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work, simple, and easy to be understood by the_work- visional Government, among those who have been en. ing classes, not oniy in France but elsewhere. For in- gaged in administrative functions, who hold these views, stance, I first heard of it, two years ago in a letter I The most talented employées even under the regime of received from a member of the Grand Conseil of the Louis Philippe were compromised more or less to them. Canton de Vaud, in Switzerland, who then informed me Among these, Michel, Chevalier, and other men of ce that Louis Blanc's views of industrial organization, were lebrity were ex-Simonians. These men organized and there generally accepted by the Radicals. In fact, managed even under the old regime all the great pub. however incomplete his views may be, no better man lic works of France. Cæsar Daly, a Phalansterian, wa's could have been found, for commencing the national in the architect of the column of July. Pere Enfantin, troduction of a system of industrial organization in since his return from Egypt, has been the director of France, than Louis Blanc. His very incompleteness is railway. Olinde Rodrigues, another St. Simonian chief in his favour. It makes him less objectionable to op- is a banker, of influence on the Bourse, and now again ponents, while the members of all the schools of societary active in the cause of industrial organization. Moreorganization, can rally round him, as around a friend, to over there is now no fear, but that the Provisional Gowhom they have some additional information to offer. vernment will carry on heart and soul, this organization.
Such then, is the tradition of the idea of industrial About a fortnight since it was not so certain. A coun. re-organization in France-Babeuf, Buaronotti ; St Sicil meeting was then held of the members of the gomon, Enfantin; Fourier, Considerant; Louis Blanc. vernment, in which the great difficulties of organizLouis Blanc is a combination of communist, St. Si- ing a new system of industrial operation were warmly monian and Phalansterian, but principally of the two pressed. Of this meeting I am told an anecdote from former. To the first he is allied by his democratic ideas, a source to be depended upon. Albert seldom speaks to the second by his depth of sentiment. The Phalan in the government council. However, when these obsterians as a school, have done much in the propagation jections were urged rather strongly, he at length found of industrial views, as did the St. Simonians before them, his tongue, “Gentlemen,” said he, “I rarely speak here but the Communists, including the Icarians, are by but prefer to listen. Unless, however, you carry on the far the most numerous body. The Phalansterians how- organization of industry, I had better give in my resigever, although an excellent Normal school for the forma nation and go and again shoulder my fusil !” Now, howtion of a new public opinion, are as a political party, ever I am happy indeed to add, there is no disunity in not supple enough on the one hand, nor expansive the government, as to industrial organization. They are enough on the other. They cannot well adapt their entirely united to give it the most efficient momentum school studies to the altered action of things. Their possible, during their provisional, and therefore revoluchief demand is a square league of land to try an ex. tionary administration. The Revolution, did not cease perimental Phalanstery. This is too formal a proposal with the thirty hours of February, and the flight of for the present disorganized crisis. It is too petty a Louis Philippe, but is thus even now defining itself plan for the actual state of industrial anarchy, which through the acts of the Provisional Government. Louis now convulses France, and threatens a new a of Blanc's organization of workmen are already formed into social dissolution, unless a new industrial order on a industrial battalions, brigades and legions, and march large, a national scale, is not immediately instituted to and from work with pacific military step, in orderly The people are prepared for this. The propaganda of array, with bugle blowing and with flag flying through the new industrial ideas, although under a variety of the streets of Paris. Already also in Paris are some forms, has been most extensive and successful for the national workshops for mechanics in operation. Morelast ten years.
The literary classes, the working over, the decree of government has gone forth, for the classes, and the most intelligent of the middle class are immediate enrolment of two large industrial armies, to fully prepared for a social as well as a political revolu- march forth not with swords and muskets to comtion. However they may differ as to details, they are mit murder, and to destroy, but with spades and pickfully agreed as to the general subject of a new indus- axes to attack the waste lands of the country, and to trial organization. They entirely recognise that a form of win pacific and productive victories. Lastly, by the government is not everything. As far as the people are time this reaches you, the government will have taken concerned, they are determined that France shall not into their hands the management of all the banks, railonly be a republic, but also the sphere of a new indus- ways, and manufactories of France, the present owners trial order.
