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in its grasp, was, by the usual irony of fortune, conMEMOIR OF FERDINAND FREILIGRATH. demned to the most unpoetical occupation in the world;

in a word, he was in a merchant's office.

He was born at Detmold, the little capital of the litBY WILLIAM HOWITT.

tle princedom of Lippe-Detmold, on the 17th of June,

1810, and received his first education at the gymnasium MANY of our readers may not be aware that this of that city. His constant desire was to devote himself distinguished German lyrical poet has been residing for to a literary life, but insurmountable difficulties opposed nearly two years in this country. The tyranny of the themselves to this, and he was placed in a house of buKing of Prussia, who seemed determined to crush every şiness at Soest, a little town of Westphalia. To a youth breath of free opinion, compelled him to fly his country of his active fancy, trade presented no charms, but he with little hope of ever returning to it; but the late fulfilled his duties punctually, and refreshed his mind magnificent revolutionary demonstration on the conti- during his leisure hours by study. Travels especially nent has paralyzed the despots' arms, re-opened his had been his delight at school, and they still furnished Fatherland to the exile, and at the call of great num- the main nourishment of his spirit. Often till deep in bers of his compatriots, Freiligrath has gone back to the night he sate in his little chamber, and followed aid in the establishment of a free constitution for his with entranced interest the adventures of Marco Polo, enfranchised nation. At such a moment it will be inter- Vasco de Gama, Albuquerque and other discoverers ; adesting to the lovers of genius and patriotism, to know vanced with them amongst unknown men, and penetrasomething of the past life of such a man. We drawted at their side into the regions of legend and wonder, our material from unquestionable sources, partly printed participating in their dangers and their glory. At the and partly yet unpublished.

same time he occupied himself zealously with the stuIn the year 1835, there appeared in the Musenalma- dies of geology and natural history, and the acquirenach, published by the poets Chamisso and Schwabe, the ment of the English and the French languages. But it compositions of a youth hitherto unheard of, but whose was the knowledge of the people of the East; of their writings immediately excited universal attention. His modes of life, thought, and feeling, their circumstances name was Ferdinand Freiligrath. The welcome which and habits, that he most zealously exerted himself to was given to him on this very first appearance, induced familiarize to his mind. The creative power was already him to proceed. He communicated poems to Duller's stirring actively in his bosom ; and before his sixteenth “Phænix,” and the Stuttgard "Morgenblatt," and was year, he had furnished poems to the Minden Sunday soon acknowledged one of the favourites of the public. paper. There was a peculiar and very marked character about After the expiration of his apprenticeship, he contihim. He struck the attention by the novelty of his nued some years as a merchant's clerk in Soest, and matter, and held it by the singular harmony of his verse. then went to Amsterdam, where he entered a distinThe flowers which he scattered from his cornucopia, guished banking-house. It need scarcely be said, that were not gathered on the German soil, nor yet from the the life and stir of a great city of trade, made a powso-often sung fields of the Hesperides, or the enchant- erful impression upon him. The sight of the sea, the ing valleys of the Alps. Their glowing magnificence of flying flags, the swelling sails, awoke all his boyish colour, and their ravishing fragrance, spoke of another dreams, and the thought that he was now on the brink and far-off climate, where the palm rustles, and the date of that element which the keels of his heroes had ripens, where a burning sky vaults the luxuriantly green ploughed on their voyages of discovery, gave new wings landscape, and the martial Bedouin flies on his steed, to his fancy. The worst of it was, that he was totally fleet as the wind through the whirling sand of the destitute of congenial society. The young men of his desert.

station, did not comprehend him at all, and the absorIt was the wonder-world of the East, which Freili. bing chase after money and empty pleasures, inspired grath opened by the magic wand of his imagination, him with an unconquerable disgust to their society, that legendary Orient, whose treasures he spread before which more than once broke out in words :the astonished eyes of his countrymen, and whose very existence he presented before them in splendid pictures.

Know ye the emptiness, disgust most strong ? Those things which are accustomed to inspire other

Lazily through the streets we strolled along.

