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Ertracts from Bishops' Charge.
EDUCATION A MAIN PART OF A CLERGYMAN'S Duty. “ OFTEN the most zealous must be content with sowing the seed, without even a hope that they shall be permitted to gather or see the harvest. And in fact, their most useful and important labours must be of this kind. At least, they cannot expect to reap at once, or very soon, the fruits of that which they spend on the education of the young: and yet this is in all cases a main point of their duty; and where we have least reason to be satisfied with the natural condition of the Church, it is to this that we must look almost exclusively for the improvement of her prospects."-Charge of the Lord Bishop of St. David's, Oct. 1842.
CIRCULATING SCHOOLS BUT VERY RARELY LEAD TO PERMANENT ONES.
“ It seems to be but very rarely that the temporary sojourn of the Circulating Schools—to which, nevertheless, it must be owned the country has been deeply indebted-has been followed by the permanent establishment of others. Still I have the satisfaction to believe, that the number of cases in which there is a total deficiency of means of instruction for the children of the poor, is rapidly decreasing, and I venture to hope, that the time is not distant, when this want shall be everywhere in some degree supplied.”—Ibid.
IMPORTANCE OF VOCAL MUSIC IN POPULAR EDUCATION. “ You will not, I am sure, think that I attach an exaggerated importance to vocal music as a part of popular education, because I have mentioned an acquaintance with it among what I should wish to see considered as the indispensable qualifications of a schoolmaster for the poor. Your experi. ence will undoubtedly have convinced you, that the value of this attainment can hardly be estimated too highly, with a view to its moral and religious uses. You know better than I could explain, the great henefit which might be expected to result to the performance of public worship, both as to the degree in which it would realize the intentions of our Church, and the influence it would exercise over the people, if this knowledge and skill were more generally diffused among the lower classes ; and perhaps I may add, that the natural taste and habits of the indigenous population seem to offer peculiar facilities for its diffusion”-Ibid.
WELCH CHILDREN SHOULD BE TAUGHT TO READ WELCH AS WELL AS
ENGLISH. “But there is another point, perhaps still more intimately connected with their welfare, and with the prospects of the Church, which does not seem to be always considered in the right point of view by those who have the superintendence of schools for the poor, and therefore deserves a few remarks in this place. An opinion seems to have prevailed, that it is useless, or even inexpedient, where English is not the mother tongue of the people, to teach them to read their own language. I am convinced that this maxim is quite erroneous, and attended with many practical consequences, injurious both to the people and to the Church. I believe the ordinary effect to be, that they acquire but a very imperfect command over either language : that which they habitually speak gives them no access to books, and the books which they are able to read are seldom intelligible to them without more application than they have often time to bestow on any intellectual labour. They consequently remain destitute of that informa
tion which they might have derived with ease and pleasure from works written in their own language: they can join but imperfectly in the public service of the Church, and are therefore the more easily persuaded to forsake it, while the Church has no means of reaching them through the press, and is compelled to abandon them, without a struggle, to all the prejudices they may imbibe, when they are withdrawn from the oral instruction of her ministers. It seems therefore highly desirable, that in all such cases both languages should be taught together, and there can be little doubt that this practice would be attended with a more rapid progress in each”—Ibid.
CATECHISING IN CHURCH.-CONFIRMATION. " Permit me to observe, that however prematurely the child's school-education may be brought to a close, there can be no absolute necessity that your intercourse with him should terminate at the same time. He may still be within the reach of your catechetical instruction : and it is on this account peculiarly important that this branch of your pastoral duties should be diligently administered, and in a manner calculated both to instruct and edify, and to interest the youthful mind. And it is probably never more likely to answer these ends, and at the same time to strengthen the attachment of those of riper years to the Church, than where such instruction is given according to the intention of the Church, in the presence of the congregation. I am convinced that many of our churches would be much better attended if this practice were revived. Where the religious instruction has been continued until the child becomes a candidate for conformation, the task of preparation for that important rite will cost you much less trouble and anxiety, while the prospect of benefit from it will be greatly improved. Where, on the other hand, that instruction has been for some years either wholly neglected or intermitted, the opportunity afforded by a confirmation for inculcating religious principles is doubly precious, as it may be the first and the last you have to expect. But in all cases, and in every point of view, it is of incalculable value, and deserves your most earnest attention. Since the advantages to be derived from the rite depend on the state of the candidate, and this again is determined much less by his years than by the preparation he has received, it may not be expedient to establish any inflexible regulation as to the age of admission: though, as a general rule, it may be desirable that none should be received before they have completed their fifteenth year. But in all cases it is most essential that the preparation should embrace a period of sufficient length to allow time for such examination as may satisfy the minister as to the real qualifications of the candidates, and for such instruction in the leading doctrines of their religion, as will enable them both clearly to understand the nature of the rite, and to receive a durable impression from it.”—Ibid.
