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procession, lighted by torch-bearers, for these funerals the remembrance the true friendship of the departed, his always take place in the evening. Then followed the manly worth, and genuine German mind. A few stanzas funeral car, covered with black cloth and drawn by were sung from the beautiful hymn—"From high Olymblack horses. Upon the car lay the Chore-band, the pus,” in which he had so often joined them. The coffin Chore-caps of the deceased, and two crossed swords, all was lowered into the grave, and every student pressed covered with mourning crape, and surrounded with forward in turn to fling a handful of earth into the mourning wreaths. We remarked also one smaller gar- grave. Lastly, the lowered swords were erossed over the land, it was formed of white roses, and was, we were grave, and their clash was the signal for returning. told, from the sorrowing hand of some unknown fair Then no longer solemnly and silently trod back the one.

throng; as in the case of soldiers, they marched briskly Immediately before the car went two of the beadles away to lively airs. In going they had mourned the carrying fasces wreathed with crape. On each side and friend and fellow mortal cut off in the early hopes of behind the car, walked the companions of the Chore, all youth-now, they rejoiced only in his advent to a second in simple black mourning with hats. Immediately be- and more glorious life. This rejoicing music was the hind the Chore walked two clergymen in black costume. recognition of the immortality of man. This whole group was surrounded by torch-bearers. Arrived in one of the large squares, the train marched Then came all the other students who were acquainted round it, and turning towards the centre, at a given sigwith the deceased. Before them marched the leader of nal, let their torches fly up into the air, and fall on a the procession with two attendants or marshals. The heap in the midst. They whirled up, describing many leader was clad in the buckskins and great jack boots- a fiery circle and convolution ere they reached the flamthe large storm or two-cocked hat, bordered with black ing pile; and now, while this one huge pyre lit up all and white crape, with sweeping feathers--the great lea- around with a dazzling radiance, and the dark and giant thern gauntlets—the sword trailing in its sheath; and clouds of smoke rolling up, mixed with the many-cohis two attendants were similarly attired, but without loured flames, spread themselves to the heavens, the the storm-hat. Then followed the students, two and voices of the assembled students burst forth in a starttwo, in divisions according to their Chores, amounting ling and most solemn chorus of the music-accompanied to some six or seven hundred, each bearing a torch. In song of two lines they advanced slowly on each side of the

Gaudiamus igitur street, and from time to time we observed an officer

Juvenes dum sumus. marching between these lines, distinguished by his senior's cap and ribbon, while he carried in his hand his Finally, the torch-pile having nearly consumed itself sword, its colours all veiled in crape, and its sheath in its splendid light—the senior stood forth, and wielded hanging from his left side.

his sword as in defiance. The rest rushed together, and Thus moved slowly the procession through the streets with wild cries clashing their swords above their heads, to the churchyard where the body was interred. There there was a shout—"Quench the fire!” and the whole the students assembled round the grave, the clergyman of the students at once dispersed. The crowd then stepped forth, pronounced his address, and closed it with closed in ; water was thrown on the flames; the dense a benediction. Then advanced one of the young friends black column of smoke changed into a white one, and all of the deceased, and pronounced an oration, calling to was over.

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Such is the Student's Life. Full of gaiety, frolic, and prince or peasant--and they unite into what they call romance, kindling a vivid sentiment of friendship, and " Du bruderschaft!" Thou-brotherhood, in which they by that strong union, preparing its actors for an exalted address each other, both then and at any future period devotion to liberty and country, which on all occasions of life with thou, and many are the instances in which is ready to shew itself. One of its most beautiful fea- these friendships between those of very dissimilar statures is, that it is a system of “Liberty-EQUALITY— tions in life have, in years long after, shewn themselves FRATERNITY!” Every one is held to be equal, be he most nobly unshaken.

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The most objectionable parts of their system are their try have ceased to exist ; to have lost its only living evidrinking and duelling--yet it is but just to say, that dence of ever having existed. In the last War of Libethese features have been much exaggerated, and the ration, in the last grand rising to expel the enemy from blame laid on the wrong shoulders. The drinking is their native land, they were amongst the most ardent really that of small beer. The duelling, again, is merely and beautiful of the deliverers. At the Battle of the fencing under another name. The youths might be bet- Nations before Leipsic, they fought like lions, and in the ter employed, that is certain, but they are so defended front. On the great march after the retreating foe, with a sort of leathern armour, that they rarely can be when the whole population seemed to pour itself out hurt, except they get a cut on the cheek as a mark of after it, there were none so fleet, so alert, so joyous, their folly. Such a thing as a death is rarely known. and so gallant, as the students. They proved then that More Englishmen, and men of mature years, and with all their songs and toasts to liberty were not the mere families too, shoot one another with pistols in any one noise and foam of idle and boasting hours. They did year than there are German students killed in their du- deeds worthy of the heroes of the most heroic ages. elling in any one century.

