men of Saxon descent, to the institutions of the conPOETS OF THE PEOPLE.


In such a district, and amid such a people, was No. IV.

Samuel Bamford born. Though sprung from poor and hard-working parents, we find in one of his books, pre

sently to be mentioned, that he claims gentle blogd; the By Dr. SMILES.

elder branch of the lords of Bamford, from whom our

herois descended, having lost his lands by rebellion against SAMUEL BAMFORD, the handloom weaver of Lanca- the king during the civil wars, while the loyal younger shire, is a true specimen of the poet of the working brother, at the Restoration, obtained possession of the class. Into his heart the sacred fire of poetry has de estate. The birth-place of the subject of our sketch, scended, and the music of his lyre is not the less sweet was the town or village of Middleton, near Manchester, an utterance that his mind has been tempered, and his where he first saw the light, in February, 1788. His affections tried by severe persecution and suffering. parents were poor, but respectable, and were deeply Nor has stern poverty, which, for many of the best years imbued with religious feelings, belonging to the then of his life, condernned him to work hard and fare new sect which followed John Wesley. His mother, like meanly, in any wise served to close his eyes or ears to the mothers of most men of strength of character the beauties and melodies of nature, whose spirit-whis- and intellect, was a remarkable woman-and to a strong pers have spoken eloquently to his soul on the moun- mind, in her were united a great tenderness and delitain side, and in his home-valley; and which have often cacy of feeling, which caused her not less to sympathize found for themselves beautiful and cheerful echoes in with others in distress, than to be sensitive of wrongs his songs and lyrics.

received by herself and her family from proud and unBamford is a Lancashire man, born and bred—an in- feeling relations. The father, having succeeded in cbheritor of that sturdy spirit of independence, which the trining a situation in the Manchester workhouse, the indomitable old Saxons carried with them into the family reinoved thither ; but small-pox and fever sudforests and morasses of South Lancashire, when driven denly fell upon them, and in a very short time, two of thither before the superior discipline and prow. the children were carried off by the one, and Bamford's ess of the inailed Norman men-at-arms - a spirit moiler and uncle by the other. which they have retained among them down to the pre His father, having contracted a second marriage, which sent day, to do many a stout battle yet for liberty and turned out most unhappily for the children, they were right. The inhabitants of the South-western districts shortly after sent ont into the world to make their way of Lancashire are a robust, manly, industrious, shrewd, as they could, "shorn to the very quick.” Samuel had, and hard-headed race of people. They have peculiar however, by this time,-about his tenth year,--acquired physical characteristics, and their moral features corres- the art of reading, and already become a devourer pond.' They inhabit a rugged and naturally barren dis- of such books as he could lay his hands on. The school trict; deemed unworthy of being taken possession of education which he had obtained was very scanty, but it by the followers of the Norman William, who, having was sufficient for his purpose then. He read all sorts of ropossessed themselves of the rich pasture lands of the mantic legends and ballads, varied by Wesley's Hymns, low country, drove their former occupiers into the mo- and Hopkins and Sternhold's Psalms on Sundays. An rasses of the interior, and the forests of Pendle and old cobbler, whose acquaintance he made, taught him Rossendale. The conquerors then built fortresses at the tunes to such ballads, as “Robin Hood,” and “Chevy entrances of all the valleys commanding the "wild" Chace;” and also excited his wonder, by remarkable district, at the mouths of the Ribble, the Lune, and the ghost stories, and accounts of fairies, witches, and wonMersey,--the ruins of which are still to be seen; and derful apparitions, in all of which— like most of the thus they hemmed in the Saxon foresters who would not Lancashire peasantry of that day—he was a pious beconsent to give up their independence. It was long in- lierer. deed before their resistance to the Norman authority en Bamford, after leaving his father's home at this early tirely ceased ; and in all great popular movements, even age, was taken to reside with an uncle and aunt at Middown to our own day, the men of these districts have dleton, where the monotony of the bobbin-wheel ard always been among the foremost. In the civil wars of the the loom soon cast a shade over his buoyant spirits. A Stuarts—more especially during the GREAT REBELLION' merely mechanical, gin-horse employment, as was that against tyrannic wrong in Charles the First's time,- now before him, was intolerable to his mind; and he the inhabitants of the Lancashire forests were almost to a seized the opportunity of every piece of out-of-doors man on the side of the Parliament; and the first open drudgery which presented itself, to escape from his hated encounter, in which blood was shed, took place at Man- employment. chester-then, as now, the great metropolis of the dis Amongst other things of this sort, it was his place to trict. Bradshaw, President of the Council of the Com- fetch the family's milk from a distance, and, had not his monwealth, one of the purest of the great public men thoughts been with scenes and companions he had left, of that period, was born in the forest of Rossendale, in it might have seemed an omen of good, when a little the midst of a bold and freedom-loving population, and fair girl,--an orphan, like himself (for such in reality in a district calculated to develope all the republican he was) appeared at his uncle's house, charged with the tendencies of his nature. Indeed, the resistance which task of shewing him the way. She was just a peeping the people of that district have always offered to the as- bud of a child, and he a hale, swipper boy of her own cendant aristocratic power, may be regarded as part of age ; and somehow it happened that whenever after, he the same inveterate struggle between Norman and Saxon went to fetch the milk, though he did not require to be which formerly ravaged the country. And to this day, shewn the way, the little girl would be sure to be found it still is, in some measure, a struggle of races as well as on the road, when she would take up her pitcher and of classes. The institutions of the Conqueror have never with looks of undisguised pleasure would accompany been heartily recognised; the Church which it offered him. On these occasions she would endeavour to enterhas always been rejected : almost the whole population tain him with her innocent notions about school tasks, being even now, extreme Dissenters, vehemently opposed and play-things, and fine new clothes; her parents she to“ Church and State.” The recent Anti Corn-Lawagita- never knew; whilst he would narrate what to her were tion, which originated with and was virtually carried by marvellous accounts of the great house he had left, and the men of Lancashire, was a striking instance of the of his play-mates, and the books he had read, and of hereditary resistance offered even to this day, by the his father, to whom his saddened thoughts often re