I let the others gossip through the walk, poets, excited no influence on Freiligrath. Spring,

By heaven-a most important conversation ! Friendship, Love, Wine, etc. The energetic, the wild,

They entertained themselves without cessationthe fantastic, alone attracted him, and these he did not

Of girls and of state-papers was their talk. meet with, amid the tameness of Europe. Therefore, his muse flew to the feet of Lebanon and Sinai, to the But these very circumstances threw him only the shores of the Niger and the Senegal. There he rejoiced more necessarily on intellectual pursuits. in the contest with the tiger or the giant serpent, From Amsterdam issued many of his noblest poems. watched the lion, whilst awaiting his prey, crouched in It was hence that he sent some of them to Chamisso, the sedges of the tropical river's bank, mingled in the with the success we have noticed, for Chamisso at once battles of the wild Negro races, galloped with bearded perceived his extraordinary talents, and not only pubSheiks“ through Jethro's flaming tract;" and reposed lished his compositions, but exhorted him to proceed in the tent of the Nomade, which was pitched in an boldly. oasis. Sometimes he traversed the ocean and in In 1836, Freiligrath quitted Amsterdam, and took a transatlantic regions, .ranged the boundless Savannahs situation as a business assistant at Barmen. From this of the Far West; entered the wigwams of the Indians, place he commenced a lively connection with the poets and pursued with the red man the traces of the elk and of the Rhine; in the following year published in conthe bison. Or, he accompanied the bold seaman on pe- junction with Hub and Schnezler, the “ Rheinische rilous voyages, and dreamed with him of the wonders Odeon, and in 1838, a collection of his Lyrical Poems of unknown lands, untrodden of human foot. In all appeared at Stuttgard, (Cotta was the publisher) and these regions, Freiligrath was at home, so as no man the success was so great, that several editions were rabefore him had been, and he displayed the true genius pidly demanded. of the conqueror in the manner in which he placed him The public was now enabled to judge of the powers self in these foreign circumstances, with which his and characteristics of Freiligrath's genius, and its judgbodily eye was totally unacquainted.

ment was decisive. It perceived and acknowledged the And this poet, whose imagination enclosed the world originality and vigour of his representations, the won

own.

derful capacity of his mind to embody itself in foreign Like many other poets, he regarded politics as a rock circumstances and persons, and the rhythmical per- which he must carefully avoid. He did not see that he fection of which his poetry bore the stamp. He dis-had a necessary connection with the stirrings of the world; played a power of language in this department, which he did not perceive that the highest talents are given for placed him at the side of Voss and Gries, and a critic the good of the race, and that their most sacred duty is justly observed, that beneath the stroke of his metrical to assist in breaking those bonds of despotism, which desmallet, the roughest granite was changed into the no troy all human happiness, and with it human virtue, blest marble forms.

and nobility of character. But the direction of his The success of his poems gave him confidence in him- mind once given, it could not, in a frank and noble naself; and in 1839, he ventured to throw up his mercan- | ture like his, long rest. He began, with the year 1840, tile profession, and to devote himself wholly to litera- to infuse some political element into his poems, though ture. He went to Cologne and there, in union with it was yet uncertain, and unsettled in its aim. His Matzerath and Simrock, issued, in 1840, “ The Rhenish verses on the commencement of completing the CatheYearbook of Art and Poetry.” Besides this, he la- dral of Cologne, and on the execution of the Spanish boured diligently at translating from the English and General Diego Leon, bear testimony to this. In this French poets, Robert Burns, Felicia Hemans, Victor later poem “ Aus Spanien,” he still expresses this view Hugo, etc.; and composed many beautiful lyrics of his of the poet's mission in the lines, In the following year he quitted Cologne for Darm

The poet stands upon a higher fortress, stadt, where two dear friends of his, Edward Duller and

