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as the place of her debut. We have said already that the whole Union with triumph, and would in the end in part she was induced to make these extraordinary make a large fortune. efforts that she might keep the delightful home where She had not shed a tear through the whole of their she had enjoyed so much happiness. She still resided misfortunes, nor even on that sad morning when with there—its furniture-its library---its beautiful grounds her sister she took a last farewell of her beautiful home, its stables with her own and her young sisters' horses-now, however, the flood-gates of her feelings seemed its well-filled green-house—all remained untouched. opened. She rushed alone into her chamber, and throw

Many incidents in the life of this interesting woman ing herself on her knees, thanked Heaven from the are like a page out of a romantic story rather than a depths of her soul and wept abundantly! passage from real life; this is one of them. From room The sympathy of the whole city was with her. She to room she went gazing fondly on beloved and familiar repeated her readings night after night with increased objects, with a prayer in her heart that God would so

Her heart was cheered and assured, and now bless her as to enable her once more to return to that she was naturally impatient to return to New York, that dear home and to enjoy within its walls something of she might afford her father an opportunity of hearing her former happiness. She walked through garden and her and witnessing her success. Her fame had already grounds; sate in her favourite seats; caressed her ani- gone before her; and on her way thither she gave her mals, and while her sister wept passionately, she her- readings the city of Providence. The Americans have self did not shed one tear. This was the very morning a much greater taste for and enjoyment in entertainments that she set out for Boston.

of this kind than we have, and the idea of realizing a conThat same morning she wrote a letter to her father, siderable fortune by means of them appeared anything revealing to him her plans, with all her reasons in favour but chimerical. of them, and earnestly beseeching him not to distress Her return to New York afforded the greatest pleaher or to weaken her efforts by his disapproval. She sure to her immediate connections and to the public in begged of him to write immediately to her in Boston, general: her father, too liberal and high-minded to enthat she might receive his letter before she made her tertain any petty pride, openly gave her efforts his sanc: first appearance in public, and thus, as it were, feel tion—her numerous sisters did the same-but she had strengthened by his blessing. The dear sister, who was here to see a new phasis of human nature. alone the depository of her secret, and who conveyed Public applause and sympathy were with her; new this letter to her father, parted with her at his very door, friends and admirers gathered around her; she was which she passed, without taking leave of her family, on likely to become an object of universal love and admiher way to the railroad which conveyed her to Boston. ration; but many an old and beloved friend, who had

Mrs. Mowatt's name was already favourably known to flattered her in prosperity, now was ashamed of and coldly the press in this city by a number of fugitive poems; deserted her; the dearest friend she had, excepting her and from the first, friends immediately gathered round sisters, in her own family, one to whom she had looked her, cheering her by the assurance of unquestionable up as almost to a mother, now totally dissevered herself success. According to her earnest wish she received from her; according to her conventional notions she had the day before her appearance the much-desired letter lost caste and was degraded. Oh, pride! how cruel and from her father; as well as letters from other members one-sided thou art. She was cut to the heart, she who of her family; the surprise of all, as might be expected, had bravely faced misfortune, and had shewn a courage was great, but as regarded her father, from whom she through severe trial which surpassed that of a man, was had inherited her great energy and perseverance, he disarmed and enfeebled by the unkindness of those she gave his unqualified consent, approving of her plans and loved. Her health gave way; she fell dangerously ill, encouraging her to the utmost.

and appeared to all to stand on the brink of the grave. She had to make her debut in one of the largest pub. Her medical men gave it as their opinion, that the lic buildings in Boston; and such was the excitement shock which her feelings had sustained, and not her phyand interest already created in her behalf, that when sical and mental exertions, was killing her. A severe she stepped upon the rostrum, she found herself standing illness succeeded, which confined her to her bed for before a brilliant assembly, which completely filled the many months, and which consequently prevented her whole building. Her heart almost died within her; all pursuing her public avocations. For two years she was at once she seemed to become aware of the momentous a confirmed invalid. step she had taken; everything was at stake. Had she A great work, however, was wrought within her soul, not over-calculated ber powers ? She had risked all to which taught her submission and patience, and which save her beloved husband and the remnants of his for- shewed her that every trial, however severe, is permitted tune, and if she had deceived herself, and should now by the Divine Father as a means of purification and of fail, it was a double ruin and disgrace. She had no attracting his creatures still nearer to himself. Under one to aid her! she stood there a stranger and alone, this influence she wrote the following little poem, which without even the aid of music to fill up any pause or we select from a great number of others written at this allow her an interval of rest. These, however, were time, and which all breathe the spirit of the humble and but the natural doubts of a moment.

