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wind of which we have just spoken which one day A SWEDISH LOWEL L. *

moved among the members of our family circle, and united them in one will and for one purpose.

One evening when Ivar and Gerda had just been BY FREDRIKA BREMER.

speaking of their visit to the celebrated American manu

factory of Lowell, and all had listened with the warm. It was an active, merry, restless, strange life which est, and most joyful interest, Augustin all at once sprang prepailed there. There were now together these young; up and exclaimed, powerful human beings, who, upon different paths, had “ Listen my friends! We are here many of us, and developed their different talents, and who, by means of we ask what shall we do? What shall we undertake ? them had attained to clearness and stability even in the Why should we not unite ourselves and establish-a outward life. They had arrived at a certain station in Swedish Lowell? A community on Swedish ground, their life's career, and now a pause occurred, or rather with Swedish customs, in which we might endeavour a moment of rest. Most of them felt that something new to elevate the work people to the highest possible immust now take place, a higher a more perfect develope- provement, freedom, and happiness, and where every ment of life. This in a particular menner had refer- one can give his talent to the common weal. ence to Ivar and Gerda. The professional life which

That was the word, that was the thought, that was they had hitherto led was not sufficient for them, there the point of union of which there had been an undefore, either their professional talents were not suffici- fined presentiment and for which all had songht. All ently great to satisfy this, or this was not suficiently at once it was felt by the whole family circle, and as the large alone to satisfy their souls. They longed for some brooks roar with the unbinding of the fetters of spring, thing else, for something more.

and gush forward to carry their waters to the river, so And all the brothers and sisters, and their friends were, now hastened gladly brothers, sisters, and friends with as it were, infected by this longing. But the word, the their consent, their gifts and powers, to aid in the originating thought for this was still wanting to them.

new work. They were altogether every day, in particular every This tendency was not however nero to the greater evening, these warm, struggling souls. Then were they part of the brothers and sisters. We have long since all alive with news from foreign lands; thoughts about seen in Hedvig, in Augustin, in Ivar and Gerda, in Bror mankind; the times, life, both the inward and the out- and in every one of these in their own way that loveful ward; thus did heart and brain open their chambers tendency which leads man out of his own private I, and and give and receive new light. Drop fell to drop; fire his own individual circle, to diffuse generally the good kindled fire.

and the happiness which he has himself obtained. And the household gods of home guarded and

They were all of them, in this way, children of the watched it, whilst all the winds of the world blew up very best spirit of the age. Augustin's proposal had the flame.

merely opened a way, by which good desires would Beloved reader! That wind which caresses thy make themselves available; had shown a central-point, brow, or which whistles at thy window, is indeed the a definite object around which they could gather.

same great wind which roars around the globe, and In the light of enthusiasm this now grew, and be1 which journeys over all the lands of the earth. Thou came more and more beautiful and significant. Patriohearest in its voice, a voice of the universe.

tism and Christian sentiments give birth to great So is it also with the wind of the spirit; and more so thoughts, to beautiful institutions. than ever in our days, when steam is united to mind and

Ivar was again a fanatic, but this time in the light of a loosens its fettered wings for an altogether freer flight corrected understanding, for that Utopia which was the round the world. And dost thou not hear how it speaks most beautiful dream of his youth. Gerda sung aloud from coast to coast, from land to land, from city to city? in joy, because she should be able to introduce singing Dost thou not hear feeling awake to feeling, thought into the life of the people ;--she divided already the reply to thought, tone vibrate to tone, and the little is work-people into choruses the boys' and the girls' lands echo back the accords of the great hemispheres ? choruses-and taught them, beautiful, ennobling songs. Dost thou not hear the spheres rush on in altogether Hedvig sate with her deep, loving eyes full of tears, purer harmonies, in more in ward melodies, altogether and her heart full of maternal thoughts. She already more powerful and loftier? Dost thou not hear it ? then clasped all the children of the young community in her bewail thyself. For thine ear is not pure, and thou art embrace. Bror undertook to establish a library; he deprived of a great enjoyment.

would the very next morning hasten away to three book But if thou dost hear it--and knowest of a certainty auctions to begin the collection. that thou dost-then must thou also hear, at this time,

There is a peculiar kind of joy which a person feels a certain melody, a certain song which goes

ough in great and good undertakings in which he is a particievery other, and in which peoples, remotely separated pator. We do not believe that there is a nobler or a peoples, sing harmoniously together.

better on earth. It is a joy which elevates his consciIt is ihe song of union, of fraternization on earth, of ousness, and strengthens all his powers. That spirit of a great brother-and-sister-life, in which all mankind shall the life of the community which permeates his indivirecognise each other as children of the same father-dual life; that sentiment that has united him in thought born to divide with each other the same inheritance of and action, with the noblest interests of the age give to goodness and joy.

his existence a higher importance and a greater purpose. Yes, in this great recognition mankind will be united. Now he knows himself to be one of God's instruments It is caused by the spirit of Christianity. Societies are formed; both small and great, to carry his eyes to him.

on earth, and more joyfully and more freely he lifts up out into life what this spirit desires. Weak human

Sweden has more than once seen spring forth from beings give to each other their hand, and thereby be- its bosom, associations, the offspring of a noble thought.

