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they required to receive, more instruction than their juniors ; again, that those children who were not so far advanced might learn the mechanical parts of reading and spelling much more rapidly in “ drafts,” or small knots of five or six (the Lancastrian plan), than in large classes upon Bell's system, where the sentence or word to be read or spelt comes comparatively but seldom to the turn of each; and, lastly, though by far the chief point in my opinion, that the secular instruction should be kept separate from the religious instruction, or to be more explicit, that whilst such religious instruction is confined, as far as possible, to the mistress, whose mind is matured, or, where he can afford the time requisite, to the clergyman himself, (it being of course supposed that the Scriptures, or extracts from them, shall be read by or to each class daily), the books* from which children are taught to read and spell should only treat indirectly, if at all, of holy names and subjects. For I could not but believe, my dear Sir, that the irreveverence of manner, and, it is to be feared, of feeling likewise, with regard to things sacred, so often complained of in those educated at national schools, is to be attributed in a great measure to the circumstance of all the books, and all the teachers there treating of religion in any lesson and at any time.t
From the above synopsis it will be seen, that the school is a mixed school of boys and girls; that in the afternoon the girls are employed in needle-work; that the monitresses and first class, when united, have one hour and a quarter more instruction than the junior classes ; that the monitresses have particular instruction for three quarters of an hour, whilst the second, third, and fourth classes, broken up into drafts, learn to read for half an hour, and spell for a quarter of an hour, under the first class, who act as sub-monitors; and that in the afternoon the monitresses, with the first and second classes, learn singing for half an hour after the general business of the school is over. The second room, when the folding doors are closed, serving, with the play-ground, for those children whose homes are distant, or for the juniors whilst waiting for their elder brothers and sisters.
* Among the books which I have selected for secular instruction, I would mention as books of reference, or as text books to lie on the table during school hours, for the use of the mistress and the monitresses :-Johnson's Dictionary, the Edinburgh Sessional Etymological Guide, price 2s. 6d., Russell's Grammar, published under the direction of the Christian Knowledge Society, Goldsmith's Geography; and as books for general reading and use in the first and second classes, the Third and Second Books of Lessons published by the Irish National Society, Outlines of Chronology, price 4d., published by Rivington, and Mr. Wilson's Outlines of English Grammar, and Outlines of Etymology, price each ld., published also by Rivington.
+ I have to regret that from want of space in the present school-rooms, or, perhaps, I should rather say, from want of funds to build an addition to the room by breaking through the wall, I have not yet been able to obtain that very useful and almost necessary assistance in carrying out this latter part of my plan, a gallery capable of containing half the number of children in the school. To this might be added that other difficulty of finding suitable books for the junior classes, I mean books not treating of sacred subjects, for teaching the younger children to read and spell. At present the religious instruction in the school is given, when the clergyman is unable to attend, by the mistress and by the senior or general monitress.
There are many other matters of detail, such as the mode and time of giving lessons in English composition, the extent to which instruction in etymology, general chronology, history, and arithmetic, should be carried in National Schools, upon which I may be induced to write to you upon some future occasion; but having already taken up so large a space in your Journal, I will conclude for the present, and am, my dear Sir,
Most faithfully yours, Portishead Rectory.
T. L. WOLLEY.
ON THE VENTILATION OF SCHOOL-ROOMS. Sir,—In the first number of your excellent work, I find a very interesting article on the best mode of constructing a school house, designed by the Rector of Easton. I am glad to see that school architecture is to form a feature in your Journal; and as there is one branch of this subject to which I have given considerable attention, I subjoin a few hints which may be of service to those who feel an interest in scholastic establishments. In the present paper I must confine myself to the theory of ventilation, a subject but little attended to in the construction of school houses generally, though the health of both teacher and pupil must mainly depend on the purity of the atmosphere in which they are placed for so many hours each day.
Without entering into any detailed view of the chemical constituents of the atmosphere, it may be enough to state, that oxygen or vital air forms but a very small proportion of the entire mass, and that it is rapidly absorbed during the process of respiration. Now the object of ventilation is to get rid of the exhausted and impure air, and insure a constant supply of pure air. This can only be effected by copying the process that is constantly going on in the great laboratory of nature, where the sun, by changing the specific gravity of the gaseous fluid that bathes our globe, is constantly amalgamating together its various ingredients. I have stated, that during the process of respiration we absorb oxygen from the air ; but chemical analysis proves, that there is a new product formed, and this is called carbonic gas, best known as the “ choke damp” of the miner and well sinker. In a crowded room this rapidly accumulates, and if unchanged, is sure to produce a long train of diseases, and even death itself. A single instance of this in a badly ventilated school-room on the eastern side of the metropolis, may suffice. It occurred in a girls' school, and the younger children always suffered most, so that the shortest frequently fainted, whilst the older children suffered comparatively little inconvenience. On this being mentioned to me by a friend, I at once stated that it could only arise from an accumulation of carbonic gas, which being heavier than common air, would be sure to occupy the lower part of the room, and as certainly produce strangulation as a similar amount of water. To put this beyond the reach of doubt, I furnished the gentleman with a small phial of lime-water, and requested him to uncork it near the floor, let
ting out a small portion and then shaking the rest. On this being done, it immediately assumed a milky whiteness, resulting from the carbonate of lime that was thus formed; and in my public lectures with a crowded audience, I have frequently found a similar result. The plan, then, to which we should have recourse, is simply to open a number of very minute apertures in the floor of the school-room, connected with a large air-shaft passing to the external part of the building. By this means we drive the stagnant air from the lower part of the room, and the increase of temperature that immediately follows, by diminishing its specific gravity, causes it to pass out of the ordinary apertures in the ceiling.
