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stated that the efforts of the Institution had been greatly promoted by the adoption of Mr. Lucas's system of stenographic characters, which posessed a decided superiority over all others. There are upwards of fifty pupils, including twenty-nine boarders, in the establishment. The great advancement made by the boys in fancy basket-making has induced the committee to engage a blind young woman to instruct the girls also in that profitable and useful employment. Through the kindness of a few benevolent friends a source of instructive and of permanent benefit to many of the pupils has been bestowed on the Institution by the liberal gift of an organ. A small printing press has been purchased for the use of the pupils, and a few hymns already em. bossed by one of the boys, which afforded hopes that several of the inmates might ultimately become compositors, and thus be put in possession of a perfectly new and profitable method of earn. ing a comfortable subsistence. The blind children, including two natives of China, about eight years of age, then read several parts of the Holy Bible, printed in embossed characters, with the most astonishing fluency and correctness. It was quite manifest, from the emphasis with which they read the several pas sages, that they fully comprehended their meaning. The meeting was addressed by the Venerable the Dean of Salisbury, the Rev. John Gowring (who for some time past had been almost entirely deprived of sight), Sir Charles Clarke, &c.
Training Institution for Mistresses The first examination of the young women in training as National schoolmistresses at the National Society's Institution, Whitelands, Chelsea, took place on Tuesday, the 23rd instant. The pupils underwent a strict examination in Scripture history, the Liturgy, grammar, geography, arithmetic, and vocal music, and acquitted themselves in a highly satisfactory manner. The Dean of Chichester took the chair, and the examination was conducted by the Rev. C. Cook, Inspector of the London Diocesan Schools, assisted by the Rev. D. Coleridge, President of St. Mark's College, and Mr. Hullah. The proceedings were understood to be private; but there were present the Duchess of Sutherland, Lord Warncliffe, Lord and Lady Courteney, Lady Elizabeth Courteney, Lady Francis Egerton, Lady F. Sandon, Lady G. Wortley, Lady Elizabeth L. Gower, Mr. and Lady Mary Wood, Mrs. and Miss Bloomfield, &c., &c.
Booth, Rev. Dr., to be Vice-Principal of, and Professor of Mathematics in, the Liverpool Collegiate Institution.
Hessey, Rev. Francis, Principal of the Collegiate School, Huddersfield, to be Head Master of the Kensington Grammar School.
Johns, Rev. C. A., to be Head Master of Helston Grammar School, Cornwall.
Sharpe, Rev, J. C., Professor of Mathematics in the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, to be an assistant master in the Marlborough School for the Sons of Clergymen and others.
Shrewsbury School. The two Chancellor's medallists at Cambridge, Mr. E. H. Gifford, of St. John's College, and Mr. G. Druce, of St. Peter's College, were both educated at Shrewsbury School. We believe this to be the only year in which the medals have been awarded to two schoolfellows.
Sedbergh School, Yorkshire.--Mr. Biden, who lately carried off one of the Bell's University Scholarships, received his education at this school, under the Rev. J. H, Evans, M.A.
Browne, Rev. J. H., 28 years Vicar of of Runhall, 26 years Rector of Crownthorpe, and Master of the Endowed Grammar School, Hingham, Norfolk, aged seventy-five.
To our Correspondents and Readers,
A CONSTANT READER is reminded, that at Oldham, in Lancashire, 10,300 of the working classes, out of a population of 60,000, memorialized the Government in favour of Church Education.
At a recent public meeting of the inhabitants of Stafford, convened by the Mayor, "to take into consideration the present state of the Free Grammar School and the English School connected therewith," it was stated by a magistrate of the borough, that there were only four scholars taught in the school, which was provided with an endowment of £300 a year. Can these things be so ?
The following sentence has been going the round of newspapers and magazines with the name of Lord Brougham attached to it. “The contributions from the Clergy alone to Charity—to the relief of the poor and the education of the ignorant, are not only greater, but enormously greater than those of the whole body of Dissenters.” Can any of our readers refer us to the pamphlet or speech from which this is quoted ?
A friend of our's sometimes says, that there are but two reasons after all for not trusting a man ;-one is, that you do not know him, the other, that you do. Will not this help J. C. out of his present difficulty ?
We cannot consent to the adoption of the sort of arrangement proposed by A SECRETARY, namely, to devote one part of the Journal to Principles, and another to Practice. Indeed we have no wish or aim, but to exhibit principles in a practical form.
S. N. F. upon Infant Schools, will not suit us. So much teaching, or we should rather say, over-teaching the Infant mind, is quite out of our way. To our humble notions, the more an infant-school resembles a well-regulated nursery the better.
In the lowest districts of Manchester and Leeds, of 1,000 children born, more than 570 die before they attain the age of five.
W. J.'s statistics must be wrong according to the Registration returns, which give 114,000 as the number of marriages solemnized in the churches of England, while there were no more than 8,000 in dissenting places of worship. At the same time we agree with him, that unbaptized children ought not to be allowed to repeat the Church Catechism.