trusting Christian. The audience, as we have been told, were intensely interested in her appearance, she looked younger, even than she was, and pale as a marble statue—the intensity of her feelings made her cold as death,—she was dressed

Thy will be done! O heavenly King, in plain clear white muslin, with a natural white rose,

I bow my head to thy decree; her favourite flower, in her hair and her bosom. She

Albeit my soul not yet may wing put up a secret prayer to Heaven for success, and the

Its upward flight, great God, to thee! next moment calmly commenced her reading. How she Though I must still on earth abide, performed she herself had not the slightest idea, and

To toil and groan and suffer here, when the audience applauded she was too much absorbed by her own deep feeling to notice it. It is said

To seek for peace on sorrow's tide.

And meet the world's unfeeling jeer. that she did not even tremble, and her lips, though colourless as her dress, never quivered. On coming out When heaven seemed dawning on my view, the people thronged about her; they overwhelmed her

And I rejoiced my race was run, with their enthusiastic approval, they congratulated her Thy righteous hand the bliss withdrew; on her entire success--told her she would go through

And still I say “Thy will be done!”

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THY WILL BE DONE.

And though the world can never more

D'Arblay's Life and Letters. All the above and comA world of sunshine be to me,

pilations with the exception of the two last, were exThough all my fairy dreams are o'er,

tremely successful, edition after edition was sold, and And care pursues where'er I flee.

much money was made by them.

We must now relate a little circumstance which ap'Though friends I loved the dearest-best, pears to us as remarkable as any which have gone before, Were scattered by the storm away,

and which proves that the conscientious discharge of And scarce a hand I warmly pressed

duty, together with a spirit of self-sacrifice and devotion, As fondly presses mine to day.

form the basis of Mrs. Mowatt's character. A singular

chance brought her acquainted with a family of British Yet must I live-must live for those

emigrants of the name of Grey, who, after having gone Who mourn the shadow on my brow,

through a series of the most grievous sufferings, were then Who feel my hand can soothe their woes, Whose faithful hearts I gladden now.

literally perishing with hunger in that land of plenty:

The father was blind, and the mother, in an advanced Yes, I will live--live to fulfil

stage of a mortal malady, was unable to support her The noble mission scarce begun,

family, which consisted of several children, the youngInd pressed with grief to murmur still,

est about two years old. Mrs. Mowatt did not shrink All Wise! All Just! “ Thy will be done!”

from the picture of abject, hopeless misery before her ;

on the contrary, all that we have heard of Sisters of During this long and severe illness the beautiful home Charity doing, was done in this case by this angelic which lrs. Mowatt had made such extraordinary efforts to woman; she clothed, she fed, she comforted them ; she sare, was sold, and though it had passed away from her diffused light amid darkness, hope amid despair. for ever, so fondly did her affections still cling to it, that Within a month of each other the parents died, and one of the first drives she took during her convalescence Mrs. Mowatt found three young orphans upon her hands, was to visit it. The stripped and deserted rooms had a but she neither relaxed in her charity nor was dismayed melancholy aspect; the gardens were neglected and by the weight or the responsibility of the charge. overgrown with weeds; it furnished the most complete

With the consent of her husband, who had nobly cocontrast that could be conceived, to its foriner state.

A operated in her works of Christian love, they adopted pang went to the heart of its young mistress, and yet she the children to whom, having no family of their own, returned to her less ostentatious home in the city, they had become greatly attached. To do all this howthough sorrowful, yet submissive to the will of God, let ever much self-sacrifice and self-denial was needed; it be whatever it might.