The electric stream of the power of That so cailed Gothic Association is of this kind, and we God's love more rapidly penetrates them all.

all know what beautiful fruits it has borne. It was a spark of this fire; it was a wind from that

Its object was to regenerate and develope the arts of

the Fatherland. And it did so. That brother-and-sisFrom “ Brothers and Sisters,” translated from the original, ter society, which is here founded, will form that perunpublished manuscript, by Mary Howitt, published by fect association, and through, and with this, develope Henry Colburn, Great Marlborough-street.

the perfect human being.

come stronger.

great ideas.

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Will it succeed? The result of it is uncertain. But And in this way we enter into the Kingdom of Heait is beautiful to attempt that which is great. And we veniy Justice. are not without good anticipations; because we see in You see, my friends. I am so arrogant, that I claim the association; good desires; good heads; and - for us in our society, that we should take the place of large capital, which is a capital thing in carrying out the great husbandman – should represent God the

Father ! -- And this would be an unpardonably bold We see little Bror--thanks little Bror!-with his word, were it not spoken with a heart in the dust !-In young bride stand with their million, ready to employ short; we must besides the usual money-reward of lait in the common enterprise.

bour, introduce a new one, a reward for industry and We see Mina, the millionaire's second daughter, good conduct. animated by the same spirit, stard ready with her From this, at the close of every month or quarter of portion. The young girl has had a clear insight into the a year, shall be advanced the wages of merit, equally blessing of wealth.

great for the unskilful workman as for kim who is the We see, in the end, many other persons, out of our most dexterous, when it is merely proved that the former family-circle, induced to take part in this enterprise as well the latter did what he was able to do, when with heart, hand, or capital.

honestly commanded to work. Becanse all enterprise founded upon noble and true I know that many land owners and others, who have principles, has the power of attracting human beings. servants in their employment, act towards them in this The noble-minded hear in them a heavenly voice, and way. And I wish merely that what is done accidentally they follow it. Others follow with the stream, and thus and imperfectly elsewhere, should become a principle it grows.

in our association, and that moral-wages of merit should A little deliberative society was formed, to bring into be given to its members. And thus in this small way shape the proposal for this new association. The whole the great husbandman's will might be done as in heaven conduct and management of the business was unani- so on earth. mously confided to Augustin. Even Uncle Herkules And that this heayenly justice added to worldly pruwent to the assembly-for even he was warm for its dence, would in the long run, conduce to our greatest plans — although some of the members entertained worldly advantage, is not diflicult to foresee.” doubts as to the harmony which would subsist between him and the others.

To the other--the one whose views were contracted But at the beginning all went on well. All was lise -Augustin said :and gladness, and brisk activity in the circle of family “We are very careful about our own enjoyments; we and friends. And the following winter promised to be consider it of the highest importance that every day lively and active also, for during this time, the great should have some moments of refreshment and pleasure. plans were to be concerted in readiness for the following And it ought to be so, because it is conformable with spring, when, with the first song of the lark, they were our nature and our needs. And I maintain that our to be carried into operation.

Lord desires that it should be so; his wish is to see is all happy and cheerful. Has he not made the commu

nion of love as the very heart of his church ? Nothing is Augustin had a little difficulty sometimes to keep the more certain to me than that Christianity is a doctrine balance equal between two of his friends. The one would of happiness, as well as a doctrine of wisdom for this give too much and the other altogether too little. life and the one which is to come; that it gives a bless. To the first Augustin said,-

ing as well to our work as to our repose, and wills that “Softly! Nothing for nothing! We would gladly water should be turned to wine. And when we thus act provide our work people with every good thing, but they towards those who are dependant upon us, give them ! must themselves obtain them. We will therefore place opportunities for that enjoyment which we wish for ourthem in a condition to acquire them by their industry selves, we only fulfil our duty as Christians. Even the and good behaviour. To deny oneself, to give up does heathen acknowledged this duty, and had days-for exno harm in the beginning. Nay, it is beneficial. Have ample the Roman Saturnalia!-when liberty was given not the most of us begun with it. I remember very to all their slaves, and even to their animals, to enjoy well how I, many a time, at the university, went out at the festival of life. But it was merely for a few days. dinner-time, and wandered about the streets to dissi. We will infuse into the chalice of every day some drops pate the hunger, which I had not the means of satisfy- of the enjoyment of existence, and give pure pleasure to ing, and how many an act of self-denial my young the members of the association. comrades and I were obliged to submit to.

