THE WEEKLY RECORD. with all their consequences. Let them have meaning, not only

in your political position, but also in your general relations

as freemen, equals, and brothers. For we pray not only for FREDERICK DOUGLASS's NEWSPAPER.

your success, but we work also for our own. The welfare of We regret to see by the North Star, Frederick Douglass's both countries is alike concerned in the extinction of pauperism, newspaper, that it is struggling with difficulties. If merit

which is the great cause of immorality, of crime, and of misery, could surmount difficulties this paper ought; for we have rarely and which is not only a sword hanging over the banquet tables seen one conducted with more ability. When we recollect that

of the rich, but also a pitfall at the feet of every commercialist, it is edited by a man of colour for the enfranchisement of his

whose one step may be unfortunate. How is this to be remedied? sable brethren, we feel that every effort should be made by the By practical effect being given to those glorious words which are friends of Negro freedom to support it. We hear that a bázaar now on the lips of every one. The organization of labour! pro. is already proposed by the ladies, which is very warmly se

nounced by the patriots of France, it is your work to render them conded both in Scotland and in Ireland. We wish it most ear. effective. By so doing only, you will complete and consolidate nestly every success.

the glorious revolution which you have commenced. By so doWILLIAM AINGER,

ing you will cause among the masses of every country the enthu. Late Secretary of the Co-operative League, whom many of our siastic cry of-Long live the Republic !" friends will remember for his urbanity and kindly feeling, left

Signed on behalf of the League, for New York, in the “Margaret Evans," on Sunday, May 14th,

George VASEY, Chairman, on a mission of Human Brotherhood. He intends to go direct

Henry FRY, Secretary. to the Excelsior Community, Cincinnatti, with the view to the ar. ELIHU BURRITT AT PLYMOUTH. THE LEAGUE OF VXIrangement of some plan that will enable the people of England

VERSAL BROTHERHOOD. to emigrate at once to locations prepared to receive them, under

The progressists of Plymouth have at last had the pleasure of such rules and regulations, as shall initiate them into the com- hearing the sublime doctrine of Peace, advocated by that elomunist life. It is his intention to visit most of the American quent apostle Elihu Burritt. He has been for some time in Pa. Communities, and he will probably return to England, in about ris making arrangements for holding a Peace Convention there, twelve months hence.

which should form and lay before the Governments plans for ORGANIZATION OF LABOUR LEAGUE.

the decision of disputes by a supreme court, composed of repreA Congress of the friends of communism and co-operation, sentatives sent by every nation in a number proportionate to its some of them deputed from distant parts of the country, held population. He has remained a week here, though, from bis its sitting at Farringdon Hall during the first week in May. bad state of health, he has addressed but three meetings, enjoyExpositions were given of the views of Charles lourier, M. ing a little of that relaxation which he appears to need so much. Cabet, the Redemption Society, Communist Church Cu-operative At the first and most important meeting, on April 24th, he was League, etc.

welcomed with much enthusiasm, and it was resolved that a The Congress passed a resolution acknowle:lging “the jus- branch of the League should be formed here, and that this town tice of the demand made by a large proportion of the British should be the centre of the district, embracing Devon and Corn. population, for the extension of the suffrage,” and declared wall. Mr. Burritt in his specch showed very beautifully the ad. “its sympathy with the great European movement for Electo- vantages the organized branches of the League would present, ral Reform, in connection with industrial organization."

in the agitation for any reform. In alluding to the internaA new association was formed, entitled, the “Organization tional friendly addresses, he said they had produced feelings of Labour League." Its object is to create a natisnal public which would outlive the present generation. He stated also, opinion in favour of associative or co-operative arrangements, that the League had now about 15,000 members in England, in which the interests of the people shall be made to harmo. and as many in America, and that about 200 little branches had nize, and the condition of the suffering masses elevated from already sprung up in this kingdom. In showing the ruinous ignorance, poverty, and crime, to one of intelligence, virtue, results of the gigantic war debts under which so many nations and happiness; and that with the view of impressing the struggle, he made some astounding revelations respecting the legislature, with the necessity of an alteration in the industrial sums paid by the working classes of Christendom in the last economy of the country, and in order to be prepared for any thirty-two years of boasted peace. The sum would, at 5 per cent., political change that may arise, one essential feature of the yield an annual income of £384,000,000 sterling. This emmovement is, to call upon government on all suitable occasions ployed in the way of education would pay 3,810,000 teachers a to consider the question of the “ Organization of Labour, and yearly salary of £100 each. Allowing each 60 pupils, they could the duty incumbent on it to provide measures for the reproduc- impart instruction to 230,000,000 children, or to the whole potive employment of the people."