Than on the pinnacle of party zeal. Karl Buchner lived ; and in 1842 he again quitted Darmstadt, and took up his abode at St. Goar on the Rhine. To this pinnacle he was, however, destined to descend. The King of Prussia, unsolicited, and to his great sur- Herwegh addressed one of his most fervent lyricsprise, conferred a pension of three hundred dollars upon “Party' to him, which, however, seemed for the mohim, and with this and the proceeds of his writings, he ment to excite rather than to convince him. Freilifound himself rich enough for his few and simple wants. grath replied to him in a poem entitled " A Letter," in a Thus he lived for two years in St. Goar, a delightful po- cutting strain. Herwegh replied in a " Duet of Penetical life, and enjoyed, apparently, a happiness that the sioners” aimed at him and Emanuel Geibel, who also gods themselves might envy. Secured against the neces- had received a pension from the Prussian monarch. sities of life; surrounded by glorious scenery, valued by Heinzen renounced him in the "Rheinishe Zeitung," and his nation, distinguished by his powerful monarch, co- Robert Prutz wrote a witty parody on one of his own vered with fresh laurel-wreaths, tenderly beloved by a poems, to ridicule his political faith. The liberal wricherished wife, what more was wanting to his happiness? ters did not spare him—but Freiligrath let the storm Satisfaction; inward peace.

blow over him. It was not persecution, but conviction It is strange, but true, that this fresh, vigorous talent that must move him. sickened with the evil of the world; this poet, who But such were the circumstances of his native counhad won back the heart of the public to long abandoned try, that they could not long fail to operate on an hopoetry, lived in disunity with his own muse. Far from nourable mind of fine sympathies, when once it had begazing on his triumph with the pride of the conqueror, gun to ponder on them. He looked, and beheld his Fahe sighed rather from his oppressed heart-"God, why therland oppressed. He saw in its princes, men who hast thou given me songs ?" He complained of Nature, had pledged themselves to the freedom of the people, which had endowed him with this precious talent; he and had not kept their pledge. They had owed their pronounced poetry a curse, and the chaste kiss of the crowns to the valour of the people, and they had deMuse's consecration, as the stamp and brand-mark of ceived and crushed the people in return. He saw the Cain.

power of despotism every day advancing: He saw the “Who," says Prutz in his lectures on the German li- liberty of the press and of speech annihilated. He had terature of the day, “does not in this, perceive the gen- soon practical proofs of it in his own case. eral ailment of the age? It was not the favour of the pensioner, and the Censor did not hesitate to suppress or muse which became the brand-mark to Freiligrath; it to mutilate his most innocent verses when sent to a was not poetry which was the curse which tortured newspaper. He looked further, and saw fair and open him; that which so pained him, which converted a trial refused to the accused. Any man might be snatched blessing into a curse, -this, his ailment, his curse, was from his family and the light of day by the capricious the curse of the age, which felt itself unhappy, since it tyranny of the authorities, and cast into secret dungeons, had not the courage, and did not possess the strength, tried in secret by secret judges, accused by secret accuto become happy.'

sers; every demand for a fair examination of his case But Freiligrath was not the man to sink into hypo- before God and his fellow citizens denied. He saw the chondria where a bold, healthy, and vigorous nature land oppressed by immense standing armies, and by as could force itself out into the free air of heaven; and immense a police. There was a system of most subtle these circumstances bring us now to the point of time and complete espionage established, which destroyed when a political as well as a poetical interest awoke in personal confidence, and tended to lower the standard of Freiligrath, and he found himself constrained to fing both public and private honour and independence, and himself into the arms of the working and combatting seeing this once fully and clearly, there was but one spirit of the age.

course for him. It was vain to talk of poetry having noHis friends had already made an attempt to win over thing to do with politics. That would only be to say his genius to the cause of progress. They had repre- that a poet was the most ignoble of men. He felt that, sented that he had lingered long enough in the deserts; on the contrary, poetry was one of the highest gifts of had wandered long enough with Arabs, Moors, and Red-God, and that his gifts must be employed in his service, skins, and that it was at length time for him tothink of his which is that of liberty and humanity. Freiligrath was own people, and native land. Freiligrath, however, not a timid time-server, a selfish, finicking petit-maitre, for a time turned a deaf ear to these suggestions, only a hollow outside of a man--he was a man and must act replying :

as one. He resolved at once to make a stand against O could I follow but your beck!

the despotism which crushed his country, and he did it

at the cost of all his prospects in life. He was living at But the scorched desert's gloomy charm I choose, though barren is the track

ease in one of the most beautiful regions of his great and Grows in the desert not the palm ?

beautiful country; honoured by his countrymen for his

He was a

1

genius, pensioned by his king, reaping a harvest of lite- sacrifice that the upright poet had made for his princirary profit from his popularity-he put all aside with ples. His enemies triumphed; his friends were silent; the determination of a heroic spirit, and declared for those calling themselves friends reproached him : others the people and their enfranchisement.

