there is a docking of the price! You are told that there come in myself. The one was not yet in my power, and is no pleasing the hosiers at the warehouse now trade is the other I would not do. I returned to Nottingham, bad; foreign goods are so cheap in the market; there and the next day was seized by constables and carried are so many hands out of work, that nothing but the before the magistrates on the charge of having left my very best of work will go down; and what is more, they wife chargeable to the parish, and gone off with the can only give out so much this week, the stock on hand clothes of the parish on my back. It was declared a is so great.

felony in me to have gone off with the parish property, "By the time this purgatory is gone through, the poor that is, the clothes. Was the parish a felon too, for it man has wasted half away in a perspiration of agony, had got my clothes? I asked the magistrate this, and he and his wages have wasted away as fast. There is no termed me insolent, and condemned me to three months help for it. If he complain-the answer is. “Well, hard labour in the house of correction at Southwell. mend yourself: get work somewhere else--and pay what “ Man alive! my blood was but poor and thin, but it you owe me. Will you do that? Shall I stop that fif boiled at this injustice. I would work and be indeteen shillings ? Eh! What do you say?”

pendent of the parish, and it would not let me. It took “What can the poor devil say? He is only part of the my clothes to badge and ticket me as a pauper, and then · machinery of a system that must follow the revolutions branded me as a felon, for having these pauper garments of the other wheels about him, or be smashed to on my back when I sought work. atoms. He must do as all are doing--slave on-starve "I went to Southwell, and to the treadmill. My heart on-and die at last in the workhouse-or turn beggar, swelled within me, at every turn of the wheel, and I poacher, or thief. That is a nice picture of what war, vowed vengeance against the master of the union-the and aristocratic government, and the blessings of ma- parish--the magistrates--everybody! I came out, but chinery, have brought us to. If any one doubt it, let not before I had found others there ready to join me. him go and see.

There was a great poacher of Hucknal-a stockinger "For my part, I endured it in the hope of two children too. We retired to Bulwell, and took each a house, and and a claim on the parish. The two children came set up our frames as an excuse, but our resolve was to and just as I was about to make my claim the law was plunder the game in the woods of Papplewick, Annesaltered, and the New Poor Law and the union stared ley, and Newstead. me in the face. Here was a go! But there was no help “For awhile things went on gloriously. We found a for it. I was now grown desperate. I resolved to go ready market for our game in Nottingham, Mansfield, into the union. Anything seemed better than the starva- Derby, and Newark; but one night we were encountered tion and misery thắt I endured. I applied and was re- by a band of keepers and watchers, and we fought with fused relief-because I was in employ. I threw myself the fury of men who regarded each other with a hatred out of employ—no matter. I could have work. The worse than that of enemies of different countries. They bag-hosier offered it. I took his work, and determined called us velveteen villains-the scum of the earth -to cut myself clear of this work that would not main- thieves, and robbers; we looked on them as the base tain me. I did it so ill that the hosier refused me any slaves of proud monopolizing oppressors. The poacher more. Now the parish was compelled to take me into of Hucknal was knocked down by a pocket flail after the house, but this was not done till I had been sent to he had shot one of the keepers, and felled another with and fro from the overseer to the guardians, and from the the butt-end of his gun. We fled, and there was no reguardians to the overseer, till my patience was worn maining any longer in the neighbourhood. I decamped out, and my family were nearly dead with hunger. At and reached first Leicestershire, and then Northampton, last we got in.