pulation of the globe between the ages of 4 and 18. It would The Council of the new League are preparing for a series of support 2,560,000 ministers, with yearly salaries of £150, who public meetings, in order that they muy lay their views upon with each a congregation of 800, could give religious instruc. the organization of work before the public.

tion to more than twice the present population of the globe. And They have also issued the following address to the National so he went on in a plain unadorned manner, creating great enAssembly of France:

thusiasın among his auditory. From this and from the geneThe Council of the Organization of Labour League to the Va. ral interest his visit has excited, we shall probably have a floutional Assembly of France.

rishing branch, notwithstanding the strong war feeling sostered CITIZEX REPRESENTATIVES.

by the numerous war es blishments in this an the adjoining “An Infant Society in a country which bas buen the direst towns. With ardent wishes for his complete and speedy success, foe of your nation, but which now is your firmest friend, raises and with a pleasant recollection of the writer's conversation its voice to address you.

with this noble man, he subscribes himself “Long acquainted with the miseries of the class the most nu. Plymouth, May 1st, 1848.

T. M.B. merous, and the most poor, long cognizant of the preventative

CONTENTS. which class legislation is to social progress, we have hailed your Republic as a political form in which the tendencies of societary Fields. The Meldrum family. By Willian Howirt. (Con

A Swedish Lowell. By FREDRIKA BREMER-Facts from the destiny might more freely develope themselves.

cluded.)- A Character which should have been in Thomson's • We have not been deceived. We rejoice in the prospect be- Castle of Indolence. By William Howitt—A Sportsman's Adfore you. We too rejoice, because France will thus set an ex

ventures in America-Cant. A Poem. By WILLIAM ALLINGample to England, which she needs.

HAM—The World's Reward, from the German-LITERARY No. “We also have those, to whom the right to work and the TICES : Hours of Recreation. Poems. By CHARLES S. MIDDLETON chance to live is virtually denied. “We likewise have those who say to the earth—Be barren! rative of William Wells Brown--Address to the Readers of How

-The History and Objects of Jewellery. By John Jones-Nar. and to the people—die !

itt's Journal-RECORD. “ To you then we look. The destiny of England, of Europe, of the world, is largely in your hands. You stand at the political portal which leads to the palace-garden of social ameliora- PRINTED for the proprietor by WILLIAM LOVETT, of 16, South tion. Hesitate not to enter. The sacred words Liberty, Equa Row, New Road, in the Parish of St. Pancras, County of lity, and Fraternity, which are inscribed upon its walls, should Middlesex, and published by him at 291, Strand, in the never be circumscribed in your hearts. Accept them frankly Parish of St. Clement Danes.

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No. 76-VOL. III.

Juxe 10, 1848.

was his lament for the death of the young Duc de Berri, POETS OF THE PEOPLE.

whom his assassin had marked for the last of the Bour

bon race. Jules Janin has said of this poem, that it is No. V.

“one of the finest things he has written--at once a

truly national song, and a truly touching elegy. The VICTOR HUGO.

fact of its publication at that time was a noble and BY DR. SMILES.

generous one on the part of Victor Hugo-an unknown

poet, who had the courage to weep aloud for the murVictor Hugo is the most able and brilliant repre- dered prince. “Whence comes this young singer ?" was sentative of the poetry of Young France. He is one of the general question-"this stranger, who starts forth at the many ardent spirits that have been thrown hot and once, with a courage equal to that of Chateaubriand, the fiery from the seething caldron of Revolution. Yet, old Royalist, himself?” And Hugo's courage and finestrange to say, he began his poetic life a Conservative and heartedness, in this matter, were the greater that he only gradually effected the middle passage, reaching at proceeded in direct opposition to the popular temper, length the, to him, firm ground of complete republi- wholly devoted to the enemies of the house of Bourcanism.