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verted, and of his dead mother, and his good uncle, un- embraced an opportunity of leaving the ship at London, til her eyes, like his, would be moistened with tears; and set out on foot to walk the journey homewards into and thus, they spent many sadly happy hours of Lancashire. At St. Alban's he was stopped and questheir sweet mornir time, she becoming to him an al- tioned by a press.gang, and escaped only by an exercise ways welcome companion, but for the present, nothing of his presence of mind, and the fortunate circumstance more, and he becoming to her, the only object of plea- that the commander of the party could not read writing. surable association she had in the world.

Bamford reached home a more thoughtful man than The relations with whom he lived, were, like his pa he went.

He now obtained a situation in a warehouse rents, of the Methodist persuasion. They regularly at- at Manchester, and having, at times, considerable leitended chapel and class; and were frequently visited by sure, he resumed his habits of reading. " Cobbeti’s Rethe ministers on the circuit. Jonathan Barker, a first- gister” was now amongst the prose works which he read rate preacher, was one of the favourites. Jabez Bun- with avidity, and those of Shakespere and Burns were ting, then a very young preacher, excited great expec. the chief poetical ones,—the latter being his especial fatations, but when in the pulpit, he had a most unseemly vourite. He was now, if possible, more embued with way of winking both eye-lids at once, like two shut- romance than ever, and when not at his place in the ters, which caused some mirth and much observation warehouse he lost no opportunity of secking out amongst the youngsters as to the cause of it. John Gaul

“Fresh woods and pastures new." ter was always heard with pleasure, both in the pulpit, and out of it. He imparted an interest to whatever hc Manchester and its suburbs were not then what they are said, by introducing anecdotes, short narratives, and now. The heights of Cheetwood were rural knolls, with other apt illustrations of his subjects; and if it became quiet dells, out in the country. Cromsal, with its unduof an affecting turn, as it was almost sure to do, the good | lating pastures and gentle slopes, was interlaced with man and his congregation generally came to a pause meadow and field walks, where one might hare ainid tears. IIe and Mr. Barker, had no slight influence dered many a day," without being disturbed by inwelon the feelings, convictions, and opinions, of Bamford, come observation. Broughton, with its old Roman in his after years.