changing my name at each place. Here I soon found “ It was at the time when the law was bran new, and fresh companions of the same kind, and we came to the the Whigs and their commissioners were fiery hot to same conclusion of blows and murder. I was seized carry it out to the letter. My wife went one way, the and imprisoned. I was condemned to transportation, children went another, and I a third. I was turned but the night before we were removed from the jail, I amongst a lot of other stockingers, and we were set to made my escape, and got down to the New Forest. work in frames ready prepared, and kept at it for twelve Here awhile I herded with a gang of gipsies and deer hours, and then let out only into a small court sur- stealers. I heard that my wife had been put again into rounded by a high wall to walk. It is true that our the union, and had got her death by sleeping in a food was far better than what we could get out of doors, room of a new erection not dry. The children were sent but to be treated like so many cattle in a stall, fed and into Derbyshire to work in a mill. worked, kept shut up, and not allowed to see one's own From that day I cursed the laws of the country, flesh and blood—that was more than could be endured and those who administered them, as if their fellow men long. But besides this, to be called " great hulking, idle were vermin to be crushed and destroyed. I am an Ishfellows,” and insulted every time we ate with being maelite--my hand is against every man of that class, as told that we liked to eat that which we did not earn; every one of their hands is against me. They shall seo and to be dressed all in one pauper costume, and every that those they trample on can yet turn like the trodden few days to be stared at by the guardians, and called to serpent and sting." account for not working hard enough, and not doing the By the time that Bates, for so we must call him, had work well enough, and for not being contented to be se- ended his harangue, he had worked himself up into a parated from our families, and threatened with beating perfect fit of livid fury. His face was pale and almost hemp and the house of correction for every word that black with passion, his lips quivered, his eyes stared at we spoke in our own defence-Good Lord! it was the farther end of the ceiling, and his huge knotty stick, enough to drive a man mad. They told us they resolved which he had snatched up from his bedside, he held and were bound by the law to make it bitter to us, and aloft and grasped with a fury that seemed to make every sure enough they did. I soon asked leave to go out and bone and muscle in his hand ready to burst from seek work, determined to live on raw cabbage and lodge the skin. His long wild hair, his sandy whiskers, and in a hovel, rather than to be cooped up and hectored unshorn chin, gave him a savage air, and Meldrum, who over there. It was granted me. I sought work in Not- sympathized deeply in his story, looked on him as a man tingham, and got a promise in a day or two, and till then not only justified in his sentiments, but as ready to face got a job of breaking stones on the road.' I then went any danger, or death itself, in his revenge. back to tell my wife that I should come and fetch her out in a few days, but I was told by the master of the

(To be continued.) union, that I must either take them away at once, or


them certain privileges—a certain constitution of their

own. They were allowed their own courts of justice, GERMAN STUDENT-LIFE, AND ITS INFLUENCE and the laws which regulated and defended their priviON POPULAR MOVEMENT.

leges were ultimately formed into a code. On this code grew the spirit of what is called Academical Freedom.

For this every academician, whether teacher or scholar, By WILLIAM HOWITT.

naturally became a zealous advocate. In time, owing

to aggressions and contests with encroaching rulers, this At a time when the continental students have once freedom came to possess also a political character, and more shewn themselves so conspicuously in the van of the universities, especially among the youthful members, the recent great revolutionary movements, it can not but became the seats and nurseries of national liberty. The be interesting to the general reader to be made acquaint- young men came to regard with pride this sacred deposit ed with the causes of the constant appearance of this of the maintenance of the spirit of freedom, and celeclass of youths on all such occasions. These causes brated it in their songs, and paraded it in their customs. prevail more or less all over the continent, and produce It was a spirit peculiarly fascinating to the spirit of youth. a spirit amongst the students there as opposite to that of At the time of life when every noble and generous emoour English universities as possible. Our students tion is, if ever, predominant, when the inspiring sentispringing, for the most part, from the aristocratic class, ments of the patriots, poets, and historians of the greatand seeking only aristocratic favour and advantages, are est nations of antiquity-Greece and Rome-republican distinguished for nothing so much as their opposition to Greece and Rome, were the peculiar study of these all popular reform and advance. They are the un- young men, it was natural that such sentiments sancflinching, unhesitating, and we might almost say unreflect- tioned and invigorated by the very charters and customs ing champions of Church and State. They are ready to of the schools, should acquire extraordinary power. assault the Anti-Corn-Law lecturer, break the benches of In fact this Academical Freedom on the continent has his audience, and chase him from the city; to petition grown into a singular pre-eminence and has produced against any admission of Catholics or Jews to the merest the most important national effects. civil rights, or to clamour against the smallest reform in The student life of Germany has often been referred the profitable trade of the established church. For the to in this country for its singular features. Those fearest, boat racings and guzzlings, running into debt, and tures, however, which have been most noticed are the threatening the creditors, if they press for payment, to customs of drinking and duel fighting: These have ruin them-are the chief features of our English student- been given an undue prominence, and the German life.

students have been represented as a wild, lawless, drunkOn the contrary, on the continent, whether the stu- en, fighting and hectoring class, something more than dents are of aristocratic or plebeian origin, the spirit of half-savage. If this were their real character it would popular liberty has, from times almost immemorial, or be one of the most remarkable circumstances in the at least from the very first establishment of such schools, world that out of these wild and lawless youths arc been the grand characteristic of the foreign high made the most sober officers, the most domestic clergy, schools.

