room and the warm stove. The father will be come COLD ABROAD FOR WARMTH AT HOME. in from the barn and the byre. The evening meal will

be set out, and the talk of the day's doings had over it; What an amount of endurance of one of these con- and then the mother will bring forward her spinning ditions there is in this world, for the enjoyment of the wheel, and the father will take from the shelf the book other. For this the traveller drives over the bleak of wonders, and the children will place their stools heath with frost in his veins, and the hissing east-wind behind the stove, and listen with all their ears. That in his teeth, and cheers himself on with the imagination is the hour of the peasant’s felicity; that is the warmth of the blazing fire, the warm supper, his pipe and his and the paradise that have made all the long day's cold, glass at the well-known inn--his home for the time. and the wading through snows in the valley, and the For this the shepherd treads the crunching snows and dreary chill of the wood tolerable. beats his fingers on his sides, on the wintry downs; for Then are all the simple souls entranced and rapt this the labourer spends his eight or ten hours over his away into a land of loveliest enchantment and romance. monotonous task in field and wood; the sailor mounts The good old times of simplest faith and chivalthe top-mast while the icy rain glazes the ropes as he rous adventure have come down to the peasantry of the ascends and glues his aching hands to them, and sits out continent in a literature of their own, to which they his turn amid the midnight blast, and the roar of dark-cling with an unconquerable affection, and which is to some seas. For this fifty thousand wretches in the streets them ever new. In France, Germany, Denmark, and of London alone, suffer cold, and hunger, and contempt; other regions of the north, the peasant's hut is enriched ---their homes being the purchased threepenny lodging from the book-stall of the fair, with its own peculiar where they warm themselves by huddling together in library of poetry and tale. There are the “ History of heaps like sheep in a winter's pen. For this thousands Griseldis" and the “ Mark-Graf Walther,” the "Paof shivering children stand or trudge on through daily tient Grizel” of Boccaccio and Chaucer; the “Holy Gemiseries, the impotent and passive ministers of their noveva," the “ Emperor Octavianus,”. “ Fortunatus elders. It is theirs to "stand and wait.” To hold with his Cap," the “ Horned Siegfried," "Tristan and hammers, hand nails, watch gates, guard open shops, Isalde," the "Beautiful Melusina, a sea wonder, and sit in deathly lobbies expecting answers to messages, the daughter of King Helmas;" the “ Fair Magelona ;" doing anything, or what is worse, doing nothing at the the “ Four Heymon's Children," Roland's Three bidding of better clothed, fed, and warmed individuals, Pages,”. “ Snow White," and a score of others. Round For this they offer flowers that nobody wants, pencils thousands of winter-stoves the assembled families of the that nobody has faith in, and lucifers that nobody peasantry, and often with addition of in-dropping neighnotices, and freeze against great bare walls, and at bours sit and spin, and listen to the reading of the wind-whistling corners, half into statues, and half into “ Four Heymon's Children” riding forth on the good crouching miseries. Yet for them there is some dismal horse Beyard ; of the trials of Genoveva or Griseldis ; nook of some dismal place where a bag of shavings or how Octavianus avenged himself on the traitor who a heap of matting, presents a paradise of comparative brought so much trouble on his empress and his chil: warmth through a few dark hours, if they can only dren; or how Peter with the silver keys, after all his carry thither the sum which opens the inexorable door. wanderings and adventures, won his beautiful and good