Causey, its Giant-stone, and its woodlands, offered a The Sunday school connected with this place of wor- complete labyrinth of bye-paths, shady lanes, and quaint ship, Bamford, of course, had to attend with the other cottages, with vines, and rose-bushes, and creepers trailmembers of the family. He now at first made one of ing down from the thatch,—to say nothing of those dethe Bible class, and was probably a better reader than lightful domestic attractions which are always found in any person about the place except the preacher. The cottages which are happy, and in gardens that are like only things they could teach him were writing and arith- Paradise. Love and poetry were thus again Bamford's metic, and as he felt his want, particularly of writing, Elysium, and peril and self-upbraiding were the cost of and was anxious to get on, he was soon placed at a desk, his unreflecting enjoyments; until he at last resolved to and after a copy or two of “ hooks and O's," he began sever himself entirely from his adored "vanities of vato write “joynt hand," as it was termed in the homely nity.” He accordingly wisely, though far too late, bephrase of his instructor; and from that time he made stowed his hand on ihat orphan above noticed, who his own way.

had long had his best affections and his entire esteem, Meanwhile time passed, and Bamford was promoted and with her he completed that union which neither from the bobbin-wheel to the loom, where he turned party has ever since had cause to regret. out a good and ready weaver. He became more recon We now come to the middle life of Bamford, during ciled to his condition, and, as if to vary its sameness, which he took a prominent part in the stirring political love, which is seldom absent where the spirit of poetry movements of his time, some thirty years ago. This is present (and he was imbued with that) now made portion of his life is to be found detailed in a remarkapproaches in an unmistakeable form, and to him proved ably graphic and deeply interesting book which he has an angel both of light and of darkness. More than one published, and by which he is chiefly known beyond the tender acquaintance was formed in succession, and the range of his own district, entitled “Passages in the romantic susceptibility of his temperament seldom per- Life of a Radical.” This is truly a remarkable bookmitted him to remain uninfluenced by some

written with great force and brilliancy-teeming with “ Cynosure of neighbouring cycs."

exquisitely poetic descriptions of rural scenery and the

beautiful in nature--wonderful in its delineations of chaBut this sort of life could not be continued without lead-racter, and its descriptions of persons, hit off, like ing to temptations which require the guardianship of Retsch's outlines, almost at a stroke,-in other parts, better angels than Bamford had the grace to invoke. shrewd, homely, and humourous, -and again, earnest, The usual consequences followed, and regret and deep emphatic, and truly eloquent, in the advocacy of the humiliation were the dregs at the bottom of his cup of best means of elevating the condition of the great body sweetness.

of workmen to whom the author naturally belongs. But The evil example also, and conversation of reckless the chief value of the book, in our estimation, is in that acquaintances, corrupted his better nature, and a wild it is a true and faithful history of a deeply eventful peand perilous course of life ensued. Feeling but little riod in the political life of England-not as regards The satisfaction at home, be resolved to seek it in far other heads of parties and the leaders of factions—but as rescenes abroad. In the nineteenth year of his age, he gards the masses of the industrious people, and pourtrayed entered into an engagement with a large ship-owner at by a leading actor in the stirring events which he deShields, and went on board his brig the Eneas, engaged scribes. We have had many lives of Pitt, and lives of in the coasting trade betwixt Shields and London. A Canning, and lives of this, that, and the other party storm of three days was the first particular circumstance leader, but the humble political life of Samuel Bamford, that welcomed him to the ocean. Many vessels were modestly entitled “ Passages in the Life of a Radical," lost in that storm, and though the old sailors on gives a truer insight into the life and political condition board said nothing to him, and but little to each other, of the English people in recent times, than all the lives he could not but remark the expressive looks they inter- of political leaders that we know of put together. changed. He remained some time with this vessel, and Bamford begins his political life with the introduction made a number of voyages coastwise, but the almost ir- of the Corn Bill in 1815,-one of the first fruits of that responsible power of the captain, and his capricious use long series of victories and havoc, which covered Briof it, disgusted Bamford, as it was sure to do, with his tain with “glory,” the aristocracy with stars and ribsituation and with the sea service in general; and he bons, and the people with taxes. Waterloo had just

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been fought; the banded kings of Europe had hunted had become a sober grey, and wrinkleshad begun to shew Napoleon from his throne; and the" legitimate" proprie- themselves about die corners of the eyes and the mouth. tors of the human species in England proposed at once But there was tie sane manly upright gait, the same to celebrate their triumph by the enactment of a l'orn open coutenance and generous frankness of demeanLaw. Riots took place in most of the large towns—in our, which at once won our licart. London and Westminster, Bridport, Bury, Newcastleon-Tyne, Glasgow, Dundee, Noitingham, Birmingham,