the most refined poets, and the most profound philosoIn order to encourage learning in times semi-bar- phers in the world. Having lived ourselves for some barous, the Princes who founded universities, granted years in the midst of these students, admitted them

freely to our house, and studied their characters and can offer of friendship, of the community of sentiment, and customs, we were at some pains to make our country-' aspiration, of music, song, frolic, whim, excursions into men cognizant of the true facts. *

the loveliest scenery, and compacts for the advancement What these facts are we will now endeavour to shew of the liberties of the great Fatherland. in as small a space as possible, and being once in pos The time arrives ; he quits the paternal home with a session of them our countrymen will not be so likely as beating heart, he enters the university town, often a they have been to be imposed upon by the ignorant small one, seated amid mountains and forests, and what mistakes of mere passing travellers. One of the com does he first observe ? Troops of those who are to be monest mistakes is that of confounding the university his fellow students—of those with whom he is to form students with the journeyman artizans. Into this mis- the closest intercourse, with whom he is to fight, to take Mr. Laing fell when he assured his readers that he carouse, to study, to pledge eternal friendship, and to saw students begging on the German highways. The pass through a score of ceremonies and processions in same mistake Sergeant Talfourd fell into when passing the cause of Freedom. They are a strange generation up the Rhine to Switzerland, and unable to speak either to look on. They affect a quaint and somewhat antique French or German, he still thought fit to write a book, costume. None of your gowns with hanging sleeves, and assured us that he did not

find the students quite and tile caps, but surtouts of singular cut, often belted, such gentlemanly fellows as Howitt had represented spurs frequently on heel, on the head little caps of them. It was, to say the least, rather wonderful that shapes and colours denoting the particular state to which Mr. Talfourd, who only sailed up the Rhine in a steam- they belong; many with cane or stick in hand, more boat utterly ignorant of the language of the country, with a long and ornamental pipe, and some with a large should be able immediately to correct one who had re- dog following their steps. There is no lack of beard sided three years in it, and made its life and habits a and moustache, nor of a certain swaggering air which study. I however was all the time talking of students inspires foreigners, and especially ladies with a most erin my work, and poor Talfourd was talking of the tra- roneous idea that they are rude, wild fellows, who velling artizans and imagined them students! When would push you off the causeway–while, in fact, they either he or Mr. Laing meets with a German student would find them in society perfectly well-bred gentlemen. begging on the highway, he may be quite sure of being such a Bursche was Prince Albert at Bonn, such was his able to meet with Oxford and Cambridge students doing brother the reigning Duke who bears a sword-cut still on the same in England.

his cheek, the memorial of a student duel, and such are Not less are the mistakes as to the great objects and all the Princes of this country in their days of student spirit of continental student-life. This life is regarded life. as a season not only of study but of enjoyment. To it The student now matriculates by presenting himself every youth looks forward as to that period in his ex

on the appointed day, and at the appointed hour, before istence in which, whatever be the despotism of the the board of matriculation with his certificates, from country at large, he shall by.charter and precedent the gymnasium, of learning and morals. These found enjoy the fullest freedom, combined with all the social satisfactory, the board delivers to him the printed acapleasures of youthful brotherhood. When song, music, demical regulations. He signs the reverse, as it is social parties, new friendships, and perhaps loves, and called, that is, a declaration that he will not take part the mutual excitement of the spirit of liberty and pa- in any prohibited unions, but conform to the academic triotism shall throw over life an enchantment the feeling laws, and giving what is termed the hand-gelübde, or and the memory of which shall continue to gild all his literally hand-oath, that is, giving the pro-rector of the after-existence, whether it shall be passed in the distant university his hand, he receives his matriculation cersolitude of some ruralofficial post, or in the obscure village, tificate, which confers on him the enjoyment of all the amid the storms of misfortune or the shoals of poverty rights of academical citizenship. These include the Everywhere in the works of poets and philosophers do benefit of the university library and all its learned inwe find traces of the enthusiasm with which they regard stitutions, and he has only to take his choice of the their student years. “How shall I call thee” says courses of lectures that he will attend, and pay the Hauff, “thou high, thou rough, thou noble, thou bar- fees. baric, thou loveable, unharmonious, song-full, repelling, yet refreshing life of the Burschen years? How shall I tending the lectures of the University, would be of itself

This portion of his academic life, however, that of atdescribe you, ye golden hours, ye choral songs of bro- a very prosaic and dull

affair. There is another life to therly love ?' What tone shall I give to you to make which he looks forward with the most anxious interest. myself understood ? I shall describe thee? Never! If he choose to remain a solitary student he may; if he Thy ludicrous outside lies open: the layman can see that, choose to take his chance of making such acquaintances one can describe that to him, but thy inner and lovely ore, the miner only knows who goes singing into the he may; but there exists in every university a peculiar

as may fall in his way through ordinary circumstances deep shaft

old grandfather, now I life which he will hasten to enter, and which flings wide know what thou undertook when thou held thy annual to him the social advantages of all studentdom. This is solitary, intercallary days. Thou too hadst thy com, the chore-life. panions in the days of thy youth, and the water stood in thy grey eyelashes when thou mocked me in thy chores wear the colours of the particular state or nation