to be reimbursed, and these establishments henceforIf the progressive portion of the people are thus pre-ward to be conducted as national works, under governpared for industrial organization, the leading minds of ment directors. Thus, then, the government are at the Provisional Government, are not less so. One or one among themselves, with the people, and with the two of its members are indeed but Radicals of the old great principles of the present revolution on industrial cut, with no constructive ideas, further than those which organization. It is fully, evident that the movement, are required to alter the supreme governor of the state, the victorious movement, is industrial, as well as politifrom a king into a president, and to change things from cal. monarchical into republican forms. These however, Beautifully shone the sun upon a placard calling us are the minority in numbers and in influence. Lamar: together to the Champ de Mars! Beautifully shone the tine himself, although professing much ignorance, as to sun when we found there assembled the young students the details of its operation, is a friend of industrial or of the schools and the men of the workshops! Comganization. In his travels in the East, some while pany after company they flowed in with the Tricolor since, he gave in much of his adhesion to the St. Simo- waving above them, amid the music and the singing of nian views, and denominated his political system as their patriotic hymns. There they met students from Christianity practicalized. Later still in the Chamber the Polytechnic, students from the colleges of law and of Deputies, he was the chief of that denominated, the medicine, working men from the faubourgs, with a Social Party. Carnot, also, the Minister of Public In- priest among them, to write such a page of poetic history struction, is an old disciple of the school of St. Simon. as has never before been written in the history of the Albert, again, now vice-president of Louis Blanc's Board world. What had the placard announced? That there for the organization of work, in the Atelier has been they would meet, those who worked with the head, and long since the advocate of national workshops, and other those who worked with the hand, there to shew, that associative combinations. Lastly, Louis Blanc's views are industry was honourable, that there was but one class well known. A sixth edition of his work on the organiza- in future in the Republic-WORKMEN. There they met, tion of industry is just issued. Then it is not only the Pro- and the workmen brought their tools. There they met,
THE PAMPHLETS OP PARIS.
and the students took the tools and went to work with would recommence the horrors of the past, and the pasthem, while the blue-blouzed workmen looked on. sions you had kindled would respect nothing. Adieu ci. Then they fraternized. Then they collected gifts of vilization! adieu France ! adieu humanity! There money for the Republic. Then they marched in proces would be a universal cataclysm. As for us, we are con. sion, indiscriminately mixed together! Oh! it was vinced that what the people wishes should be done. living poetry! It was the marriage of industry, by What all! Find you the Provisional Government, too pahead and hand! It proclaims trumpet-tongued the or- tient and too humane? We find it too firm and too equiganization of industry! Never before had I assisted at table. It holds us over a volcano. Alas! we have but so glorious a federation ! Never shall I forget that one resource, it is to flatter the people. Would you day! They fixed the day, and God gave them sun strike off its talons ? Let us kiss its claws. That dear shine! Sure am I, that the present
revolution is indus- people! that good people! Let us double its salary at trial as well as political. The revolution of '93 pro- the first onset, and allow no time to demand anything. claimed the Rights of the Citizen. That of '48 will pro- Let us place ourselves at its mercy:. It is so good, that claim the Rights of the Working man.
if we contradict it the least, it will tear us in pieces." Yours very sincerely,
“People," continues George Sand, from her own proper GOODWYN BARMBY. self, “ beware of the flattery of poltroons, and avoid the
artifices of traitors. Esteem not those who know thee -but by belief. Esteem not those who turn towards
thee the uncovered breast when even thou art angry and No. VI.