Immense is the amount of daily wretchedness through- Magelona, and lived long with her as the noble Count out the world in winter, that is cheerfully endured for of Provence. the warmth at home. In England the abundance of With these are mixed up the horrors of “ The Three coal renders unnecessary the prowling and hacking in Miller's Daughters," a dreadful Blue-Beard story; the forest and on waste for fuel which is so common to the wild tale of the inestimable Lock in the African cave, poor in most other countries. Here the fire like the Xaxa ; or they laugh at the simplicity of the Schild. bread must be sternly worked for; but in most other burgers, or mingle a little modern marvel with the old countries the forest supplies the necessary fuel, and the the Cruelties of the Turks towards the Greeks, or poor must out and gather it. We may see a little of the Wars of Buonaparte. this in those parts of our own country where coal is Such are the hours of domestic warmth and intellec. scarce, and commons are not wholly despoiled of their tual enjoyment with which a good Providence recomtrees, but abroad, the supply of the fuel is generally penses the simple dwellers of foreign woods and wilds the work of the women and the children. Woods ex. for the out-door cold and cares of the day. The wolf cept far from the towns and villages are no solitudes. may howl amid the winds at the door; the dark forest At all hours of the day and all seasons, you find in them may frown around, snow may bury the valleys, and the the peasant women and children, raking up the fallen icy blasts sweep the wastes, but within there is light leaves for the bedding of their cattle, and gathering and comfort, and a world of wonder in which the imasticks and dead wood for their fires. Down every path gination roams as on the sun-bright plains of heaven. of the mountains you see them descending with their Where poverty presses hardly come too letters from new large bundles of long boughs, or you see the scratch- lands beyond the Atlantic, where their kindred have esings in the snow that are made by their trailing these tablished themselves in new homes, and invite them to after them.

plenty and independence. The artist has seized a group of these in some one of It is in our own wealthy country, and especially in 1 his rambles and given it to us in a masterly manner, our most wealthy cities, and above all, in our unri. as we have given it to day to our readers. Behold the valled metropolis, that those who suffer the fiercest dreary, wintry edge of the forest. Behold the mother pangs of cold abroad enjoy the least of the warmth at assailing in the absence of the wood-police, the bough home. The wretched street haunter of London, where of an outstanding tree, and yet fearing to cut too much. is his or her home? The Gin-Palace alone invites them See the fine attitude which a shape too graceful to be in to a warmth that scorches, and a blaze that kills. wholly concealed by the peasant's attire, and the ear. The dreary lodging-house admits them to what ?-to nestness of the act gives to the mother. See the watch-scenes of the most revolting filth, discomfort, and deing and waiting children. What patience in the girl, pravity. In these, human creatures herd together in what cold in the boy. It is cold petrified, rather the rudeness of beasts and the infamy of devils. No than personified. But anon, the turn of the youngsters songs of the olden time; no romance of beauty and shall come. Both shall receive their loads, and trudge grace, of tenderness and exalted love, breaks through home full of glee, dreaming inwardly of the warm the darkness of their spirits, and soothes them into vis



tue. Degradation the most hideous, vulgarity the most whilst despoiling it. There was at once a violent repulrevolting; theft, and cunning, and murder, and brutal sion and a violent attraction between these two docviolence crowd and crouch together, and dream only of trines. They recognised each other in the combat, and - more successful lies, more adroit robberies, more subtle aspired after a yet more complete recognition when the infamies for the morrow. Such is the grand triumph struggle should cease by the triumph of liberty. Three of our civilization, such the result of our wealth, such things were thus evident to reflecting minds after the the blessing of our Christianity! Who would not prefer month of April 1791. First, that the revolutionary to this the peasant's fate ? Cold abroad but warmth at movement already commenced would march on from home, The blazing fire, the assembled family, and the point to point, until it had obtained the complete restobook that has in its pages worlds of fresh beauty, and ration of all the rights of humanity, that it would pursue the soul of Paradise ?

tyranny, privilege, inequality, and egotism, not alone on the throne, but in civil law, in administration, in the legal distribution of property, in the conditions of com

merce, labour, and domestic relations, in fact, in every SCENES AND CHARACTERS FROM THE FRENCH relation of man with man, and of man with woman. REVOLUTION.

Secondly, that this philosophical and social democratic

movement would seek its natural form in a government Translated for Howitt's Journal,

analagous to its principles and nature. And thirdly,

that this social and political emancipation would bring FROM LAMARTINE'S “HISTOIRE DES GIRONDINS."

along with it an intellectual and religious emancipation to the human mind; that the liberty of thinking, of speaking, and of acting, would not stop at the liberty

of belief. That the idea of God confined within sancTHERE are objects in nature whose form you can only tuaries would issue forth to shine in every free consci. clearly distinguish by withdrawing to a distance. Prox- ence with the light of liberty itself; and that this lightimity as well as distance prevents perfect vision. Thus revelation for some, reason for others,--would exhibit it is in great events. The hand of God is visible in hu- more and more gloriously truth and justice, which flow man things, but this hand itself casts a shadow which from God upon earth. conceals what it accomplishes. Thus in the French Revolution we perceive, even at its commencement, the announcement of the grandest thing in the world : the advent of a new idea in the human mind, the democra Poets tell us clouds take the forms of the countries tic idea, and later a democratic government.