They fought and fell as freely, and as exultingly, as they But who, in fact, are really to blame for the continu- had sung the song of the Fatherland. Far a-head of ance of these customs ? It is a black fact in the history millions, hanging on the closest rear of the hated enemy, of the governments of the different German states—that was seen one brave and devoted band-it was the gymit is their act and work. The students have repeatedly nastic troop of the dauntless, the patriotic Jahn., Long endeavoured to clear their club-life of these practices, before, long ere the spirit of Germany was roused, when and the governments have in every instance prevented it. the proud foot of Napoleon stood on the heart of the The students have desired to set up reading-rooms in- empire, and on the very necks of the fallen princes, stead, but the governments have forbidden them, and where he picked out with searching eye, every promiforced them back on their drinking, singing, and duel- nent patriot for disgrace or death,—then had Jahn ling, lest they should read themselves into politics. preached from his school-chair resistance to the tyrant,

But amid all the outward show of student life, the and freedom or death to the empire. He had gathered spirit of liberty has burned inwardly as its genuine prin into his school every brave beating heart of the youth ciple. On all occasions and in all ages the German stu- around him. He had told them that if ever they meant dents have stood for liberty. They stood by John Huss; to achieve the freedom of Germany, and retrieve its they stood by Luther. They stood by the Protestant lost honour, they must arouse themselves from sloth cause in the Thirty Years War to the death. When the and effeminacy. They must practice temperance, mowhole land was an amphitheatre of martyrdom, when ral purity, and physical exercises, to endow them with the horrible bigot Ferdinand of Austria, crushed out the vigour and activity. He had erected his gymnastic people's lives by his troops, the people fought, and often school; and while he gave to their freaks pliancy and conquered, but in vain. Then issued forth that strange hardihood, he breathed into their spirits the most impeapparition-the Unknown Student! What a singular rishable love of liberty, of honour, and of native land. episode is his advent in the history of this war! His By his “ Teutsches Volksthum,” he sounded abroad, real name and origin were unknown, and will remain so from end to end of Germany, the same great and infor ever.

He had all the reckless enthusiasm of the domitable spirit. The flame caught and spread-it kinstudent, the zeal of the hero, or the saint; and the elo- dled in every German University, and morals, religion, quence which tingles in the ears of wronged men, and patriotism, and gymnastics, became everywhere the saruns through the quick veins like fire. Solemn and cred practice of the youth, founded on their ardent mysterious, he stood forth in the hour of need, like a hope of working out the salvation of their country. spirit from heaven. The wondering people gathered The great day of opportunity came. The battle of round him, listened, and followed with shouts to vic- Leipsic was fought. There was a loud call from the tory. They stood on the field of Gmunden, in the face Princes to arms. Gloriously did the students answer to of the magnificent Saltzburg Alps. The Unknown Stu- the cry. They were promised by all the Princes, as the dent was in the midst of them; and pointing to the price of victory over their foe-a liberty—a constitulakes, the forests, the hills, and the glittering Alpine tional liberty worthy of Germany and Christianity. summits above and around them, he asked if they would From every university poured forth the youth in glow. not fight for so glorious a land, and for the simple and ing enthusiasm-far å-head of them went Jahn and his true hearts in those rocky fortresses ? In the camp of band. The armies returned to Germany with shouts the Austrian General, Pappenheim, could be heard the and the pealing music of trumpets. The band of Jahn fiery words of his harangue. They heard the vows had shrunk into a mere shadow-into a little, very little which burst forth, like the voice of the sea, in reply, and troop-it had been cut to pieces in its daring onslaughts the hymn of faith which followed. From rock, ravine, on the foe. The greater portion of the young heroes, of and forest, rushed forth the impetuous peasant thou- the inspired boys of Jahn, had fallen in the field; and sands, and even the victorious army of Pappenheim yet happy indeed were they, compared with those who could not sustain the shock. The right wing scattered returned. These returned to the bitterest fate. They and fled; the peasant army, with the Unknown Student came back with hearts burning with the victories at their head, pursuing and hewing them down. There achieved, and the reward of liberty to come. But it was a wild flight to the very gates of Gmunden. Then never did come ! The traitor Princes who promised, came back the fiery Unknown with his flushed thou- never performed. They had got rid of one tyrant, and sands. He threw himself on the left wing of Pappen- now resolved to erect themselves into a legion. They reheim with the fury of a lion. There was a desperate fused all demands for constitutional rights. They even struggle; the troops of Pappenheim wavered ; victory trampled on the very hearts of their rescuers. They hung on the uplifted sword of the Unknown Student, Aung cold water on the flames of patriotism, which had when a ball struck him and his role was played out consumed their oppressors. Everywhere the noblest His head, hoisted on a spear, was the sign of shivering spirits were treated as the worst of men. Instead of dismay to his followers. They fled, leaving on the field freedom, they were provided with chains and dungeous four thousand of their fellows dead; Pappenheim and ex as their reward. termination in their rear.

