration ;” but also by late complaints of extensive and se- ginal plans of embarkation, but it is expected that these will be rious injury done to living animals during their tranșit by rail.

gradually resumed. We shall give the details of the letter reways. If, then, we find such cogent reasons advanced against ferred to if possible in our next number. the present plans of transporting live animals to the London

CONTENTS. market, and would prevent the cruelties and atrocities of metro. politan slaughter-houses, what other plan remains than that

Poets of the People. No. V. Victor Hugo. By Dr. SMILESwhich we have suggested?

Epitaph. By EBENEZER ELLIOTT-Saw Up and Saw Down. A

Tale-A Spring Song. By EDWARD Youn-Memoirs of Dr. PRESENT STATE OF SOCIETY.

Channing. By PARKE GODWIN—Sonnet. By CALDER CAMPBELL Edinburgh, May 4th, 1848.

-The Wife of Audubon-LITERARY NOTICE: Married Life of Madam and Sir,

an Artist; Albert Durer. Translated from the German by Mrs. Wishing erery blessing on your efforts in J. B. STODART RECORD: Governesses-Pernicious Effects of Abthe cause of humanity and equity, I venture a few remarks. In batoirs in Towns-Present State of Society--Aristocraey and the the present state of society the struggle for existence is so fear- Middle Classes. ful, that all who have any hope of reaching it are eager to clutch a mouthful out of the fleshpot of that potent noun of multitude PRINTED for the proprietor by WILLIAM LOVETT, of 16, South called Government. While they see others comfortably feathering Row, New Road, in the Parish of St. Pancras, County of their nests at the public cost, they willingly wink at wrong in Middlesex, and published by him at 291, Strand, in the the hope that their own turn may come, or at least some help Parish of St. Clement Danes.

PRICE 18. STAMPED, 24

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PESTALOZZI IN HIS SCHOOL.

AUSTRALIAN LIFE. PROSPECTS FOR Pestalozzi may be termed the first founder of the

EMIGRANTS. Ragged Schools. At the age of twenty-two, when he had purchased a little estate at Neuhoff, in Switzerland, MR. WILKINSON bas added one more to the valuable and determined to lead a simple country life, he became and attractive works on our great Australian empire, aware of the wretchedness and ignorance of the pea- which open up so cheering a prospect for the "cribbed, santry. It was then that he determined to devote his cabined, and confined population of this suffering counlife to the benefit of the poor, and assisted by his wife, try."'* We lately introduced Mr. Westgarth's useful whom he married the year after he settled at Neuhoff, work on Port Phillip; Mr. Wilkinson's volume is on the he began to collect poor children, and even beggar chil- sister colony of South Australia, or Port Adelaide. The dren and outcasts, into his house, and instruct them. great distinctive feature of Adelaide is its extraordinary His efforts were treated by his neighbours and the world mineral wealth, which is as amusing in description as as all such efforts are. They were ridiculed and pro- any Arabian Tale. Though the discovery of this metal. nounced to be actual folly and insanity. Every well in- lic affluence was made only three or four years ago, the formed reader knows through what opposition, misfor- mass of ore raised and exported to this country is enos. tune, and trouble, arising from the exhaustion of his own mous. The Burra Burra Mining Company only purmeans, the revolutionary disturbances of the times, and chased this tract in 1845. They gave £10,000 for as the wranglings of those that even came forward to assist many acres of land ; and, beginning with only £2,000 in his plans for elevating the people, Pestalozzi passed as a working capital, in the space of three weeks they his life. His plans, however, succeeded; and have raised two thousand tons of what was said to be a pure spread over all the civilized world; they have been intro- red oxide of copper. They have now built a village, duced, more or less, into all popular systems of tuition, containing, in October 1846, four hundred inhabitants, and to him the education of the people owes more than to and have raised in one year no less than 7,200 tons of any man who erer lived. He was born on the 12th of copper ore, worth, on an average, at least £25 per ton, January, 1746, at Zurish; and on the 12th of January, equal in value to £180,000, at a cost, including all ex. 1846, the centenary of his birth was celebrated all over penses of preliminary charges, and also buildings and Germany and Switzerland with great festivity, and many improvements of £16,624. But this is only one porPeoples' Schools were founded in honour of his memory. tion of the unexampled profusion of metallic wealth So it is ; the benefactors of mankind go through the which not only fills the ground for scores of miles in world with sorrow and misrepresentation-ruin dogs that country, and probably to an exhaustless degree, them, and the worldly-wise shake their heads at them but which lies scattered over its surface in nearly pare but the seed they sow grows in spite of frost or drought, lumps of copper, silver, lead, and gold. and the after-ages reap the harvest which was watered The first mine was discovered within sight of the with their tears. Be strong, hearts of humanity! and town, on a broad, bold range that rises from the plain the blessing which heaven sends, though it seem to come on which Adelaide is built. The road from Mount late, shall last long, and it shall continue to walk the Barker, and the different parts to the east of Adelaide, earth so long as you walk the heavens, and send up to passed over this range; and, as the bill was steep, large you perpetual proofs in glorious and regenerated souls, drags were placed behind the drays, to enable the bulthat your painful pilgrimage through Time, was a new locks to hold back, and steadily descend the hill. One highway to Eternity.

