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upper stratum of air, kept hot and dry by a long reach of pipe, produces a very unpleasant and unfavourable state of the head ; vertigo and syncope often take place in such a room.
The human body is so constituted, that it can bear almost any degree of heat or cold, if the change be not too sudden, and all parts of it to be subjected to it alike. We find no particular inconvenience from respi. ring air at the temperature of 90 degrees on one hand, or at zero on the other; but inequalities of temperature at the same time affect us very differently, and can never be suffered for a long time without danger.
There is one consideration in the preparation of furnaces for warming rooms that should not be overlooked. The object should be to force into the room a large quantity of air heated a few degrees above the temperature required, rather than a small quantity at a much higher temperature. The air chambers should be capacious, and the passages free. The air should always be taken from out of doors, and never from a cellar. The air of a cellar is often impure itself, and, if pure, a cellar that is all tight cannot furnish an adequate supply. The whole air of a school-room should be changed at least every hour; if oftener, it would be better. If a cellar is not much larger than the room above it, this supply will soon be exhausted also. The air of the cellar may be sufficient to supply the combustion of the fuel. This is all it should do ; and for this purpose it is better than air from out of doors; as the coldness of this checks the heat, and diminishes the temperature of the fire, and its power of heating the furnace.
HOW MANY MAKE A BILLION ? Rev. SIR,-I quite agree with your correspondent G. H. as to the importance of Numeration, which seems to be too much overlooked, not only in our national schools, but also in those of much higher pretensions : inasmuch as it is by no means uncommon to meet with boys who can work out a rule-of-three sum without an error, yet cannot read off the answer, if it extends to seven or eight places of figures, especially if it contains a few naughts. Should any one be inclined to dispute the fact, let him take any number of boys, of 14 or 15 years of age, who have received an ordinary education, and make the experiment, and I will venture to affirm, that in two cases out of three, the result will be as I have said.
But my object in troubling you with this, is not to point out a more practical way of teaching numeration, but to notice what I should have thought to be a misprint, had I not met with several, in other respects, men of sound judgments, who fell into the same error. Now, as precision is of the utmost importance in all matters relating to education, it is much to be desired, that the name of every place of figures should be well defined ; and that while one person is talking of billions, another should not understand him as meaning thousands of millions, which cannot fail of happening as matters stand, from the ambiguity which prevails with respect to numbers of more than nine places of figures.
Your correspondent will doubtless admit, that the word billion is a contraction of bimillion, i.e., a million twice told, or a million of millions. According to G. H.'s own explanation, it is unnecessary to use a new word to express a different collection of figures, till we have exhausted every combination of the old one. Why then should we use the word billion, when thousands of millions would answer the same purpose, and express the quantity without risk of ambiguity ?
But I am aware that I may be met here by the question, Would you go on exhausting the old word throughout, before using a new one, i.e., would you go on to millions of billions, before using the word trillion ? I say no. We have the word trillion, meaning tri-million, or millions thrice told, which sufficiently and simply expresses the quantity. The table then will stand thus :
th. of billions.
th. of millions.
1 2 ; 3 4 5, 6 7 8; 9 0 1, 2 3 4; 5 6 7, 8 9 0, and so on to quatrillions, quintrillions, &c., allowing six places of figures to each. This seems to me rational, and according to analogy; it presents no difficulty, and is not liable to be misunderstood. If you do not think the above too trite or common-place for your columns, and can find me a corner, I shall feel obliged by its insertion, as I am convinced that there is great difference of opinion on the subject. I am, Rev. Sir, your obliged servant,
A LOVER OF PRECISION.
A SPECIMEN OF CATECHISING VERY YOUNG CHILDREN. The following paper has been in type several months, the Editor having kept it back simply from the feeling, that some of his readers, for whom he has the highest respect, may regard it as childish. Any one, however, who has been practically engaged in training teachers, knows, that in a majority of cases, they find nothing more difficult than to question little children. They seem to have nothing to say but “ What does that mean?” “What is so and so ?” which, though of some use in examination, is of little or none in instruction.
The history of the following queries is simply this :-In a large training institution, where the masters were often set to write out a list of questions upon a given passage (an imperfect exercise, of course, but not without its advantages), it was found, that whatever the passage, a great portion of the questions were, mutatis mutandis, much the same; and the longer the passage, the more likely was this to be the case. To obviate this, very short subjects were set, and a larger number of
questions exacted, e.g., Twenty questions on the word“ Amen;" Fifty on the “ Grace before Meat.” As an encouragement to the novices, the following was given as a specimen. A considerable number of those who are now serving with credit at the head of large schools, having thought it worth their while to copy the manuscript, the Editor is disposed, after all, to regard it as not unsuited to this Journal. Should his readers be disposed to think so too, they may have as many such as they choose. FIFTY QUESTIONS ON THE “ GRACE BEFORE MEAT,” WITH A SHORT
AND SIMPLE ADDRESS: BEING AN ATTEMPT TO TEACH THE CHILDREN AT ONCE BOTH THE MEANING AND THE USE OF IT. “ Bless, O Lord, these Thy good creatures to our use, and
by them fit us for Thy service, through Jesus Christ
What do you mean by “before meat ?” [Before any meal-any regular meal, as dinner, &c.]