but they had fortitude enough for this which is the seAbout this time, her husband became the principal verest trial of the sincerity of charity as well as of any partner in a publishing business, and weak as she was, other virtue. For the sake of these otherwise, friendthe whole force of her inind was turned to aid him in less children, she was willing to bear and to exert her. this undertaking. Wives like this, are truly what wives self, often beyond her strength. Among other things, were meant to be, help-mates in the truest sense of the we may mention that she made the clothes even of the word. For some time she had written both in her own boys herself, and gave them all daily instruction. How and under an assumed name in various newspapers and noble is such a woman! Far more admirable was she magazines. Under the name of Mrs. Helen Berkley, making, with her own hands, clothes for her orphans, she wrote a series of articles which were popular from than if she had remained the brightest ornament merely one end of the Union to the other; which were trans- of wealth and fashion. Three years have passed since lated into German, and reprinted in London; the titles these excellent people have become responsible to God of some of these are “Inconvenient Acquaintance,

and man for these orphan children, and so far, this deed “Practitioners and Patients ;” “Sketches of Celebrated of christianity has brought, and promises yet to bring, Persons,” and the longest a one volume novel was en- abundant blessings. The children are lovely in person titled “The Fortune Hunter.” It may perhaps be as and disposition, and devotedly attached to their benefacwell to remark here that a keen satirical vein runs through most of these works which may be ascribed to

It was at this time that the works of Miss Bremer, the wounds which she had received from her worldly through my translations, made their way into America, friends and which, while they had tended to open her and afforded as much pleasure, and created as great a eyes to the falsehood of the world, had made her clair. sensation as they have done elsewhere, and must of royant as it were, to its faults and follies.

necessity do, on their first introduction wherever sound The success of these works induced Mrs. Mowatt to moral sentiment forms the foundation of social life. In write in her own name, and then curious enough, an

Mrs. Mowatt's heart they met with the sincerest reso attack was made upon her by some of the sapient cri- ponse ; for her mode of action had long been framed tics for imitating what they called “The witty Helen instinctively upon the principles advocated and inculBerkley.” Besides these works we must mention ano- cated by Miss Bremer. No wonder therefore, that she ther class which she prepared for her husband's pub- seized upon them with the utmost avidity, and hence it lishing concern, many of them while she was lying upon is that her longest work, “Evelyn," written soon her bed of sickness, the titles and numbers of which after this period, is formed so entirely upon the Bremer will astonish every one

“On the management of the model. In this work as well as in the “ Fortune Sick," “ Cookery for the Sick,” “Cookery and General Hunter." the intelligent reader will also become aware House-keeping,” “Etiquette for Gentlemen,” “Eti- of the infusion of another and a nobler spirit, even than quette for Ladies," "Etiquette of Matrimony,” “On that of Miss Bremer--the spirit of Swedenborgian theKnitting, Netting, and Crochet,” “On Embroidery,” ology which had now been for some time embraced by “A Book of the Toilette,” this last little book, singular both Mr. and Mrs. Mowatt. to say, became very popular from its containing some

The history of this conversion, if so it may be wonderful cosmetics the receipts for which were fur- called, is not less extraordinary than interesting, but nished to her by a relative, to whom they had descended we will hardly venture to communicate all we know, as an heirloom, and which set the ladies, far and wide, because the world is not yet prepared for the truths of to stew and boil the specified roots and ingredients for spiritual life. At the important period to which we alsuch cosmetics as had probably belonged to the class lude, a period of sickness and deep trial, knowledge was which Mrs. Primrose and her daughters prepared. Be obtained through suffering, ever one of our disides these, she abridged the Life of Goethe and Madame vinest teachers, which at once gave a new tone and a new

tors.

value to this world and the next. The young wife be- used to deter her. All this caused her so much pain came, as it were, the teacher of the husband, and as in and agitated her mind so fearfully, that to make an end former days, he had guided and tutored her intellect, of it, having gained the consent of her husband and she now awakened and instructed his nobler spiritual father, she determined to expedite the final step that being.

these distressing interferences might be ended. The Unfortunately the publishing business in which Mr. time for her debüt was fixed, only allowing about three Mowatt embarked, was unsuccessful, and new losses and weeks for the necessary preparatory study and instrucdisappointments for the time depressed them. But let tion in stage business, and through the whole of that peno one despair until he have tried every power which is riod she was persecuted and annoyed by letters, and within him. Mrs. Mowatt had many resources yet. It warnings; but having advanced thus far, no efforts had been told her that nothing which she could write, would turn her back. would be so productive as dramatic literature, for She was to make her debât at the Park theatre, in the which every one who knew her, believed her eminently “ Lady of Lyons.” The eventful morning of the requalified. This induced her to make the attempt, and hearsal came, and this is a more severe trial to a dein the spring of 1845, she wrote her first comedy called butante, than the actual appearing before the public. “Fashion” which was offered to the manager of the The gloomy thcatre dimly lighted with gas almost Park theatre, New York; no sooner read than accepted, chilled her. All the persons belonging to the theatre and splendidly brought out.