wrote formally and renounced his friendship as that of a Perhaps never was there a greater astonishment than base, bad man of revolutionary notions. But he had that of the German public, when suddenly, in the year made up his mind to suffer. He bore the pulings of af1844, a book by Freiligrath appeared bearing the title of fected well-wishers over his rashness, his folly in sacri. “Ein Glaubensbekenntnisse,” or “Confession of Faith.” ficing a certainty of honour and support: over his preThe astonishment was not lessened by reading its motto sumption in daring to imagine that his solitary act and from a letter of Chamisso—" Matters are as they are. I voice could influence the fate of his country. He went am not gone over from the Tories to the Whigs; but I forth calmly, though not unwounded: but even these was when I opened my eyes, a Whig.” Then came a evils were not all. His writings, which were his supstanza saying-“Open trial to the prisoner--fling all ob- port, were interdicted, publishers dared not sell them; struction into the flood-let the bold shot of this book newspapers dared not even give place to his compositions. dash into the choke-damp of the present day!” The The government had succeeded in annihilating the preface said--" The latest turn of affairs in my narrow means of his support, and hoped to drive him to despair fatherland, Prussia, has bitterly undeceived me, who be- or death. longed to the hoping and trusting, and it is to this that But it failed: Freiligrath had yet another resource. In the greater part of the poems in the second part of this his youth he had been brought up to commerce, and volume are owing. None of these, I can calmly assert, commerce and England were yet open to him. have been made, they have sprung livingly from the During our sojourn in Germany the fame and manly events, as necessary and unavoidable a result of this genius of Freiligrath had particularly attracted our atshock to my sense of right and my own convictions, as tention. We had made his acquaintance, and nearly the the simultaneously conceived and executed resolve to last days we spent in that country were with him and return to the hand of the king my much-talked-of little his accomplished wife in their beautiful retreat of St. pension. At the commencement of the year 1842, I Goar, on the Rhine. Under his present circumstances, was surprised at its being conferred on me : since the it appeared clear to us that England or America were the commencement of the year 1844, I have declined to re-only countries in which he could live with safety. We ceive it."

pressed him to come hither. We had urged this upon With a candour worthy of his character, Freiligrath him before his leaving Brussels; but the idea of the exconfessed the error of his former notions. He tells the pense of a residence here had deterred him. But we people that he has only passed through that process continued to urge the necessity of his securing himself which they have to pass through in their endeavours by taking up his abode in England--and at length he after political consciousness and political education into consented, and agreed to renew his connection, for a a national whole. That the worst that they can have to time at least

, with commerce. About two years ago he twit him with was, that he had stepped down from the arrived; and we had the satisfaction of introducing him

higher fortress” to the “pinnacle of party,” and there to the great German house of Huth and Co., and seeing he confesses that they are quite right. “Firmly and im- him safely established in the employ of that house, in movably," he then adds, "advance I to the side of those which he has continued till the moment of his depar. who with brow and breast are opposed to re-action. No ture. more life for me, without Freedom! Whatever be the For nearly two years has Freiligrath, by far the most fate of this book and of myself—so long as the pressure popular of the living poets of Germany, resided in Eng. on my country continues, will my heart bleed and rebel; land—and we should have felt that the literary men of so long shall my mouth and my arm continue unwea- England had done themselves much greater honour had riedly to labour with my countrymen, according to my they shown that they were aware of the presence of so ability, for the achievement of better days. In that re- distinguished a guest. It is true that Bulwer and Moncksolve may, next to God, the confidence of my people ton Milnes have visited him in his modest abode at help me! My face is turned towards the Future!") Clapton, and Barry Cornwall and a few others have in