of these drags, striking against a stone in the road, broke off some shining substance, which was found to be good lead ore; and when this was seen, every person

was in a state of excitement, until the place was opened, LINES WRITTEN ON THE SHORES OF THE and the lode of ore discovered. After this event, lead FRITH OF CLYDE.

was found in other places along the range, and soon in

places in all directions; and exaggerated accounts VAST world of waters! whose continuous flow

were promulgated, the only wonder being, that all this Pervades the sunny south, where monsoons sweep ; had never been seen hefore. Copper and lead were Or dares the rugged north, where breezes blow

found quite conspicuous in land of all descriptions; one O’er ice-bound regions, girdling in the deep :

man found them in his field, another dug pieces up in Thy giant waves in wrath tumultuous leap,

his garden; they were discovered in the dry waterOr lave in sportive mood the pebbled shore,

courses, and clinging to the roots of trees ; and each Where wandering we sublime emotions reap Where on rapt fancy's wing we would explore

passer-by, in town or out of town, had his pocket Thy dark, thy hidden depths, that shun the sage's lore. but mines, minerals, and mineral lands, special eur

weighed down with specimens. Nothing was heard of Emblem of dark eternity! the storms

veys, and grand mining companies. That riot on thy breat will pass away;

All this turned out well; and fortunate it was that The hills exulting in their granite forms

it did so; for if no mines of value bad been opened, the Before Time's touch will crumble and decay,

excitement had so altered the channel of labour and Their atoms mingling with thy wild waves play;

steady industry, that the consequences would have been And in thy majesty and might, proud sea,

bad. In reality, then, the mines are not only plentiful The rock-girt isles will own thy surges' sway,

and abundant, but the ores are extremely rich, perhaps As o'er their heads elate thy waters free

exceeding in value any before discovered elsewhere. Resistless dance in foam to wild winds' minstrelay. New comers are particularly struck with the great show Thou mighty mirror of the Eternal Power,

of wealth ; but it has developed itself so gradually to Who holds as in a chain the orbs that fly

the colonists, that they are becoming indifferent to it, Thro' heaven's immensity, or paints the flower

and think little of new mineral discoveries, having That courts the gaze of the lone wanderer's eye,

made up their minds by anticipation to all such, and With what delight, when eve has dimmed yon sky, merely say, “Ah! no doubt, it is everywhere.” The I seek thy sounding shores, where the rapt soul,

rage for carrying about specimens has, moreover, subBorne on the breath of Nature's harmony, Bounds from the earth o'er passions wild control

* South Australia ; its Advantages and its Resources. To bask where cloudless years through endless ages roll. Being a Description of that Colony, and a Manual of Informa

tion for Emigrants. By George Blakiston Wilkinson, LonPaisley, April 1848. John Mitchell. don : John Murray.

sided, and only chimney-pieces are now burdened with ampled miseries, and the deadly apathy of the people them.

is yielding passively to this ruin of a great and once The misery and poverty of the colonists was at its spirited nation, Providence has prepared so splendid a highest pitch in the year 1843, in which year only 598 home for those who are wise in time to flee to, and acres of land were sold by Government; and this at an there laid, through the means of emigration, the founaverage of £1:0: 61; whereas, in the former year. dations of a most noble empre. We are glad to see the amount sold was 17,081 acres; and in 1844, 3428 that the spirit of this emigration is every day growing, acres ; since that time, the amount of land sold has and we trust a comprehensive system will be organized been very large. Special surveys of 20,000 acres each for distributing our industrious but unemployed, and have been purchased, besides a large quantity of eighty- when employed, ill-paid population, over the wide fields acre sections. The price of land sold by the Govern- of this new paradise. Mr. Wilkinson gives some grament has been considerable, as much as £88: 158. per phic pictures of the life which is to be encountered in acre, having, in one instance, been paid for eighty Australia, on first settling, and one or two of these we acres ; and in many cases the land had realized from will present to our readers. £40 to £50 per acre.