were collected round the scenes ready to sneer or laugh, The design of this piece was to satirise the life of the or with malicious pleasure to confuse the novice; but parvenues of America, and it is undoubtedly indebted for a Mrs. Mowatt, summoning all her energies, resolved to do great deal of its faithful portraiture of life and its keen sa- her very best, and regardless of all present, to act her tire to the author's own experience and sufferings. To the part, exactly as she would do it before the public at surprise of the young writer, its success was unlimited; no night; she took all by surprise, as they afterwards American play was ever so brilliantly successful, and it frankly confessed, and when the second act was finished still keeps its place on the stage.

each, in the kindest manner, did his utmost to help her In Philadelphia it was also brought out and equally the very actors themselves applauded, which is the well received. The managers of the Walnut-street highest species of praise, because it is the most unusual. theatre where it was performed, invited Mr. and Mrs. No one doubted the success which awaited her. Mowatt to that city, that they might witness its performance. They accepted the invitation and were enter

(To be concluded next week.) tained three days in the handsomest manner at the expense of these liberal managers. On the night of the performance which Mr. and Mrs Mowatt were to attend, the bills presented to them were printed in letters of CAPITAL PUNISHMENT. gold on white satin. After the play, the audience

BY FREDERIC ROwton, having discovered that the young authoress was in the house, called for her most enthusiastically. For the first time she that night was compelled to rise from her

Honorary Secretary to the Society for the Abolition

of Capital Punishment. box and bow to a theatrical audience, little thinking that in less than two months from that time she herself

No. X. would become familiar with the stage, and make her curtsey before the footlights of that very theatre.

After the play she was requested to go behind the scenes, to be introduced to the principal performers.

We have so far considered whether the legal destrucIt was a formidable thing, they were ranged upon the tion of undoubted malefactors is justifiable: we will now stage in a semicircle to receive her; she made a little proceed to enquire how far a punishment can be said to acknowledgement to all, as well as her embarrassment be moral that frequently despatches persons altogether would permit, and the following day sent a present to innocent of the crime for which they professedly suffer. each of the five ladies in the piece. One of these five The fact that the gallows has destroyed many guiltless it will be interesting to our readers to know, was Miss persons, is one of the strongest arguments that can be Susan Cushman, now so delightfully familiar to the employed to prove the immorality of the practice. In British public. The great success of this piece caused the managers of we assume one important attribute of the Deity, and

professing to “copy with awe the one Paternal Mind," some of the principal theatres to make her very tempting stupidly forget another, which is absolutely necessary offers to adopt the stage. The acting manager of the for the right exercise of the first. We claim God's Park theatre had two years before, when he witnessed right to judge, but forget that we have not his Faculty her dramatic readings, offered her the same induce- of Discernment. We brandish His sword of Omnipoments, but these, at that time, she indignantly refused. tence, and forget that we have not His eye of Omnis. Her pride had not yet been wholly conquered, she had, cience. I see anything but morality in that : I see in it however, since then, suffered a great deal, had gained an infinite immorality. far greater independence of character, more deter

It seems to me a principle from which there can be mination of spirit and greater liberality of views. The no departure, that man can have no right to inflict any shackles which had then, in some degree, bound her to penalty which he cannot recall if he find that he has insociety and its slavish conventionalities were now Aicted it in error. The limitation of the human faculbroken.--She was free and she dared to do whatever ties is a natural sign that there should be a limitation in was not contrary to her own pure conscience.

human punishments. And when we further reflect upon The only impediment which stood in her way was the the horrible and atrocious mistakes which man has extreme delicacy of her health. However after con- made in the use of this penalty of death, we find our sultation with physicians she obtained her husband's argument confirmed and enforced by experience to a consent, and after considerable difficulty the consent degree that makes our conclusion absolute. also of her father, who simply said that if she had but

The ruler of one age thought that the Albigenses courage to do in public what he had seen her re

were criminals, and destroyed them: the ruler of an. peatedly do in private, her success was certain. On the other deemed Protestants worthy of death, and burned other hand, again came in the opposition of family con- them alive in Smithfield: a third ruler ordered the masnections; threats, entreaties, prayers, and tears, were sacre of St. Bartholomew. Within the last 160 years,

CONCLV.