( To be continued.) Walsall, Preston, and numerous other places. The public mind was deeply excited, and organized political agitation commenced. Cobbelt's writings were extensively read among the working classes, and lic directed their attention to the main cause of the then misgovern

TIE SONGS OF ZION. ment, in the corruption of Parliament and the insuficient representation of the people. Ilampden clubs were

BE WILLIAM KENNEDY. formed in the towns, villages, and districts of the country, which gathered around them the leading active

" Worldst thou hcar the wondrous stainspirits of the time. One of these clubs was established

(Spirits to my spirit said) at Middleton, in 1816, of which Samuel Bamford, by

Glory once of Salem's fane, reason of his knowledge of reading and writing, was

By the hero-minstrel led ? chosen Secretary. Religions services were connected

Heavenly strain, the pride of days with the political discussions of the members; and the

Joyous with Jehovah's praise! influence of the clubs extended over almost the entire

Would'st thou hear it, sonly waking working population. Meetings of delegates from various

On the breast of silence sweet; parts of Lancashire took place, and the organization of

Or, like mellow thunder, breaking the movement rapidly spread. Some members of the

Over Horeb's honoured seat ?"-clubs went out as missionaries, Bamford frequently be

Ere my spirit could reply, ing thus sent to rouse the inactive in remote parts.

Evening winds, with solemn swell, When these llampden Clubs had been sufliciently ex

Mourning voices-floated by, tended over the country, a general meeting of delegates

Sad, as breaking heart's farewell. was summoned to be held in London, under the presidency of Sir Francis Burdett, about the beginning of the year

“ Fain would I that music hear1817. Bamford attended as a representative of the Mid

Wonder of a wondrous time1 dleton (lub, and while in London had interviews with

To the faithful Hebrew dear, most of the leading "Reformers,” graphic descriptions

Pining in an alien clime ! of many of which are given in his Passages.” Those

Bid the silver trumpets sound, of Hunt and Burdett are capitally hit off. Bamford

Prelude to a theme profoundagain returned to Middleton, with a report of his mission; but by this time the alarm of the Government was

Raise the song of Zion's host excited, and the Habeas Corpus Act was suspended.

Choral army-Salem's boast!” Then followed the infatuated Blanket expedition," to

As my spirit made reply, which Bamford was always opposed : still worse, de

Wildly rose and faintly fell

Of the winds the melody-structive physical force projects were recommended; the

Like a death-doomed city's knell. usual consequences followed-public meetings were put down, and secret ones commenced; spies went among the people, blowing the embers of rebellion ; apprehen “Look on widowed Zion-shorn sions of the suspected followed, and Bamford, among Of her beauty-Jacob's race others, was arrested on suspicion of high treason, car Finger-marks for Gentile scornried across the Manchester “ bridge of tears,” and im

Rest of an abiding-place !prisoned in the New Bailey. Nothing can be more in Midst her monumental heaps, teresting than Bamford's description of his wanderings Palestina prostrate weeps; in company with his odd friend “ Doctor Healey," Darkly o’er the pleasant land, among the moors and morasses of the wild districts of Desolation spreads its pallSouth Lancashire, in their attempts to evade apprehen

Would'st thou now the strain command sion, and of their after confinement and adventures in Dear to Salem's festival ?" the New Bailey. There is a wonderful mixture of pathos

Thus the spirits spake--to paining and broad humour, poetry and fun, sense and nonsense,

Thrilled their accents--such the cry in these descriptions, from which, we regret, our limited

Heard in Rama-Rachel plaining space does not afford is room to extract. We cannot,

Where her slaughtered children lie. however, resist the temptation to give the author's portrait of himself, his wife, and family, at this period. of Altered was my spirit's mood, himself

By this sorrowful rebuke

Pilgrim wan, in solitude, “Deholl him then. A young man, twenty-nine years of age;

Forth it flew o'er Kedron's brook five feet ten inches in height; with long well-formed limbs,

Soared to Olivet, and scanned short body, very upright carriage, free motion, and active and lithe, rather than strong. Ilis hair is of a deep dun colour ;

Zion's hill and Israel's land; course, straight, and flakey; his complexion a swarthy pale;

Ruin crowned the mountain bare, his eyes grey, lively, and observant; his features strongly de

Ruin triumphed everywhere! fined and irregular, like a mass of rough and smooth matters,

Grief oppressed, and lonely, lonelywhich, having been thrown into a heap, had found their own

“Wake your funeral wail!" I said subsidence, and presented as it were by accident, a profile of

“ Winds of night!--such music only rude good nature, with some intelligence. llis mouth is small;

Suits this empire of the dead !" his lips a little prominent; his tecth white and well sct; his nose rather snubby; his cheeks somewhat high; and his forehead deep and rather heavy about the eyes.'