over which they pass, that moulding themselves upon This idea is the product of Christianity: Christianity the valleys, upon the plains, or the mountains, they finding men enslaved and degraded throughout the preserve their impress, and thus bear them across the whole earth, arose at the fall of the Roman Empire as heavens. This is the image of certain men, whose colvengeance, but under the form of resignation. It pro- lective genius, so to say, moulds itself upon their era, claimed the three words which two thousand years later and in themselves embody all the individuality of a nawere repeated by French philosophy : Liberty, Equality, tion. Mirabeau was one of these men. He did not origiFraternity! For a time this dogma lay buried in the nate the revolution, he manifested it. Without him, souls of Christians. At first too feeble to attack civil perhaps, it would have remained a mere idea or tenlaws, it said to the powerful : " I still for a little while dency. He was born, and in him it found form, pas. leave you the political world, and confine myself to the sion, language, that which causes a crowd to exclaim; moral. Continue if you can to enchain, to break into clas- “Behold here is the thing itself ! ses, to enslave, to profane the nations. I emancipate souls.

He was born a gentleman, of an old family. originally Perhaps I may employ two thousand years in vivifying from Italy, but refugees and established in Provence. souls, before I burst forth in your institutions. But à This family was one of those which Florence had reday will arrive when my doctrine will escape from the pulsed from her bosom during the tempestuous times of temple and enter the councils of nations. That day the her liberty, and for whose exile and persecution Dante social world shall be renewed.”

so severely reproaches his country. The blood of MaThis day had arrived. A century of philosophy, chiavelli and the restless genius of the Italian republics sceptical in appearance, but in reality believing had shewed themselves in all the individuals of this race. prepared the way for it. The scepticism of the eight- The proportions of their souls are above their destiny. eenth century only attacked the external forms and su- Vices, passions, virtues, all are beyond the common pernatural dogmas of Christianity: it adopted with line. The women are angelic or wicked, the men subpassion the morality of Christianity and its social mean- lime or depraved, their very language is emphatic and ing. That which Christianity called revelation, philoso- grand like their characters. Even in their most familiar phy called reason. The words were different, the sense correspondence there are the colouring and vibration was the same. The emancipation of individuals, of of the heroic tongues of Italy. Mirabeau's ancestors castes, of people, was equally derived from it. The speak of their domestic affairs as Plutarch of the quarsole difference consisted in this, that the arcient world rels of Marius and Sylla, of Cæsar and Pompey. You had emancipated itself in the name of Christ, the mo- feel that they are great men lost amidst ignoble things. dern in the name of those rights which all creatures re- Mirabeau from his cradle was filled with this domestic ceive from God. The political philosophy of the Revo-majesty and this manhood. The source of genius is lution could not, however, invent a truer, a inore com- often in the race, and the family is sometimes the proplete, or divine word than Christianity had already done, phecy of destiny. Mirabeau's education was rude and by which to reveal itself to Europe, and it had adopted cold, like the hand of his father, who was called the the dogma and word of fraternity. The Revolution Friend of Men, but whose restless spirit and selfish only attacked the exterior form of the reigning religion, vanity rendered him the persecutor of his wife and the because this religion had encrusted itself in the monar- tyrant of his children. Honour was the only virtue chic, theocratic, and aristocratic forms of government taught him. That was the name then given to that pawhich it wished to destroy. Thus is explained that ap- rade virtue which was often only the exterior of probity parent contradiction in the spirit of the eighteenth cen- and the elegance of vice. Entering the military service tury, which borrows all from Christianity, yet denies it early, he only contracted a taste for dissipation and


play. His youth being passed in state prisons, his pas character, bis acts, or his thoughts, with an immortal sions there exasperated themselves, his genius whetted sign. Had he believed in God he might have died a itself on the chains of his dungeon, and his soul lost martyr, but he would have left behind him the religion that modesty which rarely survives these précocious of reason, and the reign of democracy. In a word, chastisements

. Removed from prison to attempt, at the Mirabeau was the intellect of a people--yet that is not desire of his father and forming a connexion with Made- after all being the faith of a people! moiselle de Marignan, a rich heiress of one of the great families of Provence, he practised himself in cunning and audacious scheming on this little stage of Aix.