who speak to thee in the face. Let us explain. Never in the future shouldst thou recommence the past. In the past, thou hast been the man of the past, sometimes
sublime, sometimes criminal. Recollect the faults of DEAR FRIENDS,
thy fathers, and yet venerate and bless their names and
memories. It was for that, that they were at once grand In my letter on the Placards of Paris, and culpable, and those who hate and condemn thy fa. I intimated that the Parisian pamphlets, so numerously thers absolutely, know not even the processes of God, issued at the present crisis, required a more serious no- who enlightens the human conscience but by degrees. tice than could be given of them under that head. This But thou wouldst still be culpable in recommencing linotice the present letter is intended in some measure
to terally the past, in the face of the maledictions of the supply. Of course, I do not mean even to name the history of humanity, and with the law of perfectibility hundreds of pamphlets which have issued from the press founded even upon imperfection
itself. Oh! no, people
, since the great event of February. Such a task would the past is not the ideal. Its remembrance is united be tedious alike to writer and reader. I would only with regret." She concludes by saying—"They calum. notice the most remarkable—those whose authors have niate thee, those who say, that you struggle but for mahad fame before, or whose mode of treating the grand terial things, and that you desire by increasing wages subject is remarkable.
and by shortening the hours of labour, but a condition Of these, the first on my list are the “ Letters to the of physical well-being. Without doubt thou hast a right People," by George Sand. Two of these letters by that to that well-being, to that repose, but those who know electrical woman have appeared. The first_“Yester- thee, know well, that it
with thee a higher question day and To-day.” The second—“To-day and To-mor- than that of the bread which nourishes the body: Thou row.” The first of these epistles of the new republican wishest the bread of the soul, thou wishest light, instruc. faith, has already been noticed by the
British press, and tion, the time to read, to meditate, to exchange thought. may therefore here be passed over. The second, how. It is an intellectual conquest which you claim.". . Such ever, to the best of my knowledge, has not been noticed are the words of this glorious woman. She rejoices at in England. “O people'" it begins, " When I wrote the progress of the people. She warns them of their thee some days since : Thou ought to be loved, because Alatterers. She conjures them not to recommence the thou wert worthy of being so," I had not deceived my- faults of the past. She vindicates the spirituality of self
, and my faith on that point still remains un- their aims and objects. There is nothing definite, little shaken.” she continues—"But where I have failed, indicative in her words, but there is a generality so where I have dreamed like a child, is in the short dura- soothing, so hovering overhead like a dove, that they tion of the time which I fixed in my thought for that calm and call a sabbath in the heart, that they spread a prompt reconciliation, for that solemn effusion of frater- soft influence over the soul, like a magnetic languor, unnity, for that confidence, without limits, which has to- til we recognise in them a something of the evangelic day united all classes, and rendered the privileged of strain. yesterday, anxious to be lost and confused in the glorious “The Discourse at the College of France on the Reranks of the people. Pardon me, people, for having public, by Quinet," the celebrated collaborator of Mibeen thus deceived.” She then goes on to indicate chelet, is the next pamphlet I would notice. "The those who would destroy the social end of the Revolu- reign of matter, of brute force,” says he, “is past, is tion, by supplying the Republic only with liberal laws fallen; the empire of the soul, of justice for all, is and the forms of liberty. “These," she adds, "are come.' Friends, brothers, for a new society, become new perhaps sincerely republicans, but they do not compre- men. The day of alliance, of reconciliation, is here. hend the social Vcaring of the Revolution, and they but Let us cast from our hearts every selfish thought, every little understand the people. Take care, they say, the mean calculation, as the last links of the fetters which people is more sharp than you think. It comprehends we have worn. Among all human revolutions, what is very well its interests, and if you deceive it, it will dash the spirit of that revolution which has now come to be you to pieces. It is communist at the bottom; it would accomplished ? It is this. The masses have led their make a common table, and see! but the pretext or leaders. Such is the genius of this last revolution, acthe occasion. It would seize in the uproar the gates of complished through faith, by the feeble, by the poor, by the constituent assembly, and you would be forced to the humble, the most conformable to that which was save yourselves by the windows. While when thus the ever the spirit of the Christianity, of the Gospel. The workmen of Paris, violated the sanctuary of legality, on pure gospel has conquered. The Republic, which we every side of France, the workmen of the provinces bear to the world, rests above everything, on the divine would break your machines, would burn your forests, equality of hearts. A people in its moments of inspirawould pillage your domains, would cause civil war. You tion is like an individual. It was in the midst of the