But we

The work which we have in hand is in reality nothing knew that we were labouring for preferment and for a but that we meditate, in an amicable spirit, & change certain after advantage. This supported temper and in society, which sooner or later, in its despite, will be courage, and enabled us merrily to bear the renuncia- brought about. And in doing this we benefit ourselves tion which was at the same time a good teacher. Nay, quite as much as those whom we seek to benefit. Do we should not be frigid with our workpeople, but give the not let us therefore call it doing good. Let us call it best that we have for ourselves; a position in life in doing what is right. Let us call it pure, human pleawhich they can, from year to year, nay from month to sure. month make an advance onward ; in which they can And as a means of pleasure in our society we must improve themselves, lay-up something for their children, have entertaining societies, with dance, music, games; and prepare for themselves, a calm old age. But we and we must be there ourselves also, we must take part must firmly establish the principle--to every one ac- in them ourselves.” cording to his merits.

Take part in them ourselves ?” many people thought Yes, this must become the law.

that this would not answer. But in order that justice may here become perfect, “But this would be precisely the thing,” said Augus. we must judge of merit and reward it according to the tin, “which would be important and highly advantageGospel.

That personal, cordial relationship between the

more cultivated classes and those which are less so, a reMerit shall be estimated not merely from the consider-lationship which ought to extend to all classes of soation of advantage. The honest endeavour, the good- ciety, is precisely that which is peculiarly beneficial, will must also have its rank, and its value ought to be and the best lever of society. And since The Highest reckoned as merit.

descended to us, in order to raise us to himself, that is



to say, to the highest movement power of society de- economic calculations of the time which a prudent and scending on purpose to elevate-He has shewn us the benevolent guardianship of the wealthy might apply for way. For the rest,”-continued Augustin, with his the benefit of the indigent in the association. beautiful smile, “it is after this condescension almost For the rest Augustin satisfied himself with connectridiculous to talk about condescension among human ing the prosperity of the workman with that of the inbeings!”

stitution for which he worked. The first ought, as a Lectures were also, as a matter of course, to be given matter of course, to be bound up with the latter. in the society. Lectures belong to the arrangements for the day. A good arrangement, I think, most certainly. They talked about dwelling-houses. Augustin wished And Ivar, Uno, and David, they would all of them read not to have any great Phalanstery-like establishments. lectures in the lecture-room.

" Where they have been erected they have not answerWhen little Dr. Lund inquired “what were to be the ed,” said he, “and least of all would they answer with subjects on which they would lecture ?” and was told us in Sweden than anywhere. Because in the Swedish in reply a number of different subjects, he exclaimed disposition exists the desire for each man to have his with animation.

There is for him no comfort except in his own “I could not have thought it!—you will lecture on home and upon his own spot of ground. "I will for our everything except the most important of all-that is to workpeople erect small dwelling-houses for two, at most say-Theology! And in particular is it of the very high- four families under each roof. Every family ought to est importance, 110w-a-days, to endeavour to make it have two rooms and a kitchen. I know that this will popular and comprehensible to the unlearned. It is be more expensive than a common kitchen and a large high time that the reason of Christianity found its way common dwelling-house. But we should gain in the to the reason of the people, that it may counterbalance comfort and fidelity of our work-people what we exall that unreason or half reason which endeavours to con- pended in money. And the advantage which we look found it, and in order to teach them how they may ac- for is not merely that of sordid interest. These dwellquit themselves in the questions which will arise, and to ings shall be of wood, simple but tasteful, with difference be able to defend their holy belief against the attacks in their design, and roofed with red tile. By every of infidelity and doubt.

dwelling we will plant a few trees, and if possible let “It makes me angry, yes, both angry and grieved, every householder have a little garden, or at least an when I hear people who otherwise mean well towards enclosure where they can sow and plant something. I their fellow creatures and Christianity preach against know how these little pieces of their own ground attach reason as an enemy to faith and revelation!