Louis was at this time thirty-seven; his features He displayed cunning, seduction, bravado, all the re

were those of his race, rendered rather more heavy by sources of his nature to gain success; and he did suc- the German blood of his mother, a princess of the ceed; but scarcely had he married before he is pursued house of Saxony. He had blue eyes much open, rather by fresh persecutions, and the strong castle of Pontar- clear than dazzling, a round retreating forehead, a lier opens to receive him. A love, which the “ Letters Roman nose, deprived somewhat of the usual energy to Sophie” have rendered immortal, once more open of the aquiline form, by the nostrils being soft the gates for him. He carries off Madame de Monnier and heavy; a mouth smiling and gracious in its exfrom her old husband. The happy lovers take refuge pression, thick lips, but well cut; a fine skin, a for some months in Holland. They are overtaken, are rich and bright complexion although somewhat flaccid. separated, are placed in confinement, one in the convent, His stature was short, his figure stout, attitude timid, the other in the dungeon of Vincennes. Love, which gait uncertain. In repose an uneasy balancing of himlike fire in the veins of the earth, always shews itself self, first on one hip, then on the other, it might be in some recess of a great man's destiny, kindles into a movement contracted by him in the impatience which one ardent flame all the passions of Mirabeau. In his seizes princes forced to give long audiences, or a physi, vengeance, it is outraged love which he satisfies; in li- cal sign of the perpetual balancing of his undecided berty, it is love which he again wins and rescues; in mind. In his whole person an expression of goodstudy, it is also love which he makes illustrious. En humour, more vulgar than royal, exciting at the first tering obscure into his dungeon, he leaves it a writer, an moment rather mockery than veneration, and which orator, a statesman; but perverted, ready for anything, was seized upon by his enemies with a wicked perverseeven to sell himself for fortune and celebrity.

ness and exhibited to the people as a symbol of The drama of his life has been conceived in his brain ; those vices which they desired to immolate in royalty. a stage is alone wanting, and that time prepares for him. In short, a certain resemblance to the imperial physiog. In the interval of the few years which passed between the nomy of the last Cæsars at the time of the decay of time of his quitting the fortress of Vincennes, and his en their race and the empire ; the gentleness of Antoni. tering the National Assembly, he accomplished a mass of

nus, with the heavy corpulency of Vitellius ; such was polemical work, which would have wearied any other the man ! man, but which only kept him in breath. The Bank

The young prince had been brought up at Meudon, in of St. Charles, the Institutions of Holland, the work on

complete seclusion from the court of Louis XV. That Prussia, his encounter with Beaumarchais, his style and evil atmosphere which had infected the age, had not the part he had to sustain, those grand pleadings upon penetrated to the heir of the throne. The soul of Fénéquestions of war, of the balance of European powers, of ion seemed to have revisited this Palace of Meudon, finance; those biting invectives, those word-duels with where he had educated the Duke of Burgundy, to watch the ministers and popular men of the time, already re

over the education of his descendant. That which called the Roman Forum at the time of Clodius and

was most nearly related to enthroned vice, was perhaps Cicero. You feel the antique spirit in these modern the purest thing in France. Had not the age been as controversies. You already believe you hear the first dissolute as the king, it would have lavished all its afroaring of those popular tumults, which are soon to fection upon him. But the age had reached that point burst forth, and which his voice is destined to govern. of corruption when purity appears ridiculous, and when At the first election of Aix, rejected with scorn by the modesty is derided. Married at twenty to a daughter nobility, he throws himself on the mercies of the peo- of Maria Theresa, he continued till he ascended the ple, sure to make the balance fall on that side on which throne, his lite of domestic seclusion and study. The he bestows the weight of his audacity and genius. horror' inspired by his grandfather, formed his only poMarseilles disputes with Aix the possession of the great pularity. For a few