There is much truth in what C. N. has written, but we cannot think that it is applicable to us. With all our zeal for education, we have never said anything half so foolish as that schools would do every thing. Does he, however, mean to deny all connection between ignorance and crime? Why then are the judges continually recommending the same remedy ? For instance, in charging the grand jury at the last Gloucester assizes, Mr. Justice Wightman said :-"On looking over the calendar which was first sent him, he perceived that 110 prisoners could neither read nor write at all, or very imperfectly; now the only way to prevent that was to improve the moral and religious feeling throughout the community, more especially amongst those who were mostly exposed to temptation-he meant the poorer classes; that object would be obtained by extending education, and to gentlemen like themselves who were of rank, station, and fortune in the county, he need hardly recommend increased exertions to produce that desirable end, which he was sure their own good feelings as well as their interest would induce them to do."
Leonard Horner, Esq., Inspector of Factories, reports (January 30, 1843) the lamentable spiritual destitution of Dukinfield and the neighbourhood, and observes—“ I have been disappointed to find so little disposition on the part of the more wealthy Dissenters in my district to come forward in the cause of the edu.
cation of the working classes. All the activity which has come under my notice, in places where schools are most wanted, has been on the side of the church.”
It is expected by those who are best acquainted with the subject, that Betton's Charity, the annual income of which is at present above £4,000, aud is likely soon to be much larger, will be applied proportionably to the claims of each diocese, and in donations not exceeding £20 to each school; the continuance of the bounty to be liable to annual revision by the board entrusted with the disposal of the fund.
It was gratifying to hear, at the meeting of secretaries, that in several dioceses, schoolmasters took advantage of the last harvest holidays to attend the training institutions in their own vicinity, for three, four, or six weeks. In these cases their expenses were borne wholly or in part by the district boards. It has also been found useful in one diocese to advance sums of £1, or 10s per month, to youths who were desirous of receiving the benefit of a training school, for six or eight months, or a longer period. These sums were refunded by instalments, after the candidate had obtained a situation as schoolmaster.
At the same meeting great advantages were acknowledged in the strongest terms to have been derived from the visits of organizing masters for a week or more to parochial Schools. Their services and suggestions, however, would be still more effective, if in relation and subordinate to the visit of an inspector.
Though the expense of supporting Training Institutions is often a subject of complaint, it must not be forgotten, that an adequate supply of competent masters and mistresses is the first and most indispensable requisite towards the improvement of Education. Experience alone can show, whether so large a number of distinct establishments as now exists is preferable to the maintenance of a smaller number upon a larger scale and more liberally supported. Two years seems the common period of residence; this limited time arising from necessity rather than from choice, as the managing committees are generally anxious that the stay of the pupil should be prolonged. The effect of this would be to improve Schoolmasters' salaries, by raising the qualifications of the masters themselves to a higher standard, and thus enabling them to command a more encouraging remu. neration than the pittance of £40 per annum, with or without a house, which is a common allowance to schoolmasters in the country and provincial towns.
In village schools the system of teaching boys and girls together in one school has been found advantageous, more particularly where the entire school is under female control. To mix up both sexes in the same class is less desirable. Some disorder would be avoided by dismissing the boys at a separate time from the girls, as, it is obvious, the same vigilance cannot be exerted outside the school, as within its walls.
The effect of covering the school-room with fixed parallel desks is found to hinder that personal style of instruction, or rather of application, at which every master should aim with each individual scholar. This objection has especial reference to religious teaching. Hence the inapplicability of this method of arrangement for the purpose of the Sunday school. A few such desks in a large school are convenient for occasional simultaneous instruction. On the last point there is an able paper in the Minutes of Council, for 1842, from the pen of Mr. Gibson, the inspector for Scotland, in which the system of galleries and simultaneous instruction is thoroughly investigated.
In a small school, say not exceeding 40 or 50 scholars, we should say that it is not desirable to employ boys or girls as teachers, so much as monitors. They are more useful in watching and keeping order, than in instructing their school. fellows, the latter being left entirely in the hands of the master or mistress. And even these monitors should be encouraged by some remuneration for their services. Sufficient attention is seldom given to forming the character of children, by making them feel their relative powers of mind. For this reason as little change of places as possible should be allowed, from the accidental circumstances of absence, &c., so that each boy may be led to exert himself to gain a high position, by the prospect of retaining it permanently. In some classical schools no changes take place more than once a month.
We agree with a valued correspondent, that much would be gained by grants of an Episcopal license as in former times, to the well deserving schoolmaster, which would be an honourable testimonial to his past exertions, as well as materially assist him in finding a situation where a fair salary would reward his labours. Might not the sub-deacon's office, so much required in the church, be filled from this source? But we are already “ ultra crepidam."
ON EMULATION AS A MEANS OF EXCITING DILIGENCE
IN STUDY. SIR,—Allow me to make a few remarks on an article in your last Number on the “ Means of exciting diligence in Study."