ETYMOLOGY-HOW TO TEACH IT.—WITH A LIST OF BOOKS.
The Etymological Primer : Part First, containing the prefixes, postfixes, and several hundred Latin and Greek roots of the English language. Tenth edition. By the Rev. John Oswald. (Edinburgh, Black : London, Longman and Co.)
The Etymological Primer : Part Second, or, an Abridgment of the Etymological Manual. Third edition. By the same.
The Etymological Manual: containing the prefixes, postfixes, and an extended list of Latin, Greek, and other roots of the English language. Ninth edition. By the same.
An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language; with a tabular reference, and a copious list of synonymous and paronymous words. Third edition. By the same.
An Elementary Etymological Manual of the English Language ; for the use of schools. To which is prefixed, Practical Observations on Teaching Etymology. By William Ross. (London: Rivingtons.)
In the prospectus of this Journal it is stated, that one of the main objects will be to shew, that “the more importance we attach to language as a discipline and as an instrument, the more clearness we give to our treatment of all other subjects, and particularly of religion.” Within a few lines the reader is also informed, that it is intended to make the journal as practical and as living a thing as possible. For instance, we shall not commence this part of our labours with a long essay on the importance of language as a leading branch of elementary instruction, but proceed at once to answer a few questions with which we are continually met, when advocating the point:-“How is it to be done? How are we to make a beginning ? Are there any books upon the subject—any that you can recommend ? And, if so, what is the best way of using them ?”
Of course, we are now thinking of children who have no prospect of a classical education. Happily, in the grammar schools and universities of our land the principle has been established and acted upon for centuries; and we never could understand, why, if the chief design of education be, as is generally acknowledged, one and the same, whatever may be the rank of the pupil, and that design be to form the mind and character of the future man,-why, we say, the “modus operandi," the method of procedure, should not be the same too, as far as it goes. Should any one be disposed to exclaim, “Surely, you do not mean that the children in our national schools ought to be taught Latin and Greek !” we should scarcely stop to say—“No; such a thought never came into our heads;"but rather hasten to reply, that surely there must have been something deeper in the minds of the holy and wise men of old, who founded grammar schools in obscure villages and thinly peopled dales, than our objector seems aware of. It is evident from the few exhibitions which they founded at the universities, that they never imagined that any great proportion of the boys would remain under instruction long enough to become finished classical scholars; their benefactors then must have regarded the very rudiments of a grammatical education as of service, even to a plough-boy, and that, too, rather as a present discipline than as a future instrument. Granting all this, however, the immediate question is, -Can these advantages, in either point of view, be reaped in any considerable measure from the study of English alone ? Experience proves that they may; and, moreover, that poor children who leave school at eleven or twelve years old, in order to earn their own bread, may by that early age have acquired, as far as the meaning of words is concerned, the power of understanding sermons written in the style natural to the preacher, and of reading with intelligence and pleasure the best authors in our language. We hope that we shall not offend private governesses, or the conductors of schools for young ladies, if we venture to hint, that this is as worthy of their attention as painting on velvet, or even “geodesy," or any of the other wonderful acquirements (perhaps that is scarcely the correct word) of which we read in certain flaming prospectuses.
At present, then, our only purpose is, to show the best, and, in the long run, easiest method of teaching children, or rather (“nam melius est discere
quam doceri") of putting them in the way of learning, the meaning of words. And here we may at once introduce to our readers the excellent little manual of 54 pages, just published by Mr. W. Ross, who for some time past has been employed by the National Society as an organizing master among their factory schools. From the extracts which we are about to give from his introductory observations, it will be seen that he is a practical schoolmaster, of considerable experience in the best methods of teaching. As a first book in Etymology, we know no better manual, either for schools or private tuition.
“An attentive reader will observe that most of the long and therefore generally hard words he meets with, are made up of certain particles of frequent recurrence. Thus, for instance, the particles con- and -ion are found in each of the words contention, conclusion, and conversion ; and in a great many others that might be mentioned. These and the other particles which are thus employed in forming compound words (and of such the English language chiefly consists) have, generally speaking, the same meaning in whatever words they are found. It is obvious, therefore, that by ascertaining the significations which these bear individually, as has been attempted in the first part of this little work, we are enabled to separate long words into their component parts, and thus more easily to comprehend their meaning.
Those particles which are placed before the principal part or root of the word are called prefixes (from pre- and fix-us, see pages 3 & 14) and those which are placed after it affixes, or postfixes, (from af-,post-, and fix-us, see pages 2, 3, & 14.)