Never, in the history of mankind, did a more beautiTrue to their ancient spirit, the students stood by their ful and Christian spirit animate the whole student youth country in the expulsion of Napoleon and the French. of a nation. They maintained everywhere their gymWere it not for the youthful effervescence of their spirit nastic schools; they practised the strictest morality; of freedom, freedom itself would long ago in that coun- they formed associations to put down all duelling and

drinking; they breathed the most religious spirit. But

Then no little bird can sing their grand institution was that of the Burschenschaft, a

His heartsome freedom-song, union of the youths of all the Universities of Germany

When the streams are changed to marshes,

And when all the hills and fountains to restore the unity and freedom of the German empire;

Send forth only poisonous vapours, and they adopted as their colours those of the old em

And the merry fishes die, pire-black, red, and gold. This union, which was

And the toads and vermin fatten,-founded at Jena in 1815, was persecuted with the ut

Then, the lightnings must descend most bitterness by the Princes. It was made a capital

And the angry tempests roar, offence to wear these colours. The very words printed

That mankind may rise from shadows, in their Commers, or Student Song Books, caused them

That the day may dawn from night! to be seized-blanks were left, and may yet be seen in.

THE GREAT Soxo, plenty of these books. Yet these are the colours which the King of Prussia the other day paraded in the bloody

And behold! the day is come. All that the Burschenstreets of Berlin. If he had a conscience how it must schaft planned, all that the patriotic students of Germany have smitten him at the thought of all the persecutions longed for, prayed for, lived and suffered for-is come? which these colours had brought on the patriotic youth The traitor Princes are fallen--the representatives of the of Germany. Did the memory of the Wartburg, of Tü- great German people are met in Frankfort, -met on the bingen, Frankfort, and the Castle of Hambach never for very spot where the Burschenschaft met in 1831-to a moment flit across his soul ?

carry into effect the sacred object of their most sacred The songs sung by the Burschenschaft are not more desires-THE UNION AND LIBERTY OF THE FATHERdistinguished for their great poetical power, and their

LAND! ardent spirit of patriotism, than for their fine religious

So heaven concedes in its own time the long deferred, faith. In their “Great Song”—Das Grosse Lied--they yet righteous purpose! So it teaches us to trust, and exclaim

work on in certain faith! Arndt, long an exile for his Yes! Jiberty in love

participation in the Burschenschaft has lived to see the Shall yet be glorified ;

day of the desired freedom. He stood, the octogenarian Faith shall approve itself

veteran of liberty, the other day at Cologne, beneath In glorious deeds :

the great Germanic Banner of black, red, and gold--so As the free cloud from ocean rises

long proscribed, yet now flaunted abroad by the very prinHumanity shall from the people rise ;

ces who

scribed it as the symbol of popular union and Where right and liberty prevail,

power. The author of the celebrated national song, In human nature the divine unfold.

What is the German Fatherland ?" and of many another Free Translation by Mrs. Follen.

stirring lyric written in days of despotism to quicken When these glad hopes were crushed by the perjured the blood of his nation—there he stood and saw not only Princes, they dissolved their Burschenschaft with the his own hopes fulfilled, but those of thousands of his same Christian spirit. They say, alluding to this union cotemporaries who are passed away. --and singing this song on the occasion

When the German students, then, in Berlin led the

bloody fight, when in every part of the country they We builded ourselves a house stately and fair,

were at the head of the people, proclaiming the revoluAnd there in God confided, spite tempest, storm, and care. tion accomplished--we may comprehend, after what is

here written, what was passing in their hearts. Those What God laid upon us was misunderstood;

hearts have been fed and strengthened on the memory Our unity excited mistrust c'en in the good.

of past glories, aspirations, and martyrdoms, and by Our ribbon is serered of black, red, and gold, Yet God has it permitted, who can his will unfold?

their perpetual songs, the compositions of the first poets

of their nation, Luther, Schiller, Goethe, Bürger, Lessing, Then let the house perish! what matters its fall ? The soul yet lives within us, and God's the strength of all!