The last time we saw Bamford, the “deep dun” hair

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are essentially aristocratic, it pervades every rank and SERVANTS AND SERVITUDE.

condition in society. What can be said in extenuation of

the order that till recently stared us in the face, on enBy JAMES BEAL.

tering Kensington Gardens--the most damning evidence

of the debasement of the lower orders in this country; The condition and position of servants, and the in- and that expressed as much as anything else to which fluence exercised by them on society at large, have sel- we can allude, that the people were the slaves of an dom been considered inviting themes, except to the car- aristocracy--" No Dogs or Livery Servants admitted.icaturist, the novelist, or the comedian. À passing re- Was it not a positive insult to every Englishman, an outmark on their vices and their follies, an ironical account rage on our national feelings. A fellow man of good of their peeping, prving, and listening peculiarities, of character, a necessary conclusion from his being in a how high life was enacted below stairs, with a flourish situation, placed on a par with the canine race, putting of language, to shew how all are under die influence of out of the question the prohibition to his entrance. Talk the same evil genius, is all that can be gathered from not of the debusement of the Northern States of North the literature of the day, respecting them--which re• America, in allotting to the black his portion of the samark will apply eqnally to that of the days that are cred edifice, whilst we ourselves commit an offence, as past, of the truth of which, the writings of Swift and immoral, as opposed to every dictate of humanity and Mandeville, bear imperishable rccords. From all this, religion. we might imagine, that there are certain striking pecu It is not above four years since, a chapel of ease, atliarities annexed to their character, :ud inherently con- tached to the Established Church, had a notice printed nected with their condition, which form altogether so outside the doors, that “No Livery Servants were ad. large an ingredient of their compound nature, that, they mitted.” God forbid that I should defend it, in Ameare placed out of the pale of the community, and form rica, but let us equally expose the errors of ourselves. of themselves, a class so distinct, that to society, they could we wonder if we found a servant the most degraare totally irreclaimable. Differing considerably from ded of men, when every exertion is used, every appliour aristocratic writers, in my estimate of their cha- ance introduced, to degrade him in the eyes of his felracter, and considering that the influence exercised by low men. Look again, at the livery, as much the them on society is great, arising as much from their “Badge of Slavery" of the nineteenth century, as the numbers as from their position; it will not, I trust, be collar of iron was in the palmiest days of the feudal deemed too presumptuous in me to attempt, in this short system. The day may come, however, when it will be essay, to clear away the film that blinds the mass of so- the only distinction, between the aristocracy and the ciety, to this particular portion of it.

masses. They, themselves, may wear the party.coloured Like all institutions in vogue, and in connection with cloth, with the arms of their ancestors emblazoned on the aristocratic classes of this country, we must seek their breast, a befitting memorial of the change, that for its origin in the rude and semi-barbarian ages, and civilization and enlightenment will introduce. Can we in connection with the feudal system. To that period point to anything more likely to debase the character of a when the villain of the feudal baron, bore on his collar class, than placing a bar to their reception, in any genof iron an inscription that proved him to be the born teel society. What inducement is there for a servant to thrall of