men to the places which possess them. “Is it not to set them down as something irrational ? “I wish very much that we could obtain one thing to set enmity between the reason of God and the reason for our workpeople, and that is a large park, where they of man? just as if the latter were not the offspring of would have an opportunity of enjoying life in the open the former, created to conceive and to comprehend, and air, and the innocent pleasures which would thence accomprehending to adore its highest revelation on earth! crue. Where they would, during spring and summer,

Nay, I say, take reason, and understanding and be able to recreate themselves every holiday with the science to help you, and when you, by their aid, have freshness of rural life and the beauties of nature. For endeavoured to conceive and to understand the height autumn and winter evenings we have the great hall of and breadth and depth of God's wonderful revelation, so the school-house, where they would assemble, and where that you can see its whole connection, behold! as it is we must also take care to have beautiful works of art quite right man stands there, as a child in the presence which may develope the sense of beauty, and where at of the great and good father, believing and adoring; be the same time reading and music may agreeably employ, lieving precisely because he understands; believing even give pleasure, and at the same time ennoble. where he does not fully understand, because he now for the first time properly understands the Divine; because One arrangement within the association, which was he now knows whom and what he believes. Yes, first warmly advocated “ by the brothers and sisters, was the of all enter into the child-like spirit, and with this we establishment of a tribunal of peace, a union of that then-enter into the kingdom of heaven! Is it not so, which is public in Norway and of the patriarchal great sister Hedvig? Am I not right?"

village-law in Dalecarlia. Before this all quarrels and Right! right!” said Hedvig with beaming eyes. lesser offences committed within the Association should “But talk about this to the many; do you, yourself, be brought, and if possible there adjusted or reconciled. give the lecture you speak of.”

The workpeople themselves should every year elect the Ah! how gladly would I do so, if I only could!" re- members of this court, and should each one possess the plied the old man warmly. “But I am not capable of right of voting and of sitting in it.” it, I am old; my voice is weak and broken; and an old " And we should endeavour so to regulate ourselves,” school-fox like me can scarcely express himself in a suf- said Augustin, “ that no prison or house of correction ficiently popular manner. The old scholastic phrases should be enriched from our Association!” lie continually on my lips and in my way; and I might “And one of the first laws which our Court of Justice say the very best things, and the people would believe shall inculcate and be observant of,” exclaimed Uno, nevertheless that I was talking Arabic, and wished to " shall have reference to the treatment of domestic ani. lead them into some heathenism. No, take in prefer- mals. England and France have established fines and ence another teacher. The limits between learned and punishment for the ill treatment of animals. Why should unlearned, priest and layman, exist no longer as for- the Swedes be behind these people in humanity? merly, and I know a few of iny young friends here who “No! Let it not be said of us, that we thoughtlessly far better than I could accomplish the important work abandoned to the heedless or the cruel, those of our of making Theology or Christian philosophy popular. workers who are dumb, and who are deprived of the Uno?--a great blessing has been conferred on you. Go power of demanding their own rights, or of presenting and communicate its fruit to your brethren.”

their complaints. No! let us ourselves become their

spokesmen, and not permit that the most hard-working As regarded the internal administrative regulations of and the most faithful of our servants should suffer an inthe Association, Augustin laid the highest importance justice. Not so! we will have around us happy human upon the establishment of a savings’-bank, to the pru- beings and happy animals!” dent managernent of which he devoted particular atten The motion was unanimously and warmly adopted. tion. For this purpose he adopted the most celebrated And Göthilda, informed of this by Bror, promised,

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purposely for this paragraph in the Legislative Book of down with their £100, but who, if a political veteran a the Association, to design a vignette, representing the political martyr, or a political organ is to be aided and Holy Family, with the ass, which should have a remark- supported in a quiet, unostentatious way, are always ably interesting physiognomy.

found wanting ; plentiful in excuses, but having no But Göthilda felt in this only half of that which was cash to spare. affecting and deep in the thought-which the popular Mr. Martin Maxwell, as we may term him, was not sentiment* and the genius of art long since appropria- one of this class. This class knew the way to his purse, ted to themselves—that the animals have their place by and made free draughts upon it. For himself, he carthe manger of the Saviour, and that they belong to the ried out practically the advancing doctrines of the Holy Family.

times. He had re-built his premises, in a healthy and " Yes!” exclaimed Dr. Lund one day, “now I see airy style. He gave good wages, and practised early nothing further to be done than to christen the new closing. He was for universal suffrage, and universal town which I see springing up with the red-tiled roofs education; the equal diffusion of God's blessings and the green trees--and sister Hedvig shall do that; amongst his children. IIe had established a good lishe who sits there and is silent, but who secretly has brary, with newspapers and periodicals for the use of kindled all their operations by the fire of her love and his people. He had encouraged them to form a mutual her good-will--for all. Sister Hedvig shall give a name improvement society amongst themselves, and at to the new town.”