The readers of this Journal are pretty well acquainted vited him to their houses, but Freiligrath is the last man with the style of Freiligrath's compositions, from vari- alive to be lionized, and this has led to something very ous translations that we have, from time to time, given, like neglect. He scorned to make himself a burthen to or we would give some specimens of this volume, which any one. He determined to subsist by the labour of his is full of bold and spirit-stirring lyrics. He exclaims- own right hand. So far as this country was concerned, "The poet must go along with the people." His breach he asked nothing, but a means of maintaining himself with the old system was total and incurable. He de- by allying himself again, for the time, to commerce: so clared that he had broken the bridge behind him, and far as Germany was concerned, he bided his time. He left himself no path of return. “Forwards! forwards, knew that he had left his fiery lyrics circulating like the till beyond the grave.” He invites his friend, Hoffman life-blood of freedom in its veins; and from time to time von Fallersleben, to visit him on the Rhine before the he still sent over fresh electric flashes of his genius to sword of his own verse had driven him thence. In a arouse his Fatherland to the assertion of its liberties. poem called “High Water," he bids his wife be of good And that time came! The hour arrived. Roused from cheer : to leave all to God; that the world was all be- her trance by the glorious act of France, Germany sprung fore thein, and that so long as he had å hand and a up, overwhelmed her tyrants, humiliated them; brought head she should not have to beg.

them upon their knees before her. She declared for and And, in fact, there was not much time to lose, if he conquered her own liberty; and one of her first acts was cared for his safety. Extreme as was the joy of the to recall her exiled patriots and her patriot poet. people over such a new ally, as great was the wrath of Ferdinand Freiligrath has returned to that country the powerful against him. The servile portion of the from which he almost believed himself excluded for press denounced him; the government ordered his ar He has returned to justify his writings and his

The book was ordered to be seized, but spread deeds. His last poem written in Switzerland, like wild-fire all over the country. He escaped into Bel- seems to have fulfilled its prophecy. Where are now gium, but only escaped arrest in Brussels by six hours. the croakers, and the bewailers, and the sympathizers ? He then sought refuge in Switzerland, and lived in the They will hide their diminished heads : but the poet reneighbourhood of Zürich about a year.

turns to his enfranchised country, accompanied by the Every day only proved more clearly the extent of the blessings of all the better spirits of his nation; and ready

ever.

rest.

Ça ira,

You tell us that the rich alone

With wisdoin are provided,
And that the poor have naught to do

But stand still, and be guided !
You stint our rights, then would persuade,

The poor man he's your debtor :0, to be sure! it's right-quite right!

But, thank God, we KNOW BETTER!

You say, if but the rich can have

Amusement with the gun,
It matters nothing that the poor

By hundreds are undone :
Yes, though your sport is, and must be

The certain crime-begetter ! 0, to be sure! it's right--quite right !

But, thank God, WE KNOW BETTER !

to assist in founding her future constitution. · Such circumstances as these do not occur to a poet once in a thousand years.

But there is one notice that must not be omitted here. We must pay to Ferdinand Freiligrath a just tribute to the manner in which he conducted himself during his exile. Had he done as only too many have done on coming here; had he resolved to seek the favour of the aristocratic instead of the commercial section of the community; had he located himself West instead of East of London ; had he made a loud outery about his sufferings and his persecutions, why there would, no doubt, have been a loud outcry made about him. There would have been a vast parade of sympathy and patronage. He would have been invited to the tables, the soirées, and the crushes of the great. He would, in short, as Ugo Fosculo has well expressed it, for he had tried it--"have been made the lion of two seasons, and then voted a bore.”

But Freiligrath has shown himself a true poet. He has shown that he knew and honoured his high vocation. He disdained to inake himself a political or a literary pauper. He put a constraint on himself for his own honour and that of his country, and for awhile devoting himself to that which is most honourable--that which builds nations and makes princes-Commerce-he has lived free and returned free!

It is a circumstance for himself and his countrymen to glory in, that there never was a man of distinctionthere scarcely ever was any man who came to this country, who lived so long in it, and who returned hence in a manner so erect, so manly, so honourable, and so independent, as Ferdinand Freiligrath!

And this has been felt and evidenced by the numerous, intelligent, and wealthy class of his countrymen who are residing in London. Amongst them, as well as by a very large class of the people of intelligence and refinement of our own nation, he has been received and regarded with the warmest friendship, esteem, and admiration, as much for his modest manliness as for his brilliant genius.

His countrymen in London testified their sentiments towards him by giving him a splendid farewell dinner at the Crown and Anchor Tavern, where about one hundred and twenty of them were present, and where they presented him, as a parting token, with a fine collection of the works of the best English writers. I have to regret, that indisposition prevented me from staying out this banquet, to which these gentlemen did me the honour to invite me, or I should there have expressed those sentiments of admiration for the poet of liberty; of respect for the man,' and warm regard for the friend, which I have endeavoured to stamp upon this paper.