Voss, Chamisso, Herder, Körner, Arndt, Uhland, and of

younger and not less illustriðus names. Never, on any The spirit which animated the forsworn Princes was former occasion have they been more entitled, than on as despicable as that of the youth was noble. They put this last, to sing their noble lyric. down the schools of gymnastics, seized the very machi

WO MUTH UND CRAFT nery, even that of Jahn himself, who had played so conspicuous a part in the drama of their liberation, and

Are German hearts with strength and courage beating? never allowed him a penny for it. They imprisoned and There to the clang of beakers gleams the sword, persecuted him. They have done it to this very day, And true and steadfast in our place of meeting, when the old man, ruined by the government, is, if liv We peal aloud in song the fiery word ! ing, maintained by a subscription amongst the better

Though rocks and oak-trees shiver, spirits of his country. But they persecuted not him

We, we will tremble never ! alone, but the whole host of patriots who had aided them

Strong like the tempest, see the youths go by to drive out the French. These were pursued from city

For Fatherland to combat and to die! to city wherever they took refuge, by the orders of Prus

Red, red as true love be the brother-token, sia, Austria, and Russia. They fled to Switzerland,

And pure like gold the soul within imprest, to France-nowhere were they safe. Some escaped to

And that in death our spirits be not broken, America, some to England, and other countries. What

Black be the ribbon bound about the breast. a constellation of noble spirits was thus dispersed by the

Though rocks etc. breath of despotism into a scattered remnant of unhappy fugitives; Arndt, the Follens, Börne, Forster, etc., etc. And now, since fate may tear us from each other, Many were crushed into indigent indifference-many Let each man grasp of each the brother-hand, were swallowed up by secret dungeons, such as those

And swear once more,-0, every German brother, of Austria, which Silvio Pellico has described.

Truth to the bond, truth to the Fatherland !

Though rocks and oak-trees shiver,
When the oaks and flowers wither

We, we will tremble never!
In the wasting, parching sun,

Strong like the tempest, see the youths go by
When the people are but shadows,

For Fatherland to combat and to die !
And the land a grave for men ;
When tyrannic power presses

However differing in other respects, the students of
Like a nightmare on the land,

nearly the whole continent, and especially France and

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Italy are equally animated with the spirit of freedom hopes for no regeneration, no bursts of noble patriotism, and true patriotism, and they have accordingly won the no trophies of achieved progress. They are born, highest distinction in the late glorious victories of the merely to eat up the corn, and to be swept away with people, as in Paris, Berlin, Milan, while they fell bravely the rest of the antiquated lumber of feudality in the the other day, resisting the Danish invader of Holstein, appointed hour when God shall behold their measure and are equally active at this moment in Poland. full, and their places-empty. That fullness and that

It is with a feeling of melancholy mortification, that, emptiness are of deep significance to this nation. It is turning home, we ask where are the patriotic laurels of the highest import that the enormous wealth of its of our students ? On what occasion did Oxford or academic endowments, shall cease to be expended in the Cambridge, Westminster or Eton youths stand forth for production of moral death and despotism, and be conthe common liberties against the oppressor ?

Alas! verted into the sources of national life, onward and upthey are part and parcel of the old obstructive system. ward zeal-zeal for the land, for the people, and for li. They live only to gather the golden fruits of the great berty-a teeming fountain of all those great Christian aristocratic tree. They are moulded from the cradle and social truths which are becoming the governmental into props of old abuse, conservators of the profitable laws, and the constitutional life’s blood of the nations church and state machinery. From them the nation around us.

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Literary Notices.

Who says this good man's life is leased in time,
Narrowed to some poor space of dwindling years ?
Oh doubting fancies only home such fears !
Assurance through the future sees him climb,
Time and death 'neath him, to a life sublime;
Look forward doubter-lo the future hears
His voice, and, wise in his blest teaching, clears
The world's far life from all that nurtures crime;
So still his great existence knows no goal,
Living in blessed influences that fill
The earth with gladness-guiding up man's soul
From out the noisome depths of sin and ill,
To loftiest heights of truth and perfect love,
Above the mists of scorn-the mists of hate above.
Osborne Place, Blackheath.