THE MORALITY OF HANGING INNOCENT MEN.

SION OF THE MORAL ARGUMENT.

the

40,000 persons have been found guilty of witchcraft in In February, 1846, a man named John Gordon was Great Britain, and have been kiiled by British rulers! executed in Rhode Island, United States, for murder. What a fine moral judge must man be to make such His innocence was subsequently established beyond the awful blunders !

shadow of a doubt. But it is not so much of errors in the perception of Three years ago an aged man died confessing the crime that I would here speak, as of mistakes in the de- commission of a murder in Lancashire, for which four tection of the criminals. Men by hundreds have been men had been executed several years before, vehementtried, condemned, and killed, for offences which they ly protesting their innocence. never committed at all-the real criminals escaping! Āt Ipswich, in 1845, a man named Howell was hanged From the mournfully numerous list of such cases, 'I se for a murder which everybody is now persuaded he did lect a few striking instances,

not commit. Even the chaplain of the gaol (usually the In the evidence given by Sir Frederic Pollock, the last official to look on the merciful side of a case) aspresent Lord Chief Baron, before the Criminal Law Com- serted his positive conviction of the man's innocence. missioners, it was stated that for a long period past, an

The recent Report of the New York Committee on innocent individual had been executed in England every Capital Punishment-a very valuable document--says, three years. Sir James Mackintosh made a similar “ 'The last execution which took place in Columbia was statement. And Sir Fitzroy Kelly has asserted that this of a woman for the murder of her child. Fifteen years is far below the real average: that since 1800 more than afterwards an old woman on her death-bed confessed forty innocent persons have been destroyed. Sheriff the crime.” The same authority informs us that in Wilde, in his evidence before the same committee, gave May, 1834, a man named Boyington was hanged for the some appalling accounts corroborative of these facts. murder of one Frost, and afterwards shown to have They may, therefore be taken for granted. But not to been guiltless. rely on general assertions, let us take a few well-known Let us think next of the vast number of instances in individual cases.

which poor innocent creatures have been saved only At a public meeting in Exeter Hall, held in May, 1846, at the very last moment. I heard Mr. O'Connell relate a circumstance of this Sheriff Wilde states, that in the space of nine months kind. Three brothers of the name of Cremen, whom while he was sheriff, no fewer than five persons were he had been employed to defend, were found guilty, and respited on the ground of innocence, solely by his exhanged, in Ireland; their innocence being subsequently ertions: two out of the five being respited at half-past proved beyond a doubt.

eleven on the night before the day on which they were At a meeting of the Town Council of Cork, in April, to be hanged at eight. 1845, Captain Sullivan mentioned a case which came

The Christian Witness records a case at York, within his own experience. Two young men, named wherein a reprieve was forgotten to be sent at the right Tobin and Burke, were, not long before, sentenced to time by the Under-Secretary of State, and only arexecution for murder. When the time for their destruc- rived as the men who were to be executed were actution arrived, a quarter of an hour's respite was asked ally ascending the cart ! of the Sheriff, to enable the men to receive an answer That dreadful case, too, must be fresh in the general to some enquiries which they said would prove their in- memory, wherein Lord Denman found by a paragraph nocence. The delay was denied them, and they were in a newspaper, that execution was about to be inflicted hanged. The execution was scarcely over when a res on a man who had actually been reprieved, but whose pite arrived. The enquiries set on foot had proved the reprieve had not been forwarded by the Recorder! entire guiltlessness of the supposed criminals!