Christmas gave them a dinner, and presided at it himNay, nay,” said Hedvig, “ that you yourself must self. He had promoted the study of music and design do, my little father. Otherwise the christening will be amongst them; and to any and as many of these advangood for nothing."

tages as he could grasp even the porter was admit“Well then,” exclaimed the doctor with vivacity. ted. “I baptize the new town by the old Swedish name of Meldrum, with fear and trembling went for some time Birka! It is indeed on Birch Island that it will be situ- through his duties; but by degrees, finding that he was ated, and we will plant birches beside the houses of the not discovered or suspected by any one---that he passed workmen. It was in that old Birka, in this region, that to and fro in the streets with his knot on his shoulder Christianity was first preached. It is a grain of that or his arm, and went to wagon warehouses, and coach seed, which now is growing up in the old ground, with and railway offices with full security, he gave up his harvests for the new time. No! not for time merely, alarms, and with fifteen shillings a week, and such a for eternity! Not for earth merely but for heaven. house as that at Nancy Tulloch's, if he could have forLong live the new Birka !

gotten the past—he felt that he might still have called There was a joyful murmur in the company. “Long himself fortunate. live the new Birka! and Birch Island ! and the birches, But if he could have stilled the avenging demon in and all of us together!”

his own bosom, there was but little chance but that some outward circumstance might soon put an end to his present favourable position. And such an one soon fell out.

Pursuing his way home one evening late, as he had FACTS FROM THE FIELDS.—THE DEPOPULATING off with all speed, he was accosted in Leadenhall-street,

been helping to pack a quantity of goods that must go POLICY.

by a tall and showy damsel near a gin shop, who taking

him by the sleeve as he passed—said in a light wayBY WILLIAM HOWITT.

Come, my old friend, stand a glass, wont you, for

it's very cold.” EXTENSION OF THE ENGLISH MANUFACTURING System, Meldrum looked at the unhappy woman, and quietly BY WHICH MEX, ARE WORKED UP INTO MALEFACTORS. endeavoured to draw his sleeve from her grasp, when at THE MELDRUM FAMILY,

the same moment, father and daughter recognized each

other! It was Dinah, painted, bedizened, and half (Concluded from page 345.)

tipsy, who, suddenly growing pale, rushed away--and

left Meldrum withered as by a flash of lightning, and, The employer to which Mrs. Tulloch lad recom- staggering under the horrible blow of that discovery, mended Meldrum, had his manufactory and warehouse till he was obliged to lean against the wall for support. in Fenchurch-street. He was one of those quiet, sub- A throng of busy vagabonds were in a moment about stantial, unassuming men, who go through life like a him, asking what was the matter, and advising him to quiet, almost entirely hidden stream through the coun- go in and get a dram to strengthen his old heart. The try, diffusing comforts and benefactions in the shape of old man gathered together his confounded faculties, and employment, and not that alone. He was never seen his prostrated strength, and went on as well as he could on the foamy ridge of politics, yet he held with a wise without a reply. moderation of manner, the most thoroughly liberal and To describe such misery as now crushed the heart of just opinions. He had come up from the country a poor James Meldrum, is beyond the art or vigour of a mortal lad, and had made his way to immense wealth. Though pen. The last stroke seemed given to his fate. His livid little known himself to the general political world, his and haggard looks startled all that he came near-the money was well known to that particular class of poli- two women at home, Zealous Scattergood who still came ticians who may be termed Shilling Philanthropists, in once or twice a week, to converse with him, and his men, who, without a spark of talent, set up for politi- employer, and the people in the factory: Meldrum only cal philanthropists, and possessed themselves of great complained of pain, but refused to give up his work, wealth, purchase a reputation by the expenditure of and did it. But from morning till night, and almost their loose change on political agitation ; men, who, if from night to morning, one thing only was running in his there be a public subscription to be entered into, that head, and that was, how he might seek out and save will be well blazoned about in the newspapers, can come Dinah. O if he had had that crime from off his con

science, how easy would it be if Dinah were inclined to • Thus in Sweden the peasants are accustomed to give their reform, to get her into the warehouse or factory of that animals a feast at Christmas, to sbine a light in their eyes so good Samaritan, who had employed himself, and rejoiced that they may see “the star,” and then they say to them Now in nothing more than in rescuing the outcast of humanit is Christmas!"

ity. But then! Every attempt of this kind, was a

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