days he enjoyed the esteem of his plebeian. His two elections, the discourses which he people, but never their favour. Honest and well-indelivers there, the addresses which he draws up, and the formed he was, but spite of his feeling the necessity energy which he displays, occupy the attention of all of reform, he had not the soul of a reformer; he had France. His echoing words became proverbs of the neither the genius nor the boldness necessary. He acrevolution. From the moment of his entrance into the cumulated tempests without giving them impulse. National Assembly, he alone occupied it; he in his own person is the entire people. His gestures are commands. He places himself on a level with the throne. His very vices cannot prevail over the clearness and The Queen seemed to have been created by nature, sincerity of his intellect. At the foot of the rostrum he as a contrast to the King, and to excite for ages, interest is a man without shame and virtue, at the rostrum he is and compassion in one of those state dramas, which an honest man. Yet the people are no religion to him, are incomplete without the sufferings of a woman. only an instrument. His God is glory; his faith pos- Daughter of Maria Theresa, her life had commenced terity; his conscience only in his intellect, the fanati- amidst the storms of the Austrian monarchy. She was cism of his idea is entirely human; the cold materialism one of those children which the Empress held by the of the age deprives his soul of the motive and the hand when presenting herself as a suppliant before her strength given by imperishable things. He dies, faithful Hungarian subjects, they exclaimed, exclaiming, “ Cover me with perfumes and crown me "Let us die for our King Maria Theresa !” Her daughwith flowers, that I may enter into the eternal sleep.” He ter also had the heart of a king. At her arrival in is of time alone; he has imprinted nothing of the infi- France, her beauty had dazzled the whole kingnite on his work. He has not sanctified, either his dom; this beauty was still in all its splendour. She



was of a tall, graceful figure; a true daughter of the in her fatal counsel. She was at once the consolation Tyrol. The two children she had presented to the of his woes, and the genius of his destruction; step by throne, lent to her person that character of maternal step she led him towards the scaffold; but she mounted majesty which suits so well the mother of a nation. it with him. The presentiments of her misfortunes, and the anxieties of each day had only somewhat paled her first freshness. The natural majesty of her carriage destroyed

VILLAGE PASTORALS. none of the grace of her movements; her neck rising freely from her shoulders, had those grand bendings

BY RICHARD HOWITT. which give such expression to attitudes. You felt the woman beneath the queen, the tenderness of her heart

1st–THE VICAR MISPLACED. under the majesty of her destiny. Her light brown hair was long and silky; her forehead high and slightly

Stranger. swelling; her eyes of that clear blue which recalls

What pile is that, I pray you tell, northern skies, or the waters of the Danube; her nose Round which clamour the starling and daw? aquiline, the nostrils open and distended with emo.

Villager. tion, a sign of courage; her mouth large, the teeth

Gothic and dark, with a monkish bell, dazzling, Austrian lip, that is to say, prominent and full;

Intended the people to overawe: the contour of her countenance oval, her physiognomy

A place where the flock is fleeced right well, changing, expressive, full of emotion." Her whole

And made religious according to law. countenance clothed with that indescribable splendour, which sparkles in the glance, glows in the shadows and

Stranger. reflexions of the flesh, and surrounds all with a halo I see how it is--I do not doubt it similar to the warm and coloured vapour in which ob The Priest there preaches one day in seven: jects bathed with sunshine seem to swim ; the highest I see the dead are buried about it; expression of beauty which gives to it the ideal, renders They trusted in him and hoped for heaven, it living and changes it into attraction. Together with

Villager. all these charms, a soul thirsting for affection, a heart

A merciful God must be their boot, easily moved and only asking for a resting place; and a smile pensive and intelligent.--Such was Marie-An

Or fearful thoughts we must have for them; toinette as the woman.

For where there's rottenness at the root, This was enough to make the happiness of a man, and

But little good can come of the stem. the ornament of a court. To inspire an undecided

Stranger. king, and be the salvation of a state more

But teaches he not-has he no school needed. Genius for government was needed; and this Whereby to better the next generation? the Queen had not. Received with a mad intoxication

Villager. by a corrupt court, and ardent nation, she was likely to believe in the eternity of their sentiments. She had let

Yes! yes! he canes the head of the fool, herself be lulled to rest amidst the dissipations of

And hopes, through pious flagellation, Trianon. She had heard the first mutterings of the

To raise in him by regular rule, tempest without believing in the danger. The

For Church and Priest, great veneration. court was become importunate, the nation hostile.