A recent number of the Jackson Patriot (U.S.) has A case is on record of a young man being apprehend- the following paragraph :-"In the Autumn of 1833, a ed on the charge of murdering his father. The old man man named Ebenezer H. Miller, was convicted of the was found dead, and the prints of the son's shoes were murder of a squaw in Kent County, in Michigan, and traced in the snow to and from the father's cottage; the sentenced to be executed. The gallows had been shoes themselves being found by the officers under the erected on which he was to be hanged, and only two prisoner's bed. He was hanged. Shortly after, his sister days were to elapse before the sentence of death was to confessed the crime, and stated that she had put on her be put in force, when the governor commuted it to brother's shoes to avert suspicion from herself.

confinement for life in the state-prison. Here Miller reSmollett, in his “ History of England,” has the fol- mained three years. A man named Harvey, pretended lowing sentence :--"Murder was perpetrated upon an that he saw the murder committed, and was the prinunfortunate woman in the neighbourhood of London, cipal witness against Miller on his trial. Not long and an innocent man suffered death for the offence; since, Harvey, on his death-bed, acknowledged that he while the real criminals assisted at his execution, heard was the guilty person, and that he had charged Miller him appeal to Heaven for his innocence, and in the cha- with the crime, in order to shift the danger of the punracter of friends embraced him while he stood on the ishment from himself.” brink of eternity."

In 1838, a man named Horrebow, was charged at the At Dublin, in 1728, a surgeon was found alone in his Lambeth Police Court, with murder. Several witneshouse, with his maid-servant murdered. He himself ses positively swore that he was the assassin; but just had blood on him. He was tried and executed. Seve- before his trial, a man named Robertson came forward ral years after, another man confessed the deed. and confessed himself the culprit. When the two men

There is also to be noticed the well-known case of a were confronted, the likeness between them was 80 asmurder on Hounslow Heath some years ago, for which tonishing, that they could scarcely be told apart. no fewer than three different batches of culprits were It is a singular, but undeniable fact, that on many hanged: the two first being eventually proved altoge- occasions men have confessed themselves guilty of ther guiltless.

crimes which they never committed. In Sir S. Romilly's In one of “ Chambers's Miscellanies” there is an au- Memoirs, there is an account of a man named Wood who thenticated account of a father, William Shaw by name, was accused of mutiny: Instigated by some insane who was hanged in Edinburgh for the murder of his motive, he acknowledged the crime, and was hanged. daughter. Shortly after his execution, it was found His entire innocence was afterwards established. Half that the daughter had committed suicide!

a dozen persons, at least, have proclaimed themselves Jonathan Dymond, in his “ Essays,” speaks of six inen the murderers of the bar-maid in the Regent's Park, being hanged at one Exeter Assize, all of whom were who was assassinated a few years ago. And a month afterwards proved guiltless.

or two since, a man named George Mills, voluntarily

now?

accused himself of the murder of Eliza Grimwood, al- obstinacy of the “powers that be" on such occasions though it was afterwards proved that he was hundreds would scarcely be believed but for an overwhelming of miles from London at the time when the deed was mass of testimony from all quarters to its truth. Mr. perpetrated.

Wilde, speaking of two innocent men who were ordered To the multitude of known cases wherein capital for execution, says,—“After several communications punishment has been inflicted in error, we must add the with Sir Robert Peel, and not until half-past eleven vast numbers in which mistake may fairly be presumed. o'clock on the night before they were to be hanged, was If, during the last half century, forty innocent persons I able to procure a reprieve!". In the melancholy case have been murdered by mistake, how much larger must of Chalker, at Ipswich, even an hour's delay was refused, have been the proportion years ago, when capital in notwithstanding a positive assertion that the man's flictions were ten times more frequent, and when the innocence could be established : and the victim was blood-loving administrators of the law were even more hanged, though afterwards proved to be guiltless. Not careless, and still less accessible to pity, than they are to speak of other cases, the recent execution of Hutch

The imagination shudders as it contemplates the ings at Maidstone, may be finally referred to. When vast " army of martyrs" thus slaughtered in error : and the application for delaying his execution was made, the heart sickens at the thought of the solemn assevera- the Secretary of State was not to be found,--and the tions of innocence which have so often been despised matter was left to the tender consideration an underand disregarded, though uttered from the very scaffold secretary, who, after granting a two hours' respite, itself. What conception can be more utterly horrible finally ordered the man's destruction by sending a verthan that of a guiltless man destroyed by his fellow-crea- bal message to the South Eastern Telegraph-keeper, tures, in spite of protestations made on the brink of the that the execution was to be proceeded with! Surely grave, and sworn to, with God for his witness !