The writer begins by contrasting “the coarse and frequently inefficient measures adopted by our ancestors" for effecting the end in question with “our modern means ;” and the chief distinction between the two is stated to be, that while they acted “on the selfish and personal,” we act“ on the more generous and elevated principles of our nature.” That is, when a boy would not learn his lessons, “our an. cestors” gave him a flogging, while we employ the motives (as your correspondent proceeds to show), of the desire of approbation and the dread of disgrace, of emulation, of a conviction of the necessary connection between the boy's present pursuits and his future prospects, of pecuniary rewards and punishments, and of public opinion. Certainly the contrast is great, nor is it lessened when we look farther into the grounds of such opposite modes of proceeding. Our ancestors, who were very plain matter-of-fact people, by no means overlooked the existence, either in boys or in men, of these now favourite motives ; but they did not believe them to be “the more generous and elevated principles of our nature ;” on the contrary, they considered that however strong the motives of SELF-INTEREST might be in the human heart, and however influential upon the conduct, (and these motives of which your correspondent gives the above list, are all plainly of that class), they were not only not the higher, but were the very lowest of our nature, next after our mere animal appetites. They did not question that these inferior desires of the mind, as well as those of the body, were given us for wise ends, and were to be made subservient to the great work of education of bringing out the full lineaments of the image of God in the child, and boy, and man; but they saw no other way of effecting this, but by bringing all such motives and appetites into habitual and very stern subjection to what they, with their old Christian faith and English morality, held to be the generous and noble principles of our being. And what were these ? Instead of appealing to the boy's desire of obtaining approbation and avoiding disgrace, they taught him to prize the approbation and dread the reproach of his own CONSCIENCE, because that was the voice of God pronouncing what his real worth was, and not merely what it seemed to men. Instead of that emulation which could only excite him to be superior to his fellows, they taught the boy that it was his DUTY to be positively diligent in study, and upright in conduct, and not merely in comparison with his fellows. Instead of leading him as he became “ a more advanced student,” to calculate more carefully the bearings of his present pursuits upon his future worldly interests, they endeavoured to make him realize the dignity and the responsibility of becoming a man, and to confirm in him the faith that all worldly interests must be sacrificed, if need be, rather than he should renounce one jot of that dignity, or neglect one
vol. 1, No. 7. JULY, 1843.
of the least of those responsibilities. These, and such as these, were the motives and principles which our ancestors wished to see ruling in the hearts and lives of boy and man; and they saw not, how this could be but by keeping down those other motives of self-interest within very narrow limits; and they thought those limits would be quite large enough—that these inferior influences would act quite as strongly as was desirable or even safe, without all the encouragements of the kind your correspondent recommends. And that they judged wisely we could not have stronger proof than when we thus find not only our boys but our masters—and those masters grave and learned writers on the principles of education-so imbued with the notion that the motives of self-interest are the proper guides of life, as even to lose sight of the existence of any other and higher principles of action.
But I shall be asked, why did our ancestors employ punishments, though they took so little heed of the power of rewards ? why were they more liberal in their floggings for idleness, than in their pecuniary or other prizes for diligence? Just because, while it was certain that the pleasurable motives of desire of approbation, emulation, &c., would (as I have said), act of themselves quite strongly enough in a wellmanaged school, and would need no artificial stimulus, the like would not be the case with the opposite motives.
The indolent, selfish nature was to be made obedient to the spirit, the spirit was to be set free, and trained to maintain its freedom by ruling the flesh with a stern and heavy hand; and their experience and their reason combined to teach them that one of the necessary means of attaining this end was the just use of punishment. We alas ! have forgotten this old English and Christian distinction between the manly spirit which should rule and the fleshly nature which should obey, and turn our whole thoughts to the work of teaching this our baser and selfish nature how it may behave itself creditably, and enjoy itself decorously, in the place it has usurped from the crushed and forgotten spirit within us ;—and that we call education.
I wish to notice one or two points of detail in the article in question. First, as to the arguments in favour of emulation drawn from Scripture. That as to the word so translated in our version is not very clear to me; but I conclude the writer means to admit, that the Greek word expresses some vice when St. Paul uses it as the name of one of “ the works of the flesh,” but that he considers that emulation, (at least in the common sense) is not the correct rendering. I would ask what then is the correct rendering ? for it is not envyings, which occurs besides a little farther on in the list. I know of no other that it can be, and both Greek and context seem to me in favour of our word emulation. The other argument, drawn from St. Paul's allusions to the Grecian Games, is, that emulation must be lawful, because the Apostle describes the life and course of a Christian in language which "of necessity implies competition ;” that is, that (overlooking the trite rule that an illustration must never be supposed to be an argument, nor held applicable in all its parts) we are to understand from St. Paul that our hopes of heaven-like the racer's hopes of the prize-depend not only on our own faithfulness and perseverance, but also on our supe