bon. Another fine ode in the same collection is that He is the son of a general of some distinction in the “ On the Birth of the Duc de Bourdeaux," since ex. French service, and was born in Spain, during the pelled from France, with all his kindred. Such, then, French occupation of that country, in the year 1802. were the early and generous Royalist sentiments of the He passed several years of his youth in that beautiful young poet-uttered under the inspiration of that proland, and the rich soil and hot sun of Spain, seem to phecy which he himself uttered to himself when he first have imparted something of their fertility and warmth became a writer—"The history of men presents no to the blood of the young poet, which he still retains. poetry save as it is viewed through the medium of moOne can scarcely help feeling that a Moorish and Gothic narchical ideas and religious faith.” tint pervades his poetry, and even his prose pictures, Victor Hugo, in the course of the numerous poetical --those who have read his “ Notre-Dame de Paris,” per- and other works he has since published, gradually haps the greatest of his fictions, will at once apprehend abandoned the Royalist ground, and rested not, till he what we mean.

had reached the opposite extreme. Hence the various Victor Hugo had a noble mother, who ardently loved and often contradictory views-apparently fitful and him, and whose love he returned with passion. She capricious—which pervade his works. He went from watched his infancy with care, and the growth of his Legitimacy to Napoleonism, and from thence to Reactive and enquiring mind with anxious solicitude. He publicanism. In his purely poetical pieces, this blemish passed from under her hands to the care of a master, is not apparent; for genuine poetry is of no party, and and from thence to the schools and colleges. He was rises high above the war of politics and the raging of no book-worm, and not much of a student. The resto- factions. In the “Orientals,” he gives an exquisite disration of the ancient learning, Greek, Latin, and French, play of lyrical powers-rising often to the height of the was all the vogue at the Paris University while young grand, the sublime, and pathetic. His “ Autunn Leaves," Hugo was there. Planche and others had made valuable also contain some beautiful pieces, especially his “Prayer contributions to the study of Greek, and many young for All,"-worthy of being placed alongside of Pope's minds were fired by a thirst for the antique literature. “ Universal Prayer." His " Lights and Shadows," also Hugo brooded in poetic dreams over a system and a contain some of his very finest pieces. This, we believe, learning of his own. A fire burned in him which no is his last published book of poems. classical lore, of Greek or Latin authors, was likely to Hugo has also written numerous dramas, some of feed. He was to be his own light-his own beacon- them powerful productions, displaying great occasional genius was struggling within him for an utterance. beauties; but on the whole, not considered nearly so College learning, in short, became altogether distasteful great as his poems,--which for the most part, display to him, and he left the university, pronouncing it a bore. a simple beauty and grace, and a poetic fervour, such as Doubtless, however, his mind had in no small degree he has never excelled in any of his other works. Many been affected by the attention which he gave to the old of his poems are of a religious tone; but the religion learning. His mind was disciplined and enriched ; his seems more like that of the Greeks, than of this period ideas elevated, and his soul expanded, by the study of | -- he is pantheistic, seizing the god and imprisoning him Plato, Socrates, and the old Greek writers.

in the symbol, like some old classical pagan. His poetry At a very early age he became an author and ventured must be confessed to be wanting in the grand element before the public. We find, from his first Book of of faith. He says, in one of his later piecesOdes and Ballads, that his fine ode on “The Girls of Verdun,” was composed in 1818, when he was only Let us forget, forget! When Youth is dead sixteen years of age. This, his first volume of poems,

Leave us to fly into the void obscure was not, however, published until the year 1822.

The gloomy winds our pall : During the same year in which he wrote the ode we

No rest for Man: his works' a problem vasthave referred to, namely, in the year 1818, he com

A phantom he glides by, and not even leaves

His shadow on the wall. posed his first prose story, called “ Bug Jargal," a novel written in the convulsive style then so popular in France, Nor do his hopes of the future of man, seem anything indicating, however, great force and energy in the author, and a wonderful command of his materials, such He exclaims,

more cheering. It is a nebulous haze, a dreary void. as they were. The story was of the Negro rebellion in St. Domingo, and many of the incidents are related with Man's soul! oh, whither flies it? Whither man? great skill and power. This novel was not published Lord, Lord ! What is the hope of earth in heaven? until the year 1826; in the short preface which

What must we do—What think? Trust? Doubt? Deny? accompanied it, he states, that he had written the story

Dark labyrinth! route triple-pathed! black night! at sixteen, at the rate of a volume in fifteen days!