Die deutsche Freiheit, lebe hoch! Der Freiheit’s Dichter, Ferdinand Freiligrath, lebe auch jubelnd hoch!

Moses once said, “Who sheds man's blood,

By man shall his be shed;
You say, this Jewish law must now

By Christians be obeyed ;
That it's not right more to regard

Christ's spirit than book-letter :-
0, to be sure! you're right--quite right!

-But, thank God, WE KNOW BETTER! You say, from this law, the command

Murderers to kill you fetch :Well then;—when Jack Ketch hangs a man,

Why don't you hang Jack Ketch ?-"Kill not!” says God :-is then the state,

To this, God's law, no debtor ?-0, to be sure! it's right-quite right!

-But, thank God, WE KNOW BETTER! You teach, God will avenge the blood

The murderer's hand doth spill;
And then you hire troops for war,

And pay them, men to kill :-
So then; you can forgive sin, and

Crime's retribution fetter ----?
0, to be sure! it's right-quite right!

But, thank God, WE KNOW BETTER! The time will come, when poor men's need,

Rich men's self-will shall stop; And killing shall be murder then,

Whether on field or drop!
'Tis true, you call him, who so dreams,

A wild, insane upsetter;
And, to be sure, you're right-quite right!

But, thank God, WE KNOW BETTER.

THE ELEPHANT KRAAL.

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We have seen one or two notices of the late Kraal at Kornegalle, chiefly filled with strictures, on the doings of the visitors, but we have as yet seen none that gives a tolerable idea of the doings of the elephants; or the doings of this most remarkable spectacle that Ceylon can exhibit. Many of our readers who have never been in that beautiful part of the country which was the scene of operations, and cannot boast of leisure suffi. cient to enable them to enjoy the sport, may be glad to know what an Elephant Kraal really is--we subjoin the sketch of the last.

“We left Kandy at two o'clock for Kornegalle, a distance of twenty-three miles; the road was most beautiful and some of the views were more splendid than anything I had ever seen before in Ceylon, particularly

one from Mr. Villier's estate at the head of the Galle- Mahout or rider on her shoulders and appeared pergeddra Pass. When you first come in sight of the low fectly tame; she ate oranges and plaintains from our country, the road winds along the brow of a mountain, hand, and seemed to enjoy them very much. It was and comes suddenly on an opening, where you look wonderful to see her place a great cocoa-nut, husks and down a lovely valley, surrounded with the most mag- all, in her mouth; and crush and crack it as a nut nificent mountains, covered with verdure to their very cracker would a filbert. A very delicate slice of bread summits. The only thing wanting to make it perfect and butter was also given, but she would not even was water, but this is the case in all our Ceylon views. taste it. She performed several tricks such as picking up As we approached nearer Kornegalle, the road put me a sixpence with her trunk, lying down, trumpeting, etc. so much in mind of home, the meadows at each side of etc. It is a very old elephant, and has been in the posus with the cattle grazing on them were quite home session of government more than forty years. It is scenes, and raised up all our sad thoughts and wishes to valued at 2,000 rupees. She has been christened Sybe once more in dear old England.

rebbery and is a great favourite with every one. It was dark before we reached our destination, but the road was quite illuminated with the fire flies, which give a brief description of the Kraal itself and the man

Before I proceed further it is necessary that I should are most beautiful in this part of the country. We were most anxious to know what o'clock it was, but it was so

ner of capturing the elephants. dark that it was quite impossible to see even each other.