If we wish to carry on the process of ventilation in the most perfect way, the air that thus escapes from the ceiling should be carried into a large chimney, or through the bars of a furnace; but the same end may be attained very fully, by placing the lights for illuminating the apartment, immediately beneath the centre of a large hollow cone, as is represented in the annexed sketch.
This arrangement possesses the additional advantage of enabling us to ventilate any adjoining apartments; for the ascending current represented by the perpendicular arrows, will draw the air with it, and form a partial vacuum in any connecting pipes, and thus the process of ventilation may be carried through every part of a large building.
In the arrangement thus pointed out, it will be seen that the natural process of ventilation adopted in the economy of creation is closely adhered to, merely substituting artificial heat for the action of the sunbeams; and really the atmosphere is the most wonderful of all the elements that surround us, for even in its most contaminated form it is perfectly invisible to the eye, whilst it conducts sounds almost as freely in the torrid zone as at the poles. Can we then do other than be unceasingly thankful to that great and good power
“ Who not content
Or music to the ear.” But it may be asked, why the atmosphere, which is thus contaminated by every creature that breathes the breath of life, “Why it, and the earth it bathes, does not become one vast lazar house?” The ansswer will be found in the very interesting discoveries of Professor Liebig, who has shown, that the stateliest of the oaks that adorn our forest glades, no less than the minutest lichen that grows upon the wall, mainly owe their perfection and luxurience to their power of ab. sorbing a gas, which, though noxious to man, is admirably fitted to vegetable development. Thus, then, what man deteriorates, the vegetable kingdom revives, and by this admirable compensation all goes on harmoniously and perfectly. With best wishes for the success of your Journal, yours truly,
Charles F. PARTINGTON.
A FORMER RECOMMENDATION OF A BOOK NOW
Rev. Sir,—Having seen in the May number of the Journal of Education notice taken of a little work, entitled “The National School Expositor,” by Francis Mason, and published by Martin, 44, Upper York Street, London, I was induced to order 100 copies, for myself and a neighbouring clergyman.
Upon looking over the book, however, I find that the extracts you have made as “a fair sample of the book,” are totally different from what I find therein.
No mention is made in the book of any alterations having been made, neither is it said to be the second edition.
If (as it appears) alterations have been made, it is an imposition upon the public not mentioning it in the preface. I remain, Rev. Sir, yours faithfully,
H. W. K. *** The Editor has received other complaints upon the subject. Upon sending to his bookseller for a copy, he found the case to be exactly as described by his correspondents. Under these circumstances, he has no course left him but to withdraw his recommendation.
AN OFFICE FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS.
BY WILLIAM ROLLINSON WHITTINGHAM, BISHOP OF MARYLAND.
OFFICE FOR THE MORNING. All standing, in order, in their several places, let the Chaplain or Master
O MAGNIFY the LORD with me, and let us exalt His Name together.
Response. The eyes of the LORD are upon the righteous, and His ears are open unto their cry.
Chaplain. The Lord is nigh unto them that are of a broken heart; and saveth such as be of a contrite spirit.
Response. The LORD redeemeth the souls of His servants; and none of them that trust in Him shall be desolate.
Chaplain. Ponder our words, O Lord: consider our meditations : 0 hearken unto the voice of our calling, our King and our God: for unto Thee will we make our prayer.
Response. Our voice shalt Thou hear betimes, O LORD: early in the morning will we direct our prayer unto Thee, and will look up.
Chaplain. Pray with the spirit and pray with the understanding.
Then shall be said, by all, kneeling: Our Father who art in heaven, Hallowed be Thy Name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, As it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our trespasses, As we forgive them that trespass against us. And lead us not into temptation ; but deliver us from evil; for Thine is the kingdom, The power, and the glory, For ever and ever. Amen.
Chaplain. O Almighty God, give us grace, we beseech Thee, to believe in Thee, to fear Thee, and to love Thee, with all our hearts, with all our minds, with all our souls, and with all our strength; to worship Thee, to give Thee thanks, to put our whole trust in Thee, to call upon Thee, to honour Thy holy Name and Thy word, and to serve Thee truly all the days of our lives. And this we beg in the name of JESUS CHRIST, Thine only Son, our LORD.
Chaplain. O God, whose mercies fail not, but are new every morning, pardon the sins that we have committed against Thee, in thought, word, and deed; make us to be sorry for them with the godly sorrow that worketh repentance unto salvation : put far from us all evil ways and works, and save us from the enemies of our souls; and grant us Thy peace all the days of our life, through our only Saviour and Redeemer, Jesus CHRIST.
Chaplain. O Lord, our heavenly Father, Almighty and everlasting God, who hast safely brought us to the beginning of this day, defend us in the same with Thy mighty power, and grant that this day we fall into no sin, neither run into any kind of danger; but that all our doings, being ordered by Thy governance, may be righteous in Thy sight, through JESUS CHRIST, our LORD.
Chaplain. Almighty God, who givest to all liberally, and upbraidest not, send down into our hearts that wisdom which is from above, to make us pure, peaceable, gentle, kind, forgiving, full of mercy and good fruits, that