and when he was considered part spend his earnings or spare time apart from the public and parcel of the estate, when in fact, the inost degrad- house, whilst the grade of which he is a member, is ing system of domestic slavery formed part of our na- under the ban, a virtual interdict existing against his tional institutions, to that must we refer, and from that reception into society at large, even by those who octrace the origin, and delineate the progress of the pre- cupy a position, but one remove from his. And can we sent system. It is sufficient, however, for my present hide from ourselves the glaring fact, that much, very purpose to observe, (without detailing the ameliorations much of the ignorance that prevails amongst this class, in the condition, which the spirit of the times has is to be placed to the debtor account of the aristocracy. rendered necessary from that period to now) that, what If in public they are afraid to avow it, in private, they the serf of the feudal baron of the twelfth century was, tremble at the idea of education and enlightenment, the servant of modern days is, in the cyes and estimation throwing its holy and purifying influence among them--of our aristocratic lords and ladics, in which laiter term it is the ignorance alone that exists among the majority falls to be included), all who from their aristocratic con- of this class, that makes them the slaves of the dominections or wealth, whether derivable from the loom nant class. It will be found on enquiry, that the majoand spinning jenny, from merchandize, or distillation, rity of servants, who are in any way instructed, have or any of those speculations, in which immense capitals received that little, at an eleemosynary school, of course are embarked and to whom our term of merchant prin- under the patronage of the aristocracy. The so-called ces is applicable, are enabled to add to their dignity by national schools, form an easy exemplification of my a retinue of retainers. Between them and their retain ideas. In these, instances frequently occur of children crs there exists no fellow feeling, the ties of our com- of both sexes continuing three and four years, and mon brotherhood are snapped asunder, and between leaving without even a common knowledge of the ruthem, a wide and startling gap intervenes--implicit diments of instruction-should such a glaring injusobedience to commands, and a submissive, respectful tice be brought under the notice of its patrons, a lord, demeanour on the one liand, is repaid by commands or esquire, may be even some right rev. member of the (given in the most imperative tone) i perform the most prelacy, or a rev, sir, the answer is one that stamps the degrading oflices, and by a contemptuous haughty de system its a paltry, despicable attempt to retard the promeanour on the other hand. In the servant the native gress of knowledge, holding out false hopes to a needy dignity of our nature is for the time broken or crushed; parent, blasting in the bud all the hopes and happy in the master, the worst passion of our nature is exhi- future they had pictured to themselves, of the future bited in all its hideous deformity. The spi that dic-excellence and prosperity of their child, who, under the tated the expression,—“I am the porcelain, you are influence of knowledge they had hoped to see einanci. only the common clay," is not confined to the original pated from the trammels that surround themselves. speaker, but with few exceptions, is very generally par. Name to one of these lordly patrons, the defective conticipated in. It is not, however, solely by the aristocratic dition of a child, and you will have for answer,-class, that the servant is treated with such contumely,

“Oh! what does lie want with all that nonsense, the fault is largely participated in, by the middle and teach him to work, to get his living--you dont want to working classes. The feelings of the English people make a fine gentleman of him, do you ?"

Is it to be wondered at then, that the servants as a condition; a class degraded as regards positiou, but class, are ignorant, and consequently more open to at- famed for their honesty and worth, and in every way tacks from without, and yet, how few of their body worthy of our attention, esteem, and support. It is graever figure in the criminal calender, compared (more tifying, however, to be able to record a few tokens of especially) with the class whose inferiors they are more their worth, and turn from the picture I have depicted immediately considered.

to one more pleasing. Much of the happiness of fami. The present organization of society requires a class lies depends on their servants; from the earliest infancy, of this description, then why should they be spurned. till the eye closes in rest for ever, what a series of kind Their faults have been paraded about and exposed, and and good oflices have been performed, what a combinaon the defection of one the whole are slurred. What tion of attention and care on their part. Sir W. Scott would our aristocratic class think if we judged them considered “ that an individual's happiness was more (as a whole) by a Newcastle, a Winchelsea, or a Wel- intimately connected with the personal character of the lington, or by shoplifting lords and ladies. They have valet than with that of the monarch himself,” and yet their faults, I pronounce them not infallible, but many how seldom has the business of the employer been conintimately connected with their condition. Their cha- nected with the employed, how seldom does he seek racter may be considered as moulded from the circum- counsel and advice of, or even tolerate any intimacy stances that surround the although I by no means with him. One or two records I will allude to, tokens of agree to that principle as a rule--their social degrada- esteem, honourable to all parties. In the grave-yard at tion arises from their position, whilst every other class Twickenham, is to be seen a stone bearing the followforms Unions" of defence, they are debarred there- ing inscription:from-compelled to put up with the greatest injustice, insulted, wronged, and trampled upon--they are com

To the Memory of pelled to swallow all. Should one dare resent the in

Mary Beach,

who died 5th Nov., 1725, aged 78. sult, his character is gone, the public papers record his