About an acre of jungle is formed into a square enAt last one of the lovely little creatures flew within closure, leaving only a small opening to let the elephants reach, it was soon secured and placed on a watch, and enter ; the palisades round this enclosure are about its light was so strong that we were able to satisfy our eleven feet high, and at one end, two wings extend into curiosity.

the jungle for some hundred yards on each side of the We arrived at Kornegalle at ha!f-past 8 o'clock, opening, so as to form a long wall screened by the forest, where we were most hospitably received by our kind the use of which is to prevent the elephants, should friends Mr. and Mrs. Morris, and found their house they hesitate in entering the Kraal, from escaping at literally crowded with visitors congregated for the morn- either side. An elevated stand is erected on one side ing's expedition.

of the enclosure for the spectators; it is about twice as We started next morning at half-past 5 o'clock, on high as the palisades, so that we look down into the horseback, for the Kraal, which was about twenty Kraal-I believe that Kraal is a Dutch word which sig. miles from Kornegalle.

nifies an enclosure. The men who drive the elephants For the first hour or so it rained so much that we into the Kraal are called the beaters. These men are out were not able to remark the country we were passing for several days before the Kraal takes place, in search through, but about seven o'clock the sun appeared, and of the elephants, who come down at this time of the it became very pleasant indeed. The road, or rather bri- year, (July,) for a plant called kooranna which is then dle path, lay through paddy fields ; for the first six ripe-the kooranna is a kind of flax. The beaters, miles it was most admirable ground for a good roadster. when they discover the elephants, light their fires and The next four were through a thick jungle, and the sun torches behind the poor animals to drive them on towbeing strong it shaded us very pleasantly. The flowers ards the entrance of the Kraal ; always keeping in a cirwere most lovely, the magnificent Eroria grew in abun- cle to prevent them from returning. They are then dance, also one of the “bottle brush” tribe of the most forced on close up to the entrance of the Kraal, where beautiful blue. I remarked a very handsome yellow they are detained, to wait for the final "drive,” when flower very like a laburnum only much larger, which they are compelled to advance within the enclosure. hung most gracefully in bunches across our path. We The moment they are in the Kraal, the entrance is closed crossed a lovely river, called the Dedra-oya about four up and they are safe inside, where they keep charging hundred feet wide. Everything looked so tranquil and all round the enclosure, but are repulsed by the beaters quiet, several beautiful trees drooped over it and bathed who are stationed round. These people, when they their graceful branches in it. I quite envied our hor- see the elephants approaching the fences of the Kraal, ses drinking its placid clear waters.

scream with all their might; this frightens them so much, We reached the Kraal about nine o'clock, the latter that they turn to some other point, where they meet part of the road lay along the bed of the Kimbool- with the same reception. Two thousand people were emwanya, which at this time of the year was quite dry. ployed in this Kraal, and the principal part of these Our English friends would have been highly amused hard came without any remuneration, as to a National they caught a sight of our suddenly created village of Sport; indeed, if they were even offered such a degradaKraal Bungalows, which were made entirely of the tion, they would leave the Kraal and return to their leaves of the Talipot Palm, our rooms were hung with homes. red and white cloth, and our furniture very auc in We were told that the drive was to take place after Robinson Crusoe style. All this added very much to our Tiffin, so at two o'clock, we all marched down to the

Kraal, expecting to be almost too late for the sport. In front of the Governor's Bungalow a kind of trium- However, when we arrived there, it was stated that it phal arch was erected, most tastefully ornamented in would not happen for an hour, perhaps two; we rethe native fashion, with plaintain leaves, cocoa-nuts, pine signed ourselves as well as we could to our disappointapples, etc., etc. There were eight Bungalows altoge- ment, and sat down most patiently to await the coming ther, also a bazaar and several huts, so that we had of the Elephants. At length, as we were talking and quite a village of our own. All this was erected by the laughing together, we were startled by a scream rather natives in a few weeks, and did great credit to those than a shout, from the crowd round the stand, and on employed in raising it.

looking round, we saw the people evidently very much We were very much tired after our ride and did nothing alarmed, running here and there, and throwing each all day, but lie on the sofas and talk over the anticipa- other down in their fright. In a few minutes all was ted pleasure of the next morning on which the Kraal quiet again, and we were told that it was only one of the was to take place. Next morning as we were going into wild elephants that had separated from its companions, breakfast, we were startled by the trumpetings of an and was trying to break the line and escape : however, elephant which appeared to be just at our elbow. Our the screams of the people had frightened it back again alarm was soon over, as one of our party came and told Hour after hour passed slowly away, and still no sign us it was only one of the tame elephants brought for our of the elephants; it became quite dark about hall-past inspection. She stood just outside our door with the six o'clock, and we were obliged to sit in darkness, as

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