Stranger. An instrument of the court intrigues upon the heart The flock is ruined by such as heof the King, she had at first favoured, then com

Who o'er the wall leap into the fold: bated all those reforms which would have prevented or Pastors that Porters were meant to be, delayed the crisis. Her name became to the people the

But changed to Priests by the power of gold. phantom of the counter-revolution. We are ready to calumniate what we fear. She was painted as a Messa

Good respectable men of straw, lina. The most infamous pamphlets were circulated;

Strong with musk and proud gentility; the most scandalous anecdotes believed. She might be

Men correct in the moral law accused of tenderness; of depravity, never. Beautiful,

And able to preach with neat ability. young, and adored ; if her heart did not remain insen

Good friend-good friend-time out of mind, sible,

her secret sentiments, innocent perhaps, never justly Pastors were fat, and sleek and rich : gave room for 'scandal. History has her modesty; And it seems “the blind will lead the blind”. and this we will not violate. On these memorable days, Till Church and Priest fall into the ditch. the 5th and 6th of October, the Queen perceived only too late the enmity of the people. Emigration commenced, and she regarded it with favour. She was ac

2nd.--THE OLD PRIEST AND THE NEW. Il cused of plotting the destruction of the nation. Her

Stranger. name was sung aloud in the anger of the people. One woman became the enemy of an entire nation. Her I passed through this village oft seasons ago, pride disdained to deceive the people. She shut her And, knowing it then, I now seem not to know: self up in her resentment, and her terror. Imprisoned

Of rude way-side idlers I now see not one-in the Tuileries she could not shew her face at the Pray, where are the vice and the wretchedness gone? window without provoking outrage, and hearing insult.

The Primitive's chapel, a chapel no rnore, Every noise in the city made her fear an insurrection.

A barn has become, as it once was befora : Her days were desolate, her nights agitated. Her mar

Where, for rant and for cant, that woulcl quaver around, tyrdom was each hour throughout two long years, and

The rational flail makes a sensible sound. multiplied in her heart by her love for her two children, and her uneasiness about the King. Her servants were The Free-school long empty, a differens place, spies. She caused much evil to the king; endowed New glazed, is re-touched with a moder ner grace : with more mind, more soul, more character than he, her 'Twas the home of the bat; but now hark! 'tis alive, superiority only served to inspire him with confidence With an undertoned hum, as from bees in a hive.

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The village throughout has a pleasanter air : tion invariably prevails as the chief rule of punishment;
the homes of the poorest show culture and care, whilst

, as a state advances in civilization, this principle Pray tell me, good Villager, whence is all this ?

of retaliation as invariably becomes discarded. This seems All the good I perceive, all the evil I miss ?

a proof, as plain as it is universal, that the principle of Villager.

retaliation is simply a savage one, existing only in the

mind of man before he has been instructed in morality. In only one thing is the difference found

I admit that there is a natural desire in the breasts of Our stately old Vicar is laid in the ground :

all men to see crime punished with its like: but I at He went-and we bade him a thankful adieu, the same time maintain that this vindictive passion is a But hailed with warm greetings our Vicar, the new. senseless and barbarous one, and always gives place to The first was seen seldom except in his coach,

a higher and better sentiment as men are cultivated. A priest far too grand for poor men to approach:

Consider it. Retaliation rejects all discrimination in A reverend justice, tenacious of power

inflicting punishment. It is indeed, as Lord Bacon Most lordly in manner, in aspect most sour.

aptly describes it, “a wild kind of justice.” The sim

ple homicide and the wilful murderer receive the like The poor and the lowly, he was not for them,

award. Blood for blood requires that they should. ProThe fruit-laden boughs had too lofty a stem : Whilst the modest and worthy still found in his breath are alike put out of sight by it, and one remorseless


vocation, incitement, temptation, infatuation, frenzy, The freezings of winter, the March-dust of death.