flames of Sinai, that the tables of the law were written means ? James Rothschild has them. Such is the conupon the stone. They speak of the necessity of enlight-clusion of the pamphlet-such its appeal. It
but a ening, of preparing the masses, of giving them educa- sign of the times, a straw which indicates the way of tion. But what book, what journal, what club, what the wind. The straw is prophetic, and the wind is all teaching more powerful than the voice of God, echoing powerful. Though it may crack its cheeks as a storm, in the ear of an entire people, during the night and the it will sweep as a breeze over the world. day of the 24th of February. Everything that bore the The limits of my letter will yet allow the notice of anheart of man in France, workman, peasant, obeyed at other pamphlet. 'In doing so I am happy to be the ser. that moment that divine commandment-March! which vant of many ladies in Paris. It is "The Future of Woa sovereign voice impressed upon a nation and a world. man, in the Republic; by Madame Sophie SaintBut these sublime moments are not eternal. After hav- Amand.” With a soft and sweet voice she calls upon ing fought alike with the heart, the mind, and the arm, the friends of woman to aid her in evolving for the fuour mission is to be watchful of that pure flame which ture of France, all the grace, tenderness, and purity of God has re-animated. Have we not all received a hun- true womanhood. “Ah!" she says, “ if the organizing dred-fold our reward, in the hour when it was given us genius of work had but induced a more just repartition to bear from the paving-stones of the barricades, those of those employments which appertain to our feebleness three sisters, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, into the pa
that arm so powerful, and which France has lace of monarchy. For myself speech is restored to so long abused, would never have served a more just me, when I feel with a sovereign evidence, the power-cause. Young Republic!” she adds, “ who hast siglessness, the impossibility of speech. Actions, not nalized thy advent, by an abolition of the punishment of words, are what I would repeat without ceasing. Let death, determine that at length woman shall find a us speed then, each according to his vocation, with the place in the management of the great interests of humafact, with the event; let us obey the commandment nity, and all feeble as we are, believe it thy most firm from on high. All I can now do, is to collect my strength support, will be in our hearts, those hearts which beat to utter with you the cry of invincible France-Live the with hope and with fear when thou wert proclaimed. Republic!” Such is an abstract of Quinet's discourse. Let that Fraternity, so holy, be not for us a word void Suppressed by Louis Philippe, he is reinstated by the of sense ! Under the intelligent reign of thought and of Republic, and thus addresses, as their authorized in- noble sentiments, sympathy and the recognition of wostructor, the youths of the College of France.
men, by the new order which protects them, would be Another remarkable pamphlet is published by the perhaps one of the surest means for its consolidation.” League of Social Salvation, a species of French Leeds We fully believe that it would be so. Any organization Redemption Society. It is an appeal to the Baron of labour must be imperfect which does not apportion James Rothschild, for the means of the organization of to woman her proper sphere of employment. No Rework, by Dr. Arthur Bonnard. The Christian physician public can fulfil its name without its laws tend to preplainly tells the Hebrew baron, that but two roads are serve the honour and virtue of woman. open to him. The first would lead to an ephemeral and Thus then we have been enabled to hear something of detested feudal power, which he could not insure to his the voices of four of the most important pamphlets of children. The second would conduct to a fortune, im- revolutionary Paris. The pamphlet is a preacher whose mutably fixed upon the recognizing love of nations. divine dictation is not sufficiently acknowledged. The “James Rothschild,” he says, “ France is a monarchical press of Paris is ever sending forth such preachers, some country. When a king dies, another mounts his throne. eloquent, some obscure. One class dwells in the past. To-day the king