Every particular state has its chore or club. These stambook as instructed." The youth in Germany then look forward to the days exclusively of subjects of that state, but admit members

whose name they bear, though they no longer consist of his University life, as to the very heart and flower of from any. The colours are displayed on the cap, and his juvenescence. It is a period not merely of dry study, also on a broad band which is worn over the breast. it is a season in which he is to meet with the youth of The colours consist, like those of the nations, for the all the surrounding district, and in which one common most part of three. As we shall see, the wearing of bond of customs, one common enjoyment of a peculiar these colours, has been prohibited by the different gosocial life, is to open up to him everything which earth vernments owing to political causes; and most strictly

of all, those of the old Germanic Empire, and afterwards * See the Student Life of Germany, by William Howitt, from of the Burschenschaft, a society formed for its restorathe unpublished MS. of Dr. Cornelius, containing nearly forty tion, which could not be worn on the person, or even of the most famous student songs, with the original music, etc. printed in a book, without incurring the penalty of baLongmans, 1841.



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The principal of the regular Chores are

The Sachsen, Borus

white, green, black, and The Rhenish, whose colours are blue, red, and white.

sen, or Prussian

white. The Hanseatic

white, red, and white. The English, in Leipsic only. The Westphalian

green, white, and black. Besides this, each Chore has its sign or token; that The Swabian

black, yellow, and white is, certain letters curiously interwoven, with which it The Nassau

blue, white, and orange signs its documents, and which is known to all the other The Swiss green, red, and gold chores.

(To be continued.)

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Part the First.

A ragged rascal, lodging in the street,

Who seldom stumbles on a meal,-

That he should lie in wait to steal, Since ragged rascals are obliged to eat,

And have as good an appetite

As those whom roast and boiled invite To daily dishes, hospitably set,

Does not to me, at least at dinner time,

Seem half so great a crime,
As for a Duke of York to die in debt.

The verse of Homer, or the faith of Pascal,

Or theories, which task all
One's poor abilities to comprehend,

May set the learned mind agog,
Or else involve it in a fog;

Or, politics

May popular attention fix Till of the argument there seems no end : But who cares dumps about a ragged rascal ?

III. One such there was, the wretch I single out From many thousands wandering about The streets of this great city,—to rehearse His fate is the intention of this verse.

He knew no nurturing care of sire or mother.

At four years old,
He found himself, led by an elder brother,

Half-dead with cold;
And where his guide went, he was forced to go,

With shoeless feet,
Limping along,,and, everywhere, the snow

Choked up the street.
The bigger lad, who hobbled on one leg,
Shamming a lameness, said, "Now we must beg;

Keep you behind,

And mind,
You have not tasted bread to-day;

For if the truth you dare to tell,

It won't be well
For you ;-you know I always pay

The debt I owe,

Both when it is a kick, and when a blow."
In speech less gracious, than is here set down,
With eyebrows knit into a frown,
Grasping his pupil by the wrist,
And shaking in the little face, his fist,
With emphasis the teacher taught the lesson,

And felt that he had made a great impression. (Here the muse enters on her first digression,

And trusts the reader will excuse,
Since she is a didactic muse,
And of propriety observes the rules,
A word or two in praise of 'ragged schools.'
For had there been a school on Saffron-hill,
In the New Cut,-or,-in short, where you will,
A school, where ragged rascals, such as this,
Who learnt the lesson taught with emphasis
By his abominable elder brother,
Who hoped to make the infant such another
As he himself, by others, had been made,
And bring him up to vice as to a trade ;-

I say,-that is, the muse says, had there been
Such an academy as may be seen,

To-day at Saffron-hill, and other places,
Where ragged rascals, with their unwashed faces,

(For Hovitt's Journal.)
At visitors and teachers make grimaces,
Another fate had this poor wretch awaited,

No. V.
Another tale would have to be related.

Is it not possible, the muse would ask all
Readers, if to school he had been sent,

He might have proved a shining ornament,

We have promised in the course of these letA human bude-light, not a ragged rascal ?

ters to shew that the movement in France of February, Therefore, the muse bestows her approbation is not only critical, but constructive, not only political On ragged schools,' and trusts the time is nigh, and republican, but also industrial and associative. We When even knowledge,

now proceed partially to fulfil this pledge, by shewing That keeps close at college,

the present position of the doctrine of industrial organAnd costs, to-day, so large a sum to buy,

ization in relation to the last French Revolution. May be accessible to all the nation.)