In order that some idea may be formed of the cattleA gentleman who arrived in Adelaide, from Swan owner's life at his station, let me imagine the reader to River, to inspect the newly discovered minerals and be the master, and in bis bed, in a hut like the genetheir locality, says, “ The whole colony is a mass of rality in the Australian Bush; and, further, suppose that mineral wealth-copper, lead, zinc, and silver are about his usual time (daylight) he awakes and opens his known, and there is little doubt that quicksilver, gold, eyes. His bed-room shall be formed of slabs of wood, and precious stones abound. Quicksilver has been and fitted into a groove at top and bottom; the top is found in small quantities; the opal and garnet are the wall-plate, the bottom the sleeper or foundation ; found, and there is every reason to infer the presence these slabs put close together make the walls all round, of gold. Copper and lead are the only mines worked except in one place where there is a window, and in at present. I have examined the two chief mines another where there is a door. The window is not worked. The Kapunda, belonging to Messrs. Bagot often glazed, but more generally covered with calico; and Dutton, has shipped this season 1,200 tons of ore, or perhaps it is only a kind of trap-door, that lifts up producing in England £25 per ton, and landed in Eng- to give light when needed, which is but seldom, for the land at a cost of not exceeding £19. per ton. The sun shines through the crevices of the but with suffiBurra Burra mine is the wonder of the world ; it ex- cient force to make formal apertures unnecessary; ceeds the celebrated Pargo mines in the ratio of a which crevices also keep the hut cool in summer, and million to one. The ore is 75 per cent. of metal, a pure when winter comes, are daubed up with clay if requioxide, requiring no flux to smelt it; a common blackr site. After washing and dressing, you become anxious smith's forge producing sufficient beat to run the metal. to see the progress the hut-keeper has made in his work; The lode is seventeen feet wide, of vast extent, and and, opening the door, you find yourself simultaneously is quarried out like stone, in immense masses. Ten in your parlour, drawing-room, and kitchen. This is weeks' working have sufficed to produce £1,700 furnished with table, chairs, or stools, the latter rough value of ore.

It is impossible to exaggerate when but strong; and with slabs or boards as shelves, on speaking of the minerals of this country. This was which are ranged your stock of plates and crockery, within a few months after the purchase of the mine, looking meagre and scarce enough, but supplied by an and before the immense value of the surrounding land extra number of tin pots and plates, which remind you was known. Since that time copper has been found of the constant breakages by your male attendant, on all sides, and the more the ground is explored, the against which you are now provided by these more dugreater is the result. Within the last eighteen months rable articles. One more shelf is seen containing a gold has been found in large quantities for that metal, number of hound books, and perhaps a late English paand worked; but I am not aware with what success per or two (about five months old; for the huts genelately. The gold is worked by the Victoria Mining rally have some shadow of a library, which strangely Company:

contrasts with the rough woodwork, the naked thatched In addition to these valuable minerals, iron exists in roof, and the tempered clay or lime floor. The gentlelarge quantities, more or less pure, in different parts of men in the bush are great readers, and think little of the colony; but in almost all the hills or ranges to the riding twenty or thirty miles to borrow an amusing or south of Adelaide it is observed protruding from the instructive work. This cannot be wondered at when we land. In the Yankalilla district, it might be collected consider the monotonous life they would lead without on the surface, and so pure, that the fracture is just the this pastime, and the little interest one can take in the same as that of cast iron; and in handling it, no sen- conversation of a companion or man with whom one sible difference is felt between the weight of the two. has been living perhaps for years, and whose every tale, That the South Australian iron will come into exten- and even thought, have long since been exhausted. In sive use, I entertain no doubt; the ore is of the same such a place and situation, who can express the satisdescription as the well known Sweedish iron.

faction, the intense pleasure, of finding a book containOf course these magnificent discoveries have drawn ing new and interesting information, or the avidity with and will continue to draw, great numbers of mining which it is devoured, the fortunate reader sitting into speculators thither, and give, by the formation of the hours of the night, and not allowing meals to invarious companies, a new field for most profitable interrupt him long, until the last page is finished, when vestment of British capital. There yet wants a dis- the craving is to gain intelligence of the whereabouts of covery of coal, to complete the full value of the mi-other such precious treasures. neral wealth to the colonists, but whether found or After seeing that the hut-keeper has commenced not the value to this country is great, because the ore clearing the hut, and preparing breakfast, you go out at comes to it to be smelted. "For all who have a pen the door, and are greeted by the sunrise, which should chant for mining, this grand discovery in so tíne a be the Bushman's signal to commence his daily work. country and climate, belonging to our own empire, About fifty or a hundred yards from the hut are your opens for us a very attractive variety in emigrant life stock-yard, men's huts, dairy, pigsties, and other buildFor the rest, Adelaide resembles in its climate, fruits, ings; and around these you see the milch cows standing and other productions, Sidney and Port Phillip. It ready to be driven to the bails, while their calves are gives the same ample field for a patriarchal life, amid kept in a separate pen or fold, dry under foot, with a flocks and herds, and well is it that, while aristocratic bedding of straw, and secure from their enemies, the misgovernment is fast sinking this kingdom in unex-wild dogs. The men are all up, and preparing to milk,

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