is the people. But that king It tells of the thirty hours of last February, now thirty is hungering, and has not bread. But that king has years old, in this fast livirg life of France. It gives us huts for a palace, and the corners of streets for chambers. the experience of '93, for the consideration of ’48, which But that king could say, like Christ, the son of Mary, is well of its kind, although the divine law of variayour compatriot of the tribe of Judah--The birds of the tion, which in the series of progress, ever forbids alike, air have nests, the foxes have holes, but the son of man two like revolutions, and two counterpart countenances. hath not where to lay his head.” He then shews that It gives us also, the memoirs and the portraits of the with the sovereign people, enthroned upon the barri- members of the Provisional Government; but they say cades, seated on paving stones, with a musket as its that since the Republic, the raven locks of Ledru-Rollin, sceptre, there is under such a state of things much to be have turned grey, that Lamartine spits blood, and that feared. It may be a good king or a bad king, an Anto the fresh face of Louis Blanc has become wan and thin. ninus or a Nero. But the people is never an idle king. These are but histories then, which ever become untrue, A cyclopean worker, it labours day and night, for good which ever require correction, and which always reor for evil. It must then be employed. Its industry ceive addition. There is, however, another class of must be directed, moralized, and organized. The diffi- Parisian pamphlets. These dwell not in the past, but culty is to find the means for so great a measure. What look onward to the future. They are not reproductions is the measure! Production, Consumption, and Distri- of the old revolution, but the living speech of the day. bution, are the three persons of the Material Trinity. They are not chronicles, but prophecies; not histories The producer is too often deprived of the right of con- but poems; not records but epistles. A notice of four sumption. He is Lazarus under the table of the rich of these, out of four hundred, may meet the few leisure man. Distribution is exercised by tradesmen, ten times moments of busy commercial England. We have dared too numerous. It is Parasitism--they live upon that not do more. Be it remembered, however, that the which they produce not. Form a league then, and pro- pamphlets of Paris are now the pioneers of progress, claim as a principle of Eternal Justice, that the products throughout the world. of work should be sold for the benefit of the workers. Organize a body of Distributors of Produce generally,
Yours very truly, as the Government has organized such bodies for the
GoodwYN BARMBY, sale of stamps, powder, salt, and tobacco. Disgorge also the town, by the emigration into the country of the unemployed, that they may there unite manufacturing industry with agricultural colonies. Government workshops are already found insufficient for the crisis. Complete the political revolution by a commercial and industrial one. Such are the measures. What are the
profligate bribery, than ever was witnessed since the most
shameless days of Walpole or Pitt. THE WEEKLY RECORD.
In every department of government the most wasteful mismanagement abounds, and ministers are at this moment asking like anothe? genuine set of Sidmouths, Liverpools, and Castlercaghs, for fresh power to
gag the pens and mouths of Englishmen. MELANCHOLY SIGNS OF THE TIMES.-THE LAUGHING
Such is the rettiess extravagance, that it has compelled even PARLIAMENT.
Lord Elienborough, himself a sinecurist to the amount of upNero fiddled while Rome was burning ! for which his name wards of £9,000, to come out and expose it. March 30th, in has been handed down to the present hour, and will descend to the House of Lords, he called the attention of the house to the the latest ages of the world, a term of execration and contempt. fact, that in 1847, the Government charges had been increased It was scarcely to be expected that a parallel to the conduct of £110,000! This he justly said too, in a year when the national a pagan tyrant could be found in the Parliament of a Christian distress was excessive, when we were obliged to borrow country, in the nineteenth century. But the present British £8,000,000 for the purpose of assisting Ireland, and when the House of Commons bids fair to realize the infamy of the Roman ordinary revenue was deficient. There had been 141 persons monster. While the spirit of God is moving on the face of the only, with the exception of the augmented number in the Post great deep of governmental despotism, and arousing the spirit Office, and for these 141 alone, there was charged £70,000! or of man to assert its dignity and its right,--while kings fall, and £500 per head! In one office there had been a decrease of six governments crumble before the mighty inspiration-while at persons, and an increased charge of £6,000! In the Colonial home distress stalks abroad in town and country; while our Office, which was under the direction of Earl Grey, there was commerce is panic-stricken, and our manufactures are arrested an increase of £1,323! In the Admiralty department, there as by a deadly lethargy; while Ireland, driven to desperation was an increased charge of £10,000! In the Customs of by oppression, assumes a most menacing attitude, the mem- £49,000! bers of the House of Commons answer to the appeals of the Even Lord Stanley's spirit was roused at this. He declared wise for conciliation, retrenchment, and timely reform, by that "it appeared by the explanation of the noble lord at the bursts of laughter.