The Black Book of the Aristocracy. London, Strange;

Leeds, Mann. This is a most useful little manual for all those who would know and have by heart, as every Englishman ought, what we suffer at the hands of our aristocracy. It should occupy the waistcoat pocket, and the leisure moments of every lover of his country, and, in fact, of every man of common sense, who revolts at the idea of his hard-earned gains being swept away from his children to feed a most disgraceful horde of idlers, debauchees, lewd women, and cormorants and harpies of a most voracious and multitudinous brood.

row, London.

The Philosophy of a Future State. By T. DICK, LL.D. THE FAVOURITES.

A New Edition. Collins, Glasgow, and Paternoster. OUR Illustration this week is from Mr. Marshall Claxton's picture of “The Favourites;" exhibited some time This is one of the excellent series of valuable works since, and is one of those Sir Joshua Reynolds-like stu- which Mr. Collins is bringing out at an amazingly low dies of portraits for which this artist is so justly cele- price. Who would not possess such a work as this for brated-at a glance we see that both the beautiful child, eighteen pence. We have read it again with undimi. whose portrait we have here, and her spaniel, are fa- nished pleasure, and know not a book that we would vourites, favourites of one another, favourites more- more zealously recommend to readers of all classes. To over of certain loving hearts, whose relationship we are those of the working classes whose minds have been left to conjecture :-while the rich back-ground of foli- imbued by half-informed teachers with doubts of Chrisage, and the distant sylvan landscape, constitute, with tianity, we would particularly recommend it.

11

STATE OP TILE PEOPLE.

man may have work if he will. Can there really be ignorance so profound and so pitiable? Why, there is not a foreigner who

visits London who is not horrified at the mass of squalid destiTHE WEEKLY RECORD.

tution and crime which results from it, which here stares upon him. The prostitution which now covers almost every yard of our pavements—the haggard wretches who present themselves

on every hand, are such as are not to be found in the world beALARMING CONDITION OF THE COUNTRY-PROGRESS OF sides. But plunge into the narrow alleys, amid the denser por

tions of the population, hidden from the ordinary eye. There you DESPOTISM.

find square miles of squalour, filth, destitution, misery, and Lamartine, in his “ Vision of the Future," prognosticates the crime, in such a rankness, intensity, and extent, as no city or social and political progress of every other part of the Euro. nation, in any age, ever presented the most distant approach to. pean continent, except Russia and England, which are enslaved We heard an intelligent American, the other day, who had by aristocracy, and retrograde into misery and insignificance. been for two years traversing the continent, say, that there was The circumstances of the present moment seem to warrant the uothing in the world like it. We have letters from Manchester, probability of the fulfilment of the prophecy. Except these two Nottingham, the Staffordshire Potteries, and other places, all countries, all Europe is breaking its fetters; we are suffering speaking of the unparalleled distresses. new ones to be forged. France, Germany, and Italy, have

A master manufacturer writing from Nottingham says :achieved freedom of speech and of the press--we have lost ours. “ The aristocracy are fast reducing this country to the At the time that we behold other governments rising in renewed wretched condition of Ireland, but I do hope that the measure youth from the ashes of revolution, our government is pursuing of their iniquity and that of the people's patience are nearly full, the same fatal course of coercion and terrorism which have for I never witnessed so much misery as now exists in this brought things to a crisis abroad. Distress increases every day neighbourhood, and the circuit of the adjacent manufacturing amongst the working class; the government attempts to crush villages and towns. Thousands are endeavouring to emigrate, their complaints instead of relieving their sufferings. They but many find their means inadequate, and most reluctantly are cry for freedom, and the government presents them with the compelled to remain. The shopkeepers and manufacturers have muzzles of cannon. They complain of their treatment in pub- latterly suffered dreadfully from the general pressure' as it is lic meetings, and they are treated with a gagging bill !

politely called, and many of them now begin to sympathize with We are as much convinced of the fact as Carlyle himself, the working classes, and to say, something must be done ;' a that " where there is smoke there is fire." Where there is dis- very different language to that which they held only two or content there is distress, and to attempt to stifle the erpression three years ago." of misery, instead of removing the misery itself, is the old act of We have seen in the newspapers the representations which the tyrant, which is sure to recoil.

have been made by an assembly of 10,000 of the working clasAnd who is the tyrant of the present moment? The old Tory ses, or rather who should be, and wish to be the working classes, clique ? No, the whig soi-disant Reformers. The odious fea- but are the workless and starving classes, to the Mayor and ture of the thing is, that it is done by pretenders to liberty. authorities of Manchester on their fearful condition. In a pamphWere it done by Tories, no one ought to wonder-but when it let published in that great manufacturing town, called “Hapis done by pretenders to reform—it stinks. And yet ?