The advantages of the method of analysis and classification, which we are anxious to recommend, will perhaps be best understood by an example. Let us take the words we have already cited, contention, conclusion, and conversion. Now supposing the pupil to be familiar with the meanings of the various prefixes and affixes given in the first part of this Manual, it only reniains for him to ascertain the ideas contained in the roots of these words. And having ascertained that these are respectively, to stretch, to shut, and to turn, he at once acquires a knowledge of the primary meaning, not only of these words themselves, but also of the other derivatives from the same roots, which amount to a considerable number; and by a little reflection can generally discover with ease and pleasure the significations of their ordinary usages,
From the above roots (tend-o, claud-o, and vert-o, see pages 26, 12, & 28,) the following are some of the derivatives which may be formed with the elements given in this Manual, and which a skilful teacher would, by suitable interrogations, elicit from his class.
attendance attendant | intently intention intentional attention attentive attentively intentionally ostensible ostensibly contend contention contentious ostensive ostentation ostentatious contentiously distend distention ostentatiously pretend
pretender extend extension extensively
pretension subtend extensiveness extent
superintendence superintendent inattentive inattentively intend
tendency tender intendedly intense
tense intensiveness intensity intent
CLAUD-O-CLUS-US clause cloister close
exclusive exclusively closely closeness closet inclosure include
inclusion conclude conclusion conclusive inclusive inclusively inclusiveness conclusively conclusiveness disclose preclude seclude
seclusion disclosure exclude exclusion
advertent advertency perverse perversely perverseness adverse adversity adversary perversion perversity
pervert advertise advertiser advertisement revert
reverse animadvert animadversion anniversary reversion subversive subversion avert averse aversion subvert
controvert controvertible controversy universe universal universally controversial convert convertible universality university unperverted conversant conversation converse
versatile versatility conversive conversion conversely verse
versify diverse diversion diversity
versifier versification version diversify inadvertency inadvertent vertebra vertebral vertex inadvertently incontrovertible invert
vertical vertically vortex inverse inversely inversion
It is very clear, that this must be a shorter, pleasanter, and more efficient method of obtaining a knowledge of the meanings of words than that of committing them to memory indiscriminately from the columns of a dictionary, as is sometimes done, or by referring to it for the explanations of individual words as they occur, even supposing it calculated to afford the pupil the information he wants, which, however, is not always the case.
For example, should he require to refer to his dictionary for the explanation of either of the words, conclusion or conversion, he will probably find given, among those of the former, “final decision; collection from propositions premised,” and among those of the latter, “transmutation ; change from reprobation to grace," &c. (See Walker's Dictionary. Now although these may be very proper definitions of the words, yet, from the language in which they are expressed, a mere learner is not likely to be materially benefited by them. Nor will he derive much assistance by turning to the meanings of the hard words used in the definitions themselves, as he will, in most cases, be referred to the word the meaning of which he is in search of. And here the matter, of course, must end, with the unlettered Tyro having perhaps a more confused notion as to what may be the meaning of the word than before he turned to his dictionary."
Mr. Ross then favours the reader with a few very sensible remarks upon the best method of giving the necessary instruction to a class of pupils. But as this has been done rather more at length in one of the other books, mentioned at the head of this article (the two authors, as practical teachers of considerable observation, agreeing in all material points), we proceed to give the result of their experience in the words of Mr. Oswald. We have only to premise, that this gentleman has furnished, at a great expenditure of time and labour, a complete series of books upon the subject, from the child's primer up to a complete dictionary for the master's use. The classical scholar will not expect to find the last-named work perfectly free from errors ; many of the notes, however, which are chiefly illustrative of the secondary meanings of words, and particularly of abstruse and technical terms, will be found interesting to a graduate of Oxford or Cambridge. We venture to add, that every Englishman who is unacquainted with Latin and Greek, and at the same time desirous of thoroughly understanding his own language, ought to have constantly upon his table a dictionary of this sort; and after diligent inquiry throughout the United Kingdom, we have not succeeded in finding a more complete or a better one than Mr. Oswald's. Those who are curious in Etymological research will find much that is ingenious and valuable in Professor Sullivan's Dictionary of Derivations.
Any parent or teacher who is as yet unused to this improved method of tuition, may turn the following extract to immediate account.
“When Etymology is first introduced into a class, of course a junior class, one or two prefixes of the most obvious meaning, such as un, fore, should be first learned ; and the pupil should be well trained in the use of them. Take the prefix un, before an adjective, which signifies not, as in the word unseen. The teacher asks, What does unseen signify ? the pupil will answer, not seen. What part of that word signifies not? un. Ask him to point out other words to which this prefix gives the signification of not, such as unkind, not kind; unlike, not like. That this may be made plain to the mind of the beginner, write the prefix un, in legible letters on a board, so that all in the class may see it; then ask, what does it mean; not. Write a root after it, such as, safe ; thus, unsafe. What does that signify? not safe. Erase safe and write