The insect sits beneath some wayside tree, The “ Odes and Ballads,” which appeared in 1822, in

And whispers, -"Whither, Lord, thou wilt, I go :"

Ho hopes, and in the three gloom-shrouded ways, which year he also married, at once placed him in the

Man's onward march he pensive hears from far. foremost rank as a poet. He was not the less warmly praised that he therein strongly avowed his Royalist In his dramas, as well as his prose stories, Victor Hugo sentiments. Perhaps the finest piece in the collection delighted to set himself directly at variance with the

literary public, and to violate all the laws which they tionist of 1830, may be detailed by the author at some
had set up. While others were aiming at the Beautiful, future day; when, perhaps his modest history of the
he took under his special care the Deformed and the Ugly. internal revolutions of an honest political thinker, may
He made heroes of them-and concentrated in them, all form a not altogether useless appendix to the grand
the interest of his story. In proof of this, look at his history of the general revolutions of our times. Where-
Triboulet in the drama of “Le Roi s'amuse,”-his Lu- fore do we not oftener bring face to face the revolutions of
crece Borgia, an eminent specimen of moral ugliness— the individual with the revolutions of society ? Small
his Marie Delorme-his Marie Tudor-his Thisbe-An- experiences often illustrate great events.”
gelo, and many characters in his plays that might be The two journals referred to, are of the most curious
named. The public often mercilessly hissed these pro- kind. In eleven years, we find the same man an altoge-
ductions, and they were driven from the stage; and crit- ther different individual-his hopes, aspirations, opinions
ics lashed them furiously; but Hugo cared not. In are all changed. But perhaps there are few men who do
his fierce self-reliance and pride, he would not yield; not present equally extraordinary transformations-es-
the very opposition which he met with, drove him into pecially among those who have allowed their minds to
still greater extremes than before. And yet these pro- be freely acted upon by facts and events. How much
ductions, pervaded as they were by blemishes of the surprised should we all feel were we suddenly placed face
worst kind, sparkle with beauties of thought, sense and to face with ourselves as we were, even but ten short
expression, which gleam as twinkling lights in a dark years ago!
and perturbed atmosphere.

From the latter journal of Victor Hugo, we select a
The prose writings of Victor Hugo have achieved a few of the more striking thoughts, which may be con-
wider reputation, and exercised a more extensive in-sidered as applicable in 1848 as they were in 1830 :
fluence, than either his poems or his tragedies ; and to
them we turn with pleasure. The first of his works of The Scriptures relate, that there was once a certain king
this class which excited extraordinary interest, was the who lived a wild beast in the woods for seven years, and
“Last Days of a Condemned," written in 1828. This then re-assumed the human form. It sometimes hap-
production was aimed against capital punishment; and pens that such is the lot of the people. For seven years
most powerfully pleaded its abolition. It is a most they are the ferocious beast, and then they become the
agonizing work--descriptive of the feelings of a man man. The metamorphosis is called a revolution.
condemned to death, traced hour by hour and pulse
by pulse. The author does not look at the crime com A revolution is the larva of a civilization.
mitted, but at the punishment-death. He does not
attack the law-but the monstrous expiation which it Revolutions are begun by men who make the circum-
dooms. You have before you a human being, watching stances, and concluded by men who make the events.
in slow agony the lapse of the minutes that intervene
between him and the guillotine's edge — truly a All the individual liberty of France has accumulated
frightful subject of contemplation. That work, how drop upon drop, man upon man, in the Bastille, for
ever, may be said to have abolished the punishment of many ages. The Bastille levelled, liberty spread itself
death in France. One of the first decrees of the Provi- in wars throughout France and throughout Europe.
sional Government announced the abolition of capital

Empires have their crises like mountains in winter. Several translations of this work have appeared in A word loud-spoken produces an avalanche. England-one of the best was given to the public by Sir Hesketh Fleetwood, Bart.—with an excellent preface, Heaven preserve us from the Reformers, who read in which he advocated the abolition of hanging as an ex- the laws of Minos because they have a constitution to pedient for the cure or prevention of crime.