-what piness,--the Land restored to the People,” we find this startling are and ever have been—the Whigs? They were the Whigs picture of the who violated the constitution, and destroying the old triennial parliaments extended them by an act of most treasonable usur "The present condition of the greater mass of the people of pation to seven years. O'Connell denounced them as “the base, Great Britain and Ireland, commands the most serious attenbloody, and brutal Whigs;" and most industriously do they la- tion of every reflecting mind, that the causes which have probour to justify that now stereotyped character. What is so duced such dire calamities, may be remedied. base as political renegadism, what so bloody as to march out During the past year thousands of sentient intelligences were against unarmed petitioners with cannon and troops and legions hurried out of existence by famine and pestilence, and millions of police armed with bludgeon and pistol ; what so brutal as to have been rendered susceptible of every disease, through want destroy the last vestige of public freedom, by rendering the of nutritious diet; so that pestilence again spreads o'er the expression of opinion felony and transportation for life?

land. The whole career of the Whigs in our time has been charac. Thousands are forced into compulsory idleness, who would terised by the spirit of coercion. Lord Grey was driven from gladly produce wealth if allowed ; and hundreds of distributors office by coercion of the Irish : Lord John Russell and his col. are sunk in irredeemable bankruptcy. Workhouses, prisons, leagues had contrived to render themselves so thoroughly de- policemen, and soldiers increase, with poverty, wretchedness, tested when in office before, that we hoped and believed that and crime. The governors of the land who should have stored the English public would never tolerate them again. It has a year or two provisions beforehand in case of any failure, treat been weak enough, and what is the consequence? The destruc- the people with scornful cruelty amidst their sufferings, as if it tion of the constitution. The annihilation of the freedom of was a necessary periodical occurrence. But I feel confident speech and the press in one single act of parliament. Ireland, that I can prove that our present awful condition, has its origin after the most unheard of horrors, such as there is no parallel in our very social and political structure of society. There are to in any country, ancient or modern; after half a million of 500,000 thieves, and 250,000 prostitutes waging war on society. her people have perished by famine after numbers of her peo- The cost of prosecution of criminals, amounts to £2,500,000 ple gnawing their own flesh in the fury of hunger, and dying on yearly, and £8,000,000 of poor rates, absorbed without reprothe highway-now driven to the verge of rebellion by the de- duction. £100,000,000 in nine years will thus be worse than nial of justice. And England—what a condition is that of Eng- wasted, which, if properly applied, would entirely remove poland, which these political tinkers are endeavouring to amend verty, vice, crime, and heavy taxation, and remove those obby coercion, gagging, and the bloody weapons of destruction ! stacles which hinder the production of millions of the most

We see placards on the walls of London, and we hear of de- valuable wealth ; secure permanent profitable employment, for putations, thanking the government for preserving order, and the people, and give education to all that require it.” breathing the most volcanic loyalty. Do these placarders and In the Potteries a meeting has been held, and a deputation deputations believe that the dispersion of a body of unarmed sent to the Board of Guardians, praying for more out-door repetitioners, that the opposing of gags to complaint, and the lief, in consequence of the immense extent of destitution, giving of stones instead of bread, is the way to preserve order But volumes would not contain the details of the actual conand promote loyalty? If there be truth in history, or faith in the dition of English misery at this moment. We hear manufacordinary principles of human nature, we believe that these very turers of the highest standing, and the most moderate political measures will be found to be the aggravation of disorder, and views, declaring that they see nothing but a tendency to revothe worst compromise of the spirit of loyalty that could be lution. That they employ their hands as much as possible, but hit upon. To make people orderly you must listen to their just do not sell their goods. This we find a very general condition, complaints--to make them loyal you must make them easy. and it is a condition that palpably cannot last. Numbers of You might just as well endeavour to compress the globe into a working people apply to us to aid them in getting accepted by nutshell as to extinguish distress by rigour.

the Board of Emigration, but the extent of relief of this kind, But we are surprised to hear people who are well off them is not a twentieth part what it ought to be, and is tied up by abselves still asserting that there is no real distress—that every surd restrictions to mere agricultural labourers. A young, ac

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