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society, as a few elementary principles, thoroughly explained, would tend to excite a general spirit of observation and inquiry.

9. The formation of a Library, more particularly of works on Science.

Temporary arrangements have been made for commencing a Normal School at 15, Duke Street, Westminster, on the system recommended by Dr. D. B. Reid, who has agreed to act as Interim President.

scholar of the hospital, who proceeded to the University with one of its exhibitions, at Michaelmas, 1840, had recently gained a University Scholarship on Lord Craven's foundation; and the Court unanimously agreed to present to Mr. Maine, in token of their approbation, the sum of 50 guineas.

Anniversary of Charity Schools at St. Paul's.--The Lord Bishop of Salisbury has acceded to the request made to him, to preach the Sermon at the Anniversary Meeting of the Charity Schools in the Cathedral Church of St. Paul's, on Thursday, the 1st of June next.

Libraries for Soldiers.--At the general meeting of the S. P. C. K., held on Tuesday the 7th of March, a letter of acknowledgment having been read for a grant of books to the Portsmouth garrison, the Secretary stated that applications for aid from the fund of Clericus, - a charity designed by the donor, the late Archdeacon Owen, for the spiritual benefit of the soldiery of the United Kingdom,would be cheerfully attended to by the Society.

St. Mark's College, Chelsea.-James Nash, of the Hackney Parochial School, has recently been elected to the Free Scholarship founded at St. Mark's College, Chelsea, by a private individual, and open to competition among the youths of the Tower Hamlets.

Christ's Hospital.-At a court of the governors of this institution, held on Tuesday, the President, Mr. Alderman Thompson, M.P., announced that by the command of Her Majesty, a deputation, consisting of Mr. R. H. Pigeon (the treasurer), Mr. Thomas Poynder, Mr. Ed. ward Majoribanks, and himself, had waited upon His Royal Highness Prince Albert, at Buckingham Palace, to present to her Majesty, through the hands of his Royal Highness, the address of the governors to Her Majesty, written on vellum, acknowledging Her Majesty's most kind and munificent donation of £1,000, and requesting Her Majesty's gracious permission for the enrolment of her name amongst the governors of the hospital; and that the deputation were most graciously received by His Royal Highness, who assured them that he would immediately lay the address before Her Majesty. The President also announced, that His Royal Highness had himself subsequently sent the liberal donation of £500. The name of His Royal Highness was at once enrolled, by a unanimous vote of the Court, in the list of the governors. At the same Court it was also announced that Mr. J. H. S. Maine, of Pembroke College, Cambridge, a former

A Sunday School in the far West. Attached to the church at Stamford (Canada, West Diocese of Toronto,) we have an excellent Sunday school, for which we are mainly indebted to the praiseworthy exertions of an excellent family of the name of Mewburn, from Whitby, Yorkshire. It commenced about eighteen months ago, with eighteen scholars. It now has on its books upwards of eighty children, with an average attendance of sixty-six. On ChristmasEve we had an examination of the children. It was a most delightful occasion. The church, as is very common in this country, was beautifully dressed with evergreens for the anniversary of our Saviour's incarnation. This is done by the young ladies of the congregation, who frequently spend the greater part of a week upon this delightful task, and generally show much taste in their work. At the examination of the children it appeared more beautiful than ever. After prayers by the Rev. W. Leeming, the rector of the parish, the new German hymn was beautifully sung by the congregation, who have lately evinced a very praiseworthy desire that the praises of the Lord should be sung in a manner worthy of his name. I next proceeded to the examination of the children in classes. The Church catechism was the subject of examination; and their answers showed that the labour bestowed upon them had not been in vain.--Letter to the Secretary of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.

APPOINTMENTS.

Rev J. W. Bellamy, of St. John's College, Head-master of Merchant Tailors' School, has been presented to å prebendal stall in St. Paul's Cathedral.

Rev. Mr. Bostock of Aylesbury, to be Head-master of the Grammar School, Warrington, Lancashire.

Thomas Kenworthy Brown, Scholar of Christ's College, Cambridge, to be Second Master of Richmond Grammar School, Yorkshire.

At a meeting of the Feoffees of Kidder. minster Free Grammar School, the Rev. William Cockin, jun., M.A., of Minchinhampton, Gloucestershire, was elected Head-master.

Rev. James Hill, late Curate of Omagh, Ireland, to be Clerical Superintendent of the National Society's Boarding House, Westminster.

Wm. Henry Parr, B.A. (1842) Scholar St. Catherine-hall, to be Second Master of Heath School, Halifax.

Rev.-H. Robbins, of Wadham College, to be Head-master of the Stepney Proprietary Grammar School.