When is this to be said then ?
Is not that very good of so great a Being as the God who made heaven and earth ?
Then, I am sure, you ought to be very thankful ?
By what name do we address God in this prayer? (or) what is God called ?
“ These thy good creatures” What creatures? [What we have got to eat.] Mention some different kinds of things that you have to eat.
What are all these things, and every thing else that is good to eat, called in this grace ?
You mentioned “ bread.” What is bread made of ?
(Here the teacher may talk for a minute or two to the children about
wheat and wheat-fields and grinding-mills, &c.) Where do we get wheat from? [It grows in the fields.]
If God would not let the sun shine or the rain fall, would any grow then?
Who makes it grow then ?
Tell me again, Why do you call them all “ God's good creatures ?” [Because God made them, and gave them to us.]
Then we ought to pray to God to give us all we want to eat and drink?
In what prayer particularly do we so pray ? [The Lord's Prayer.] What are the words?
Well : when we have got food, “ our daily bread," and are going to eat it, what do we pray to God to do to it ? [To bless it to our use.]
What is the use of “our daily bread” ?
And what then do we ask God to bless it for? [That it may do us good, and make us strong.)
If God would not give us “his good creatures” for our use, what would become of us ?
According to this, what do we want to be strong and healthy for ?
How must we serve God? What must we do? Tell me some things we must do, if we wish to serve Him? And, some things we must not do?
What has our food to do with our serving God ? [It “ fits us for his service,” or makes us fit to serve Him.] When people are ill and ready to die, are they fit then to serve God ? Then we cannot serve Him, except He —?”. Does it make people happy or unhappy to serve God ?
Whom do children serve, who are disobedient to their parents, or tell lies, or use bad words ?
And what, when they die, becomes of those who serve the Devil ?
Why do we so often at the end of our prayers say, “ through Jesus Cbrist our Lord ?” Who is Jesus Christ? What is He to us?
For whose sake does God hear our prayers ?
What is this that I have been questioning you about?
Now, my dear children, mind that every day before dinner you always put your hands nicely together (so), and look up towards heaven, and say this " grace before meat” slowly and reverentially. And then God will always give you plenty to eat and drink; and (what is better still) help you by His grace and Holy Spirit to serve Him, and so make you happy as long as you live ; and, when you die, He will take you to himself in Heaven, and make you quite happy with Him there for ever and ever for Jesus Christ's sake. Amen.
Extracts from Charges.
ON THE METHOD OF PREPARING CATECHUMENS FOR CONFIRMATION.
As the only means by which we can hope to establish ecclesiastical discipline on its right principles, must depend on the judicious management of your several parishes, and as the preparation of the younger members of the congregation for the rite of confirmation offers one of the most effectual means of paving the way for the proper cure of the flock, you will excuse me if I venture, by way of appendix, to offer some suggestions on a subject which I deem exceedingly important.
I confess that I regard the proper use of this apostolical rite as an especial means, not only of preventing our sheep from straying, but of bringing back into the fold of the church, that portion of them which has wandered into other pastures.
Among all the carelessness, with regard to church privileges, which prevails among us, there still exists an anxiety to partake in this rite. One might hesitate in calling such an anxiety, superstitious; but it is difficult to apply any other term to a wish which seems to be confined to the participation in rites, which imply union with our church, while little real desire of union is discoverable.
Persons who appear to have no wish really to belong to the church, still seek for their children, admission within her pale, by baptism. Young persons who never frequent the church, and who, in their proceedings seem opposed to her, still press with apparent earnestness to receive the rite of confirmation, and they who join not in her services and partake of the sacraments administered by persons unauthorised by the church, still desire, from time to time, to participate in the sacramental and outward symbols of a communion from which they habitually separate themselves. However really inconsistent such conduct must be esteemed by a sober churchman, yet he cannot but be thankful to God, that even a semblance of the love of christian unity should still remain; and pray that the christian zeal and prudence of the ministers of our church, may fan these remaining embers of affection into the bright flame of cordial unity.
It is in the hope of suggesting some means by which this result may be promoted, that I now address myself to you, hoping to point out the steps by which this desirable end may be promoted, through the due preparation of candidates for confirmation.
But as much of the benefit, to be derived from the preparation, must depend on a clear understanding of the rite itself, and as all the services in our church are steps in a great whole, and not independent of each other, we shall hardly succeed in placing the matter rightly before the candidate, unless we do so by showing that confirmation is a connecting link between the sacraments. By baptism the child is admitted into the christian church; he enters into covenant with God, and in answer to the prayers of his church, no doubt the Almighty grants such grace as would enable the young christian to walk in the ways of godliness, were it not for the fault of himself, or of those under whose spiritual care he is placed. This grace, whatever it may be, is in the language of our church, called regeneration--the new birth—the commencement of the christian life.
It is unfortunately obvious from sad experience that many, very many, the great mass of young persons do fall from this state of grace; yet we cannot help believing that some have always continued under it. When, therefore, we look at those who come to us to be prepared for confirmation, who come to renew those vows which were made in their name at baptism, we shall find them, either persons who have always continued under grace, have not always been