prepare by Tuesday next ! But the most extraordinary prose work of Victor Hugo is unquestionably his “Notre Dame de Paris ;" it Great men are the co-efficients of their age. is his masterpiece. In this work, he brings to light again the old life, the old superstitions, the old history A great man is like the sun-never more beautiful of Paris in the middle ages. It is a resurrection--a cre than when he touches the earth, at his rising and at his ation from the dead. There he brings his rich stores of setting. learning to bear, with wonderful effect, on the grim old towers of Notre Dame, the old quarters of the city, and Glory, ambition, armies, fleets, thrones, crowns : the the human beings struggling for life amidst the mazes. Punch-and-Judies of big babies. You would almost think that he invests that frowning, gloomy old cathedral, with the attributes of life-it You have there a beautiful tribune of marble, with looms before you like some vast and hideous demon- fine bas reliefs by Lemot; and you secure possession of something you have encountered in a nightmare. Won- it only for yourselves--very well! One fine morning, derful too is the power which he displays in the deli- the new generation will turn a cask bottom upwards, neation of passion--even in the breast of the deformed and there they will have a tribune in immediate contact Quasimodo-another of his heroes of the ugly. This with the pavement which has crushed a monarchy of work has been well translated into English, and has met eight centuries. Think of it! with much favour--though its description of the old architecture of Paris can scarcely be expected to have A general war will some day burst out in Europe, the the same interest to the English as to the Parisian rea war of kingdoms against countries. der.

Another curious, and, at the present time, highly in Charles X. (Louis Philippe?) believed that the revoluteresting work of Victor Hugo, is that published by him tion which has overthrown him, was a conspiracy, dng, in 1834, “ Literature and Philosophy mingled,” consist.mined, and fired, after long premeditation. Egregious ing of two parts—the one being a record of the ideas, error! It was simply a kick given by the people. opinions, and studies of the author as a young Royalist, of 1819, and the other of the ideas and opinions of a We are at this moment in the midst of panic fears. A Revolutionist of 1830.

club, for example, terrifies, and yet it is only a simple af" How, and by what series of successive experiences fair; it is a word which the mass translate by a cipher(he says) the Jacobite of 1819 has become the Revolu- '93. And to the lower classes '93 means want; to the

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monied classes, the worst; to the higher classes, the idea in France, written in the fine round hand of Alguillotine.

PHONSE DE LAMARTINE. The republic, as some people think, means the war of generals, were the exponents and products of the first

As Mirabeau, Robespierre, Danton, Napoleon and his those who have not a sou, not an idea, not a virtue, French Revolution, --so Lamartine, De Lammenais, Araagainst those who have one of these three things.

go, Victor Hugo, Augustin Thierry, Michelet, Beranger, The republic, according to my view, means society and a host of other distinguished men, may be taken as sovereign in society,--self-protected, by national guard; the exponents of the most recent phasis of public opi. self-judging, by jury; self-administering, by municipal- nion in France. Then was the time of destruction and ity; self-governing, by electoral constituency.

of pulling to pieces, the period of vehement speech and

of fiery action; and now at length has arrived, we trust, Societies can be only well governed in fact and in the time of building up the new fabric of society out of right when these two forces, intelligence and power, are its former ruins. It gives us hope to perceive that the placed in their due relative position. If intelligence be leading minds of France are engaged in this work,-men placed as a head on the summit of the social body, then whose lives have been devoted to peaceful and ennolet this head reign : theocracies have their meaning and bling pursuits-grea: teachers, writers of books, poets, their beauty. So soon as the many enjoy light, let the artists, philosophers, editors of newspapers-the great many govern; the aristocracy are then legitimate. But movers of the minds of men in modern times. when the darkness has everywhere disappeared, when “ Ah!” we think we hear some one say—"these are all heads are enveloped in light, then let all reign, the not practical men—they are only poets and dreamerspeople are ripe for the republic; let it have the re

mere literati, and nothing more! only give them time, public.