head of the Admiralty department, that the clerks had been alThere is something most frightful in the circumstance. It is lowed to neglect their duty, and then paid as for extra work for like one of the signs of a fatality which accompanies the rapid doing it! That in the Customs duties had not been diminished, decline and fall of empiros. It betrays a corruption of prin- but altogether repealed on a great number of articles, and yet ciple, a recklessness of mind, a blind hardihood of pampered the increase of charge was £49,000 for the year! That with the folly, so repulsive and outrageous, as to inspire the most melan- decrease of work sixty-two more persons had been employed ; choly forebodings. Woe to the nation whose salvation depends an increase of salaries of £1,857; of emoluments, £17,500; of on guides and legislators like these! In ordinary circumstan- retired allowances £5,747 ; of expenses £25,000 1 In the Postces they would be a nuisance, in circumstances like those of office the increase of expense appeared steadily progressive. It England at the present moment, they are a calamity of the appeared that 3,300 persons had been added to the establishworst kind.
ment during the last two years, and an equal number might be The present parliament is occupying the sixteenth year of added in the two next." The Marquis of Clanricarde. "I hope the Reform Bill. The very man who is at the head of the Govern- so!" A laugh! ment, is there precisely through the universal demands at that Are these the fruits of the Reform Bill? Are they the results period for Retrenchment and Reform. Lord Johın Russell had of the Whig Government? They are, be it confessed by all Engdeclared for years in the house, that nothing but the most rigid land with shame and self-reproach, almost the only ones. reform and retrenchment, could save this nation from ruin. But it is not merely the neglect of the promised reforms, the He denounced for years the Tory government. He denounced forgetfulness of all their most soundly vowed measures of rethe system of bribery by which members of that house ac- trenchment and regeneration, the cool perfidy of the Whigs once quired their seats. He denounced the system by which the in office; it is not merely the audacious assurance, in the face plundered and impoverished people were kept down at the point of all their former pledges, with which they advance in the caof the bayonet and the musket. He promised miracles of re reer of expenditure and additional taxation, which constitutes the trenchment, he painted paradises of freedom and national pros- most alarming features of the case : it is the acknowledged fact perity under the Whig Ministry. He and his fellow Whigs of the House of Commons being crammed with naval, military, were believed, were tried, and what is the result? Sixteen and other dependants of the Government, who have obtained years after these patriotic outeries, these saintly promises, these their seats by bribery, and appear resolved to hold them in the magnanimous denunciations of political extravagance and des- most impudent defiance of all decency and decorum. What is potic treatment of the people—what is the result? Why there their treatment of the most respected representatives of the peosit Lord John and his fellow Whigs comfortably in the ple there? Scorn! What are their answers to the most reasongolden nests of the Tories, and present such an appearance, able demands of reform and economy? Laughter! that no one could tell them from the old Tories, if they were
In the late debate on the Army Estimates this disgraceful connot made aware of their pretences. The reforms are still un
duct of British senators reached a height of reckless insolence executed. The whole manufacturing and commercial systems perfectly unexampled. The military mob of gentlemen were are crippled and threatened with ruin, because the old mono- voting for their bread, and they kept no terms with decency, Mr. polies are left in all their destructive force in India, which should Hume moved that the number of men in the army should be rehave been by this time an immense consumer of our manu- stricted to 100,000, instead of 113,000. The answer was laugh. factured goods, and supplier of raw material at a far cheaper ter--and on its being put to the vote, 45 voted for the resolurate than we can get it elsewhere. India has been made a war- tion, 246 for the augmented number! When Mr. Hume began field for the promotion of our aristocrats, instead of a field of his speech, there was a tolerably full house; when he concluded trade to feed our mechanics. Therefore, our mechanics are there were only six on the opposite benches; but plenty rushed starving by tens of thousands, and the aristocracy in the fulness in to vote. When Mr. Hume reproved them with their bareof place