The revolution of '89 up to the period of the further IV.

revolution of '93 was purely political. '93, was

the pivotal point on which the revolutionary maThere was a red mark round his wrist,

chine turned towards social and industrial amelioAnd he knew the weight of his brother's fist,

ration. At the conclusion of that great date, before So the wretched child fell back in his place,

the counter-revolutionary proceedings of BuonaAt his leader's heels, and looked up in the face parte, Babeuf arose, and said, "What is your convenOf every passer by,

tion, what is your directory, what are all your mere To see if he could note the trace

changes of governmental reform, without the amelioraOf some humanity ;

tion of the industrial and social condition of the masFor God bestows a mark of grace

ses?” He said this in a conspiracy which vanished in On the Samaritans of the race,

a sanguine cloud for the time, but through his disciple, And with his hand, and with His seal,

the graceful and talented Buonarotti, a descendant of Attests ' The heart within can feel.'

the great Italian painter, it yet lived, it re-appeared But no one felt,

again, not as a conspiracy, but as a school of political Nor did any heart melt

economy and societary organization. Buaronotti did his For the ragged rascal with shoeless feet:

work, and St. Simon arose. 1830 was the apogee of "An't you ashamed”.

St. Simonism. The Revolution of 1830 was the echo Twas thus they blamed,

of that of '89. St. Simonism continued in it the indus. “ You imp and you ego

trial protestation against mere political change, which Of a thief, to beg,

had been previously made by Babouvism. It is true So young, as you are, in the public street ?”

that the protestation was less fierce, but it was all the But they who thus censured, had bread to eat, better for that. Its roots insinuated themselves, and And had dined that day off a joint of meat.

grew even in sterile soil. To St. Simon is due the I cannot relate

honour of first giving a science and a nomenclature to Each step of his fate;

the new ideas. His catechism for the industrials, was The soft heart would bleed, if my pen could record it. the first published primer of societary science. His Of this we are sure,

newspaper, the Organizer, first shewed, how chaotic was That a rascal so poor

our commerce, how unorganized, anarchic, and parcelWill meet his desert, and the law will award it. led our industry. St. Simon's was eminently a practical V.

mind, If his own works had been studied instead of

those of his disciples, the public would have had a betLong years have passed ;-10 elder brother now

ter idea of St. Simonism. After his death, however, Drags through the snow

his disciples, by their bizarre proceedings brought a disA helpless, unresisting child,

credit upon the name they bore, which for a while, was inWith aspect mild;

jurious to the cause of industrial organization. Meanwhile Whom you or I, to virtue might have reared,

while Fourier was writing down his views on associaHad we appeared

tive industry, and ultimately collected around him some In time to rescue him, and been inclined,

of the chiefs of the dispersed St. Simonians, who orPossess'd by Heaven with so good a mind.

ganized a new propagand, differing in its views but litOur rascal is the inmate of a gaol,

ile from the St. Simonians, with the exception that the Where food at least, and shelter never fail;

new associative school admitted interest on capital as And where instruction,-but it comes too late one of the cardinal points of their social economy. Defects of rearing strives to obviate. "Come, tell me," says the chaplain," tell me true, " Many of the theories of Fourier, on psychology and


mogany, were however as bizarre, as the doctrines of Gently he spoke,"How has it been with you ?

the Religion St, Simonierme. These with some formed Where are your parents?” “Parents?”. “Where are they, an insuperable objection. Pretty generally, however, Who gave you birth?". "Why dead for many a day :. the views of industrial organization, distinct from the I never knew them. .“And your home?” “The street. “Your bed?” “A door-step, and my rest was sweet.” by the literary and working classes, in France, as the

categories of any particular school, have been imbibed “You know your duty?" "No, nor wish to know.”

present revolution shews. These have selected the " At least, you know the catechism ?” “No!"

from every school of societary science-they have “How shall you live when you are free once more ?" | taken the wood, and left the varnish. These wanted "Why, live by stealing, as I lived before !"

however an exponent of their simple acceptation of in“To steal is wicked!" "And to starve is hard !"

dustrial organization, and Louis Blanc is the man. In “But industry will bring its own reward.”.

1839, he published first his small work on the organThe rascal laughed aloud, for who would give

ization of industry. In 1840, when I was in Paris, Him work to do, if he must work to live ?

seeking for such works, it was not heard of. It has (To be continued.)

since then, however, quietly made its way, as a

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