and-you shall see what you shall see!” The sneerers

would have us believe, that men are altogether unfit to The last argument of kings, the bullet; the last ar- lead and to inspire confidence in others, unless they have gument of peoples, the barricade.

been schooled in the practical" business of money.

making. For this, the smallest possible modicum of All social doctrines which seek to destroy the family brains, as every one knows, is sufficient. “Ah! but to are bad, and what is more, impracticable. Society is govern?” Well! To govern, -and to guide-What does dissoluble, the family not. The natural laws bind toge this require ? Knowledge of men-knowledge of human ther the family; whereas society is distracted by every nature--knowledge of history-wisdom and tact,-and admixture of factitious, artificial, transient, expedient, above all, purity and nobility of character. These are contingent, and accidental laws, which are mixed up the qualities which enable men to govern wisely, and with its constitution. It may often be useful, necessary, which are requisite to inspire confidence on the part of beneficial, to dissolve a society when it is bad, or too the governed. Are the men who have taken the lead in old, or badly arranged. It is never useful, never neces- this great social movement of the French people of this sary, never beneficial, to break up the family. When character ? Look at them, and try to discover. They you dissolve a society, that which you find as the last are not born legislators-they have not been destined residue is not the individual, it is the family. The fa- from the cradle to be the wearers of coronets and the mily is the chrystal of society.

leviers of taxes-no seats in Parliament have been kept

warm for them till they have got out of their teens and We must never cease urging this point-to enlighten entered on the hereditary business of making laws and the people in order to let the people enjoy freedom. It imposing taxes or a people : they have made their own is the sacred duty of governments to hasten the spread positions-been for the most part the founders of their of light amongst the darkened masses of mankind. Every own honourable fortunes-are all industrious, many of honest guardian hastens the emancipation of his pupil. them hard-working men-not owing their reputations to Multiply then all the ways which lead to knowledge, to their great grandfathers, or to old Normans crumbled science, to facilities in learning. The Parliament, I had into dust long ago, but to themselves and themselves almost said the throne, ought to be the last step of a lad-only. Is it not the best qualification to govern men, der whose first step is a school.

that man should have governed himself well, and thus And then, to instruct the people, is to ameliorate their shown his fitness to govern and guide others? condition ; to enlighten the people is to moralize them; “But most of them are mere writers!And are not to give letters to the people, is to humanize them. Every our writers the men who lead the intelligence and direct brutality will give way before the genial warmth of the wisdom of the world? Are not these the heralds and daily lectures.

Humaniores literæ : humane letters! pioneers of civilization—the watchers on the tower—the We must make the people perform their humanities.

creators of opinion--the guides and true governors of Ask not rights for the people until the people demand men ? What were England, what were France, but for heads.

their writers—their Shakespere, Racine, Johnson, Fene

lon, Milton, Saint Pierre, Gibbon, Cuvier, Newton, La In his powerful essay on Mirabeau, published in 1834, Place, Bacon, Moliere, Scott, Chateaubriand? Were Victor Hugo casts his eye into the future of France, and these men, of high and o'erarching intellect, less fitted gives utterance to thoughts of prophetic import. He to enact laws than lords of the red hand, whose pursuit ihere remarks:---that "the French Revolution bas laid was rapine and riot? Surely, the days of mere brute open for all social theories an immense book, a kind of force are now passing away, and the age which recog. grand testament. Mirabeau has written his word therein, nizes in all things the power of intellect, will not longer Robespierre his, Napoleon his, Louis XVIII. has made a refuse to recognize it in the enactment of laws for the scratch. Charles X. has torn the page. The Chamber guidance, the well-being, and happiness of all? We have of the 7th of August has pasted it together a little; but been governed by warrior-legislation too long—'twere that is all. The book is there, the pen is there; who time that the more Christian doctrines of peace, love, shall next dare to write therein ?"

benevolence, and intelligence, which the thinkers of the The wonderful political improvisation (for such is the world have now spread abroad far and wide, were al. French Revolution) of the last two months,--has lowed greater room and opportunity for action! How shown that there are hands willing enough to take up much better for the peace and advancement of the hu. the pen; and already we have seen inscribed in this man race would it be, for instance, if the noble sentigreat book the most recent development of the social ments of Lamartine could be carried into effect, as ex.


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