and pension, are crying out for more war establishments, faced contempt of all argument—the answer was,Laughter! and more taxes. The debt remains undiminished-taxation has Mr. Cobden represented that the increased number of men in. been increased last year only ten millions ; and this year Lord cluded an expense of £7,000,000. The answer was againJohn has had the cool audacity to ask for further impositions. Laughter! We are glad to have it in our power to present the Ireland is reduced to a pitiable condition of famine, pestilence, rest of this scene in the words of Dr. Campbell in the British starvation, and anarchy now edged with the menaces of rebellion, Banner. The people at home, when they announce their intention to come
When Mr. Cobden told them that he despaired, with respect in large bodies and present their petitions for redress—are bade to the vote of seven millions one hundred thousand pounds, of to stand off-and not to approach the sacred precincts of legislative being able to bring them back to a sense of duty,” he was met purity. London is thrown into the most hectic alarm. The by a torrent of " ironical cheers;" when he told them there was Bank, the India House, the Palace, and all the offices of Govern- great discontent rising up in the country, again his voice was ment are fortified and placed in a condition of imaginary siege. drowned by " ironical cheers ;" when he hinted to them that the The city is gorged with troops, and the houses planted with perusal of his letters received that day from the country, might cannon to overawe or sweep away the petitioning people. Within, change their tone, again the House resounded with " ironical the house presents the most astounding sight of members recheers" when he charged them with ignorance of the state of turned thither, not by the free votes of the people, but by more feeling among the middle classes, again he was met by "cheers
and laughter.” When he told them they had few partizans the upper classes ; could not, dared not tax the working classes. among the norking classes, again they replied by “ laughter;" We, peaceable, well-conducted men, were the selected victims. when he asked them, if it was not a reproach for them to vote But do not take a selfish view of the matter. Look to the money before they had de vised the means of raising it, the reply working classes ; ask what their movements mean. The work was " a laugh," when he asked them whether they were pre- ing man has wrongs, and feels them deeply. He has not yet pared to meet the discontent that was rising unt among the received his share
of political and social advancement. Hear working, but the middle class of society in this country, the Lord John Russell's opinion on this point. roof-tree resounded with loud cries of "Dicide! divide;" when "If we look," said he in 1844, “to the labouring classes, he entered his protest against the recklessness with which they if we look to the men who either till the soil or labour in the voted money before they considered how it was to be raised, and facwrics, --if we look to the quantity of necessaries which their hinted they might possibly repent of the deed, again he was vi- wages could buy in the middle of last century, and that which sited by " laughter and ironical cheers." Never was “ laughter they could buy now,-I think that we must be convinced that so misplaced ! But the matter did not end here; Mr. Bright, Mr. they have not participated, in an equal degree, in the advantages Cobden's great compeer, and fellow-worker for the good of man which civilization and improved knowledge have conferred upon kind, followed in a speech worthy of himself and the occasion, in us." the course of which he met with even more insult and obstruc Many of the working men look for their political salvation in tion than the Member for Yorkshire. Had Mr. Bright, instead the Charter. They hope too much from it-you fear too much. of being a speaker of the highest order, and a representative for But many of the middle classes never read the Charter. Is it Manchester, been some poor, ignorant, degraded nominee, sit- right to oppose that of which we are ignorant? ting for a rotten borough, he could scarcely have been treated The Charter, I know, goes too far for some, for some too fast. more contemptuously. At every sentence he was met with cries Many recognise it as an ideal to be orked up to, rather than as of “Oh, oh!” “ Question, question !” “Divide, divide !” When a plan for immediate realizatior.. My present purpose is neither Mr. Bright solemnly told them, that sixty millions of taxation to advocate nor oppose it, buzi to ask the middle classes, what, at could not continue to be levied without exciting dangerous dis- this crisis, they inean io do? If you like not the “People's content, the response was, “ Divide !"