the wires must have burned with the consciousness of

guilt as they carried the infernal message ! “O! as man, proud man,

One or two more considerations, and I close the Dressed in a little brief authority,

moral argument against the gallows. Plays such fantastic tricks before high Heaven In the first place, can the ruler have, under any cir. Angels themselves might weep!

cumstances, a moral right to inflict a punishment which

is undeniably demoralizing in its tendency? If, as is adTo think of the poor murdered creature in his “cold, mitted by all, evil is found to result from the practice cold grave;" of his wretched family vainly wringing of hanging, where is the moral code that will justify their hands over him whom they shall see “no more at man in its use? To do evil that good may come, is uniall for ever;" and of a stupid, cold-hearted world look-versally forbidden in all systems of ethics. ing callously on, and permitting the atrocity to be per Secondly, the punishment of death is immoral (that petrated in the holy name of justice-oh, it makes the is, unjust between man and man) because it inflicts an blood boil in our veins with indignation, and the mind eternal penalty upon a human offence. I am not now recoil upon itself, stunned with overwhelming horror! about to enter into the question of religion : that I

Our opponents mock us by pretending to deplore leave for future chapters: but I simply urge the conthese “accidents” as much as we do. “ To err is hu- clusions of philosophy. That the soul enters into a man," the hypocrites tell us. “No human institution new and unalterable state at death, reason affirms, as is infallible-- who can always be right ?" Murderers! well as Revelation : and consequently he who kills the by your own logic you stand condemned. If you are body sentences the soul. Now the crime punished is fallible, how dare you deal the judgment of the Infalli- simply a question between man and the culprit: the sin ble? If you are liable to err, how dare you inflict an of the act he is not called upon to measure. I maintain, irrevocable doom? If your arm may smite the wrong, then, that the crime committed being only a human ofhow dare you pretend to wield the discriminating sword ence, it should only be subject to a human penalty: and of God? Oh, by your own shewing you are the very death being a divine one, it is, consequently, not at worst of assassins ; for you murder with your eyes man's disposal. open, and in defiance of the light which you admit your Thirdly, there is the following grave question to be selves to possess !

answered :-Have we a moral right to destroy a fellowBut what is that which you croak back to me in creature for immorality, whom we have taken no pains reply? “You do your best to avoid mistakes ?--You to instruct in the paths of goodness? We make no attake every care, and make every enquiry, that may tempt to moralize our people, and yet we pretend to preclude the chance of error ?". It is false! The re- punish their wickedness. From what class come our verse is the fact.

Government shows no anxiety on be- criminals? From the untaught. And whose fault is it half of life. Less care is manfested respecting life than that a people remains unenlightened ? Is it not the is shown for even the meanest species of property. In State's alone ? Yes, it is. And for every crime commitcases where only the value of a sixpence is involved, ted in darkness, the neglectful State, and not the neg. there exists a right of appeal after judgment: but in lected culprit, is morally accountable. We leave the cases of life and death, the right is emphatically re- child to wallow in filth and ignorance, and we hang him fused !-from the sentence there can be no appeal what- when in the necessary course of events, he becomes an

It is true that the crown possesses an overruling abandoned and desperate man. Let us manfully think prerogative of mercy : but official apathy stands be- of this, and prate no more about our morality until we tween it and the subject, and nothing can be more diffi- have mended our foolish and cruel neglectfulness. Let cult than even to get a case noticed by the executive.us educate the children, instead of strangling the men : There is plenty of evidence to prove the extraordinary let us lead them to be good, instead of leaving them to difficulty which stands in the way of those who seek be destroyed when bad: let us ensure their morality the revision of a capital sentence. Mr. Samuel War- instead of trumpeting our own! ren, in his recent tale called “Now and Then,” has But now to ascertain the full result of our enquiry graphically described such an attempt: and nothing can into the morals of this matter. be more harrowing than the cold-blooded indifference Starting with positive proof that the infliction of death exhibited by the minister of state to whom the appeal by man on man as a punishment, is a practice not is made. And the picture is no fiction. It is as true as merely inexpediení, but largely and frightfully injurious, facts can make it. It is next to impossible to get the we have now'further seen, -That no plea of the inherent || attention of the proper authorities fixed upon such sinfulness of murder can justify the use of the gallows cases : and the coldness, impassiveness, carelessness and against the criminal, for sinfulness consists in motive,

ever.

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