varying doom is dealt to the sinner of every degree. His voice in the pulpit came far-off and low, That this blind vengeance has any title to be called moHis meaning, few knew it, nor cared they to know : rality, none, I presume, will pretend. If the term moOur new one-God bless him! he enters your door- rality have any meaning at all, it is meant to distinguish His feet on the earth, find the homes of the poor. between absolute good and evil; and consequently a His wife, and his daughters, too, see! are all out :

punishment which falls on good and evil alike, can neAnd no one who knows them their mission will doubt; ver be called a moral one. The sad will be solaced, the hungry be fed ;

The principle of vindictiveness is quite irreconcileThe dying will bless them, be blessed the dead.

able with the fair administration of human justice. The flock are their kindred—the living a trust :

Suppose a man with two eyes deprive a man who has The Priest is Christ's steward, and means to be just: of an eye for an eye,” the culprit would lose one of

only one eye of his sight. Upon the retaliatory theory While he prays for the soul, for the body he cares :

his own eyes for the one he had injured. Now, would And the poor feel him earnest in needful affairs.

this be a just and sufficient punishment ? The culprit We once went to church as a formal concern: deprives his victim of sight altogether, and only loses We now have an impulse, we listen and learn : part of his sight in return. It cannot be urged that he From the ice of dull pride melts the penitent tear : should be deprived of both his eyes, for this would ex. Blind Justice has vanished--meek Mercy is here. ceed the law, and then the principle would be given up. No more seems the pulpit the centre of cold:

Or again : suppose a rich man injure a poor man to the Dropping snow-flakes of fashion on young and on old:

extent of five pounds—the poor man's all: would it be The winter is over-the ice-winds depart,

a fair and satisfactory punishment, to mulct the rich And the Plant of the Church blooms with flowers of be manifestly most absurd.

man only to the same extent! Such a proceeding would the heart.

In fact, the principle of retaliation is totally inappliCold, cold in his earth-bed the old Vicar lies ! cable in a community. It never can be satisfactorily But I firmly believe when our new vicar dies, carried out. How could retaliation be inflicted 'upon The ground will be warm, as where sunsets go down: Slave-stealing? upon Piracy ? upon Coining ? upon DeAnd a glory like Christ's his true servant will crown. sertion? upon Forgery? upon Arson? upon Riot? upon Stranger.

High Treason ? upon Burglary ? upon Bigamy ? upon,

indeed, almost every crime that can be named ? It is
Good, good! I your Church now must pause to admire! absolutely impossible ; for there are no punishments
The graceful old porch, tall and tapering spire: analagous to the offences.
The walks and the graves, how exceedingly neat! When it is said that the law of Retaliation is a moral
And methinks that the chime of these bells is most

law; that it is right for the perpetrator of evil to suffer
sweet !

evil-it is surely forgotten that the punishment falls upon
the body, whilst the sin was in the motive of the soul.
When you kill a man for the wilful murder of another,

you punish the instrument that performed the act, but
CAPITAL PUNISHMEN T. have no power over the thought of malice that conceived

it. Do you call this morality-to punish the hand for

the heart-the body for the soul ? The proceeding is riHonorary Secretary to the Society for the Abolition

diculous. It resembles the act of a child who beats the of Capital Punishment.

table against which it has struck its head. The mur

derer who gloats and glories over his terrible act of reNo. IX.

venge--what is it to him that you kill his body!

It is precisely as we grow more and more moralized, THE PUNISHMENT OF DEATH IMMORAL BECAUSE VIN- that physical punishments become more and more un.

REFORM A NECESSARY just. Whilst the Physical predominates in a nation's

mind, then crime is more animal than mental in its na. THERE can be very little doubt that the doctrine which ture, and requires Physical, rather than Moral, coercion. affirms the murderer to be deserving of death, has its But as the Moral becomes stronger than the Physical, origin in the vimdictive passions of our nature in that then crime becomes more and more mental in character, wild desire to retaliate upon an injurer which Barbarism and demands mental, instead of physical, restraints. If enjoins, and Christianity condemns.

a savage be stubborn, vicious, and brutal, you will afWe find that in a savage state the principle of retalia- fect him most by brutal punishment, and the Lex Tali


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