Charter," produce your own. Say what you want, and how far Nor did the matter end here, Mr. Wakley presented a peti- you will go. Will you take the points in detail ? Draw out tion from Mr. Beal, of Grosvenor Cottages, Eaton-square, pray- your list of Reforms, give the nation your points. Anything ing for various needful reforms, and amongst them the abolition but inaction and timidity. On you it depends whether we adof the House of Lords. This was a request so infinitely amusing, vance peacefully but quickly in the path of progress, or whether that it called forth shouts of laughter!
we must succumb to injustice on the one side, or anarchy on the If these things are not a hand-writing on the wall to the peo- other. Remember, Reform delayed is Revolution begun. A ple of England, nothing will arouse it to a sense of its real situ- true Reform Bill would soon become to the demagogue, the ation. A nation which can permit itself to be thus robbed and brawler and the physical-force man, a fool's cap in which he insulted by those who are sent up as its representatives, and would be hissed off the political stage. Show you are in earnest does not awake to a feeling of generous indignation, must be and men will wait. Organize in every locality-petition (if you lost to every feeling of independence, and blind to every sign of will) —"pronounce." If you do not go for the Charter, say coming calamity. But we feel too confident of the spirit of the so, but say for what you do. English nation, too sure that its own honour, and the sufferings Inspect the following list, mark off in what you agree ; let of its despised people, will cause every drop of its blood to tingle those who want little, band for that little, those who ask much, in its myriad veins at the sound of that aristocratic and idiotic for much, those who want all, for all. laughter on the benches of its senate, to doubt for a moment the Economy. Abolition of Sineoures, useless offices. result. The laughter from within will be answered by groans Widened Suffrage. from without, and the too long divided middle and labouring Ballot. Electoral Districts. classes will, at length close their ranks and make the "laughing Shorter Parliaments. jack-asses,” which congregate in St. Stephen's, take wing to A thorough Revision of Taxation and Expenditure. some more congenial region.
Direct Taxation on equitable principles,
Complete Free Trade.
Real Justice to Ireland.
Complete Religious Equality. That we are now in the midst of a so Law Reform. lemn crisis of the world's history all allow. Revolution has come Try in what points you can unite with the working men. In again to show that men cannot, will not be governed by impos- every town meet at once to adopt all peaceful and constitutional tures and lies. In France, a corrupt and corrupting government measures to prevent the present Parliament from going to grouse, has met its deserved fate. In Germany, Princes swift to pro- until some true Reforms have been carried. mise, slow to perform, have been spurred to quickened paces. All Europe is convulsed. Sad is the necessity for Revolution. PORTRAIT OF THOMAS GRAY, THE RAILWAY PIONEER. But it comes of Reform delayed. Men revolt not for the sake of Although the labours of Thomas Gray will undoubtedly be it. Revolution is a costly method of change, only to be resorted appreciated by posterity, his friends have resolved to effect someto in dire extremity. If the tenant will not go, we pull off the thing more substantial than mere fame, by promoting a Public roof, with a sad feeling that we are entailing the expense of resto- Subscription in his favour, to enable him to pass the latter part ration, and rendering the house untenantable for a time. of a most useful life in ease and comfort. To assist this object
In these times, what is England to do? Are we to have a Re- Mr. Bannehr, of Exeter, has undertaken to conduct the publi. volution? In the usual sense of that term, No! Barricades are cation of a Lithograph, in the first style of art, of the Portrait exotics here, not likely to be naturalized. Englishmen love not of Thomas Gray, the profit resulting from which he applies in scenes in the market-place. Physical force we will not have, we aid of the “Gray Testimonial.” need it not, we love it not. How shall we prevent Revolution
CONTENTS. and violence! By the only sure plan-Reform. Is Europe to be Organization of Labour. By Louis Blanc. Abridged and reconstructed and England remain still?
Translated by LACIQUOQUE-Facts from the fields. The MelWe want changes great changes. To prove this, we need drum Family. By WILLIAM HOWITT. (Continued.) - German have no recourse to political rant—that cheapest of fustian. We Student Life, and its Influence on Popular Movement. By WILhave but to go to the door of the relieving officer, the rooms of LIAM HOWITT—Chronicle of a Ragged Rascal. By EDWARD the workhouse, and the pages of the Gazette. We are taxed up Youl-Letters from Paris. By GOODWYN BARMBY. No, V. Or. to endurance point, if not beyond. We ask retrenchment, and ganization of Industry. No. VI. The Pamphlets of Paris the answer is, “ Five per cent. on Income." The exit of that RECORD: The Laughing Parliament-George Dawson on the was as contemptible as its entrance was unjust. Men of the present Crisis, etc. middle classes, think of that! The Government would not tax
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