Rev. Matthew Wilkinson, M.A., late Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Clare Hall, Cambridge, and Head-master of the Proprietary School, Kensington, in connection with King's College, London, to be Head-master of the proposed School at Marlborough, for the sons of clergymen and others.

DEATH.

In the 45th year of his age, the Rev. Thos. Borrowdale, for 22 years headmaster of the Free Grammar School, Horton, in Ribblesdale.

To our Correspondents and Readers.

Some of our best friends will be disappointed at the absence of all editorial comment upon the educational clauses of the Factory Bill. The truth is, this sort of discussion is not greatly to the Editor's taste, or much in his way. But if he must venture an opinion, he is inclined upon the whole to think, that we should accept the Bill at the hands of her Majesty's Government, and that too as graciously as can be done without saying, “Thank ye,” or rather saying it in such a manner as to countentenance the groundless opinion, that the measure is clear gain to the Church ; that, feeling for the difficulties with which the Government is surrounded, we should be content to waive certain claims, which, as the Church by law established, we might urge with all justice and with some power; but that, if any advantage should be taken of this our moderation, by making, or offering to make, any further concessions, we should at once withdraw our acceptance : on the other hand (to end in a good mind), that, if the Bill should, substantially as it now stands, become the law of the land, we should work it cheerfnlly, and do our utmost towards making it effectual towards the improvement of the unhappy districts for whose benefit it is intended.

Knowing as we do how much has been done for the promotion of sound education

for the establishment of schools as well as churches in our colonies and foreign possessions, by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (its outlay in the last year amounting to more than £80,000), we are concerned to hear, that "it will not be possible for the Society to fulfil its obligations, inuch less to take advantage of the opening which presents itself in China, without a very large and permanent increase to its funds." The letters, however, from the Archbishops and Bishops of the United Church of England and Ireland, declaratory of their approval of its proceedings, and their desire to promote its designs, contained in an Appeal just issued by the Society, cannot, we trust, fail to call forth a zeal and support that will soon set matters right.

Our best thanks to the numerous Correspondents who have kindly given us their names as subscribers and friends to the JOURNAL. We are especially indebted for several kind offers of assistance, particularly in the way of intelligence. The spirit and number of the letters we continue to receive, are most encouraging, and contain ample proof that there are more persons heartily engaged in the good work than we had any notion of.

A DISQUISITION UPON PUNISHMENTS ;

INCLUDING A FEW WORDS IN DEFENCE OF THE OCCASIONAL

USE OF THE CANE IN LARGE SCHOOLS.

WELL! they must be shocked then : there is no help for it. It is quite - time that practical men should speak out honestly and openly upon the subject. It may be a delicate subject, but it is one of primary and every-day importance : so without more ado let us come to the point.

But, dear Reader, do not be alarmed. · Whatever cruel or horrid thoughts may ever have found their way into our heart, we are not likely to practise upon children. No: if ever we are in a bad mind with ourselves, and so with every man about us, nothing restores us sooner than the company of children, be they gentle or simple. Nevertheless, we admire the mother who whipped her darling boy seven (was it not nine ?) times in one day. We admire, we do not say we should imitate : under similar circumstances, however, we would-if we could.

But it is chiefly of schools, and more particularly of our larger national schools, that we are about to speak ; and the first startling remark we have to make is, The less the master is restricted or interfered with in this matter, the better. Our grand aim is to reduce punishment, which, we are fully persuaded from experience, may be done to an extent that few persons dream of. But we are just as fully persuaded, that this cannot be done without the cane or some other legalized instrument. We prefer a cane, partly because, as the boys say, “it stings so," but chiefly because it registers the amount of punishment, and so acts as a check against cruelty or excess. The first step, however, is to give the master full power : away with all silly rules forbidding him to inflict corporal punishment of any sort upon a rebellious child without the express sanction of a committee, or requiring him to report to them every case in which he may have done so. Give him full and unfettered discretion as to the best mode of punishing all offences against order and discipline. The next step is to dismiss him the very first hour, if ever the case should happen, that he is guilty of cruelty to a child. If he cannot be trusted with a cane, he is not fit to be trusted with a school. The best, indeed the only real security against undue severity, is the temper and general character of the man.

It may save time, however, in the end, if we pause here to state a few reasons why we recommend that the master should be left entirely to his own discretion in this matter :

(1.) To maintain his authority. If tied down to a particular method or methods, he is not in his proper place ; if in every instance he must have the express sanction of a higher power, he is not the master of the school. He would sink many degrees in the eyes of the children from the very hour it was whispered that any such restriction was laid upon him. The government of a school must be a monarchy, and arbitrary in its nature ; that is, power exercised by the will of one man.

VOL. I, No. 5. MAY, 1843.