Alexr. Pope, offence, and re-iterate in our cars-his MASTER ordered him to do this and the other. The very word

whom she nursed in his infancy and constantly

attended for 38 years, smacks of intolerance and degradation. The state of our laws, imposes this silence on them, for should they

crected this stone in gratitude to a faithful servt. think proper to defend themselves against a false accusa On Madame de Genlis being made acquainted with tion, they are discharged forth with-another situation this, she said, “ This announcement of gratitude is the offers--and the employer alias master, refuses to give a more remarkable for its singularity, as I know of no character, and the poor servant, deprived of the means other instance.” Side by side with the above are to be of obtaining a livelihood, cannot compel him, nor is he placed the names of Gifford and Young, all literary chaat liberty to recover damages in a court of justice for the racters of eminence, and who in simple words record injury and injustice, he suffers. No care and attention is their respect for and the worth of their faithful servants. paid to their comfort and well-being. Visit the "Servant's A visit to our metropolitan cemeteries or corintry churchHall,” in what is considered the best families-a table, yards will repay the enquirer in finding numerous intwo forms, fender, fire-irons, furnish it complete; no stances of devotion recorded similar to the above-an curtains, no chairs, destitute even of those little appli- occasional glance at the obituary of our daily papers ances, and trifling requirements, that are to be found in will be repaid by finding such mementos as the followthe lowleist cottage and contribute to render a home all ing :that is sacred, all that is dear. It too often happens in “ Died on Saturday, 19th of February, 1848, at the conjunction with the hall, that a sleeping apartment for residence of J. C. Wood, Esq., Hannah Patterson, aged men servants is made, without fire plrce or windows-a 53. She lived thirty-five years servant in the same falow, dark, miserable hovel, causing frequent illness mily; her loss is lamented by master, mistress, chiland even death.

dren, and household, as that of a faithful and attached The servant has no time that he can call his own, his friend." nights and daysare a continued round of toil, and worn out It is a pleasing task to record such thoughts as the and exhausted, he is ordered here and there without feeling above: may the example of Mr. Wood find many fol. or regard. Nothing whatever is done to promote the health lowers. Other instances may be recorded, exemplisyand morality of servants, no books allotted them, where ing that true devotion, which commonly arises in the serwith to pass away the hour of occasional inaction and vant from kindness on the part of the employer. A genwhich consequently brings evil in its train--cards and tleman was travelling with his valet through a forest in other games of chance are introduced, the cffects of which Poland, when they were suddenly set upon by wolves, in too many cases, it is easier to imagine than describe. who rushed furiously at the carriage. The faithful serThis description will not apply to the higher class of vant seeing instantly, that either he or the gentleman servants, housekeepers, and butlers, lady's maids, etc., must fall a victim, exclaimed—“ Protect my wife and who are generally provided with all the comforts of a children,” threw himself into the midst of them, and by home, though towards them the same haughty de. this noble act of devotion saved his employer. Who meanour is visible.

has not heard of the devotion and attachment of Le Tel. The condition of the more menial female servants, is lier, the servant of Monsieur Bartlemy, who determined also a subject of complaint, as, except in the largest fn- on following his employer to Cayenne, the place of his milies, no other rooms are allotted to them, than the exile, got an order from the Directory, permitting him servants’-hall, shared with them by the male servants. to accompany him. On being informed of the horrors This intermingling of the sexes cannot be too strongly that awaited' his determination, he answered — " My reprobated, knowing, as we do, the results that too often mind is made up. I shall be but too happy to share the arise therefrom; they are also exposed to those allure- misfortunes of my master.” ments that are too often the only study of the young Such true nobility is rare; let us then cherish it in hot-headed scions of the families, and gulled and be the annals of humanity. Let us now turn from our own wildered by their promises, the brightest ornament of a to compare it with the “ domestic system abroad. family, upon the chcek of whom the mother's tear has In the Northern States of North America, the accursed, dropped at parting, at the same time offering a prayer aye, doubly accursed, feudal system could not flourish, to God to preserve her daughter from the temptations a democratic soil was uncongenial to its growth, thence that may beset her path, is lost, and perhaps, for ever, we find the word servant abolished, the term " helps" from the path of virtue and of peace. Such then is their substituted, and the greatest freedom exists between

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