(2.) While so many praiseworthy efforts are being made to raise the standing and position of the schoolmaster, it would be most undesirable to do any thing tending to lower both, which must be the effect of the restrictions referred to. Let him have full play for his mind to work; otherwise his ardour will be damped. A man of spirit and zeal would be not unlikely to throw up the employment in despair, if not in disgust; he would say, “ It is of no use : I can do nothing with my hands tied.” Let him be a great man in his own school-room, if no where else.

(3.) The greater the variety of methods, the better ; the less will punishment at all be required. No one method will suit all tempers ; almost any species will lose its effect after frequent use ; the most efficient must be laid aside at times, to be taken up again after a certain interval. The master should have full scope for all his ingenuity.

Many have been the efforts made to do away with corporal punishment, but without success ; or if the thing has been done, it has been by the substitution of other modes still more objectionable. Of course, where there is a regular system of rewards, much may be done in this way towards remedying the evil : but we are rather arguing with those who allow that some method of punishment is necessary.

The substitutes that have been tried are chiefly the following:

(A) Confinement in school, or“ keeping in” over hours. To this the objections are many and great.

(a) It is not an efficient method in all cases. Many children do not care for it, especially where there is no play-ground; some laugh at it: and all, if not closely watched, take the opportunity to play.

(6) It associates the idea of punishment with that of attendance at school. We all wish the boys to love their school ; this they are not likely to do, if it is made a prison to them. If impositions are added, it only makes the matter worse. We know schools in which the punishment is, not to be shut in, but to be shut out. In the best schools, no boys but the merit class are allowed to stay over hours. It is not easy to see how the same thing can be at once both a punishment and a privilege.

(c) It tends to sulkiness, the worst fault a school-boy can have. The time, we suspect, is occupied either in brooding over his fancied wrongs, or plotting further mischief.

(d) It is distasteful to parents, especially as it interferes with their domestic arrangements. The mother comes away from her work to give the children their dinner, and just as she is ready to go back, the child that has been kept at school comes home. It also affords the opportu. nity and temptation for foolish parents to interfere with the discipline of the school. We might further remark, that it often disqualifies, as well as indisposes, the child for the duties of the following school-time.

(e) A still graver objection is, that it removes the worst children from under parental control. A bold bad boy plays about the streets, and then says that he was kept at school. It is not practicable in a large establishment, under one master, always to send notice to the parents.

(f) Masters say, and fairly too, that they have no notion of punishing themselves for the sake of naughty children : they have quite confinement enough without that.

(B) Another substitute is setting impositions or tasks to be learned; generally something to be got by rote. The objection to this is, that it tends to introduce a wrong tone and feeling. To make learning a punishment, only sets the children against learning, if it does not disgust them with books altogether. The objection is the stronger, when nearly all the books employed and instruction given, are of a religious character. We have heard, indeed, of the Holy Bible itself being profaned for this purpose ; we hope never to hear of it again.

(C) The remaining contrivances in common use may nearly all be classed under one head, viz., shame ; such as setting the culprits on the form or in a corner, or other method of exposure to the gaze of their school-fellows or of visitors ; including many ingenious devices. They are all open to one serious objection, that they operate unequally and uncertainly upon different minds, and unfortunately in an inverse ratio to the demerit of the culprit. While to the worst and most hardened, they are little or no punishment at all, in some cases a matter of sport and bravado; to the modest and well-conditioned they are almost unbearable. Even if they succeed in checking the particular offence, they tend, at the same time, to injure the moral feeling and debase the character of the offender, and to lower the tone of right feeling throughout the school. In proportion as a school is open to visitors, the scheme is less practicable and more objectionable.

While our great anxiety is, that the master should be allowed full discretion, thereby securing due variety of punishments, we are bold withal to submit the following reasons for thinking a stroke upon the palm of the hand the best standing punishment :

(1.) It is a real and actual punishment to all, for all have corporeal feeling. The very first day we introduced a cane into a large schoolafter trying other methods for at least three months—we perceived the difference. Boys never say—we mean, with their faces--that they don't care for that. At the same time, they seem to recognise the propriety and justice of this mode of correction, more than of any other.

(2.) It tends to cure sulkiness, whereas most of the fashionable substitutes rather engender it. By a kind of counter-irritation, it seems to withdraw the mind of the child from a bad object, and at once to change the current of his thoughts.

(3.) By effectually checking the disorder in time, it economizes punishment: it is a kindness to the boys, as it saves them from severer and more disgraceful penalties, such as expulsion.

(4.) It is over, before a foolish parent can interfere.
(5.) The general, if not universal experience of masters.

We cannot conclude this part of the subject better than in the words of a man of some experience and no mean authority in these matters— the author of the “Account of the Sessional School.” His words are, in p. 134, “ That it [occasional resort to corporal punishment] is justifiable and indispensable, at least in large establishments like the Ses

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