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paralysing to the energies of all save tion and encouragement each from each, the noblest souls. Therefore we repu- and are further immensely aided in diate all imaginary connexion between carrying out their special tasks by acit and social science, and maintain that quaintance with all others similarly though it is the office of such science to engaged in the kingdom, whose work supply the experimental basis of facts and their own henceforth proceed with on which the moral law is to take effect, mutual co-operation. yet it appeals for its impulse of duty 3. Persons not hitherto occupied in and its divine sanction to a very dif- practical philanthropy acquire an interest ferent principle, namely, to "the law in one or other branch of the subject, written on the hearts” of all men, and thenceforth give their influence, whether Jew or Gentile,

time, or money to the cause. “The unwritten law Divine,

4. The Legislature receives with respect Immutable, eternal, not like these of yes- the opinions and advice of those who terday,

have made these matters their study, But made ere time began.” 1

because they are now presented, not as The province then of Social Science, isolated views of individuals, but as the as we would understand it, is simple deliberate resolutions of a large and reenough. At the present stage our task spectable body of thinkers and workers. is nearly the same as that which In a word, the principle of associated Bacon commenced for physical science action, whose adoption Channing so in the Novum Organon. In the first well described as one of the most displace a vast accumulation of facts and tinguishing characteristics of our century, observations, statistics and experiments, and one of the most powerful of future need to be gathered and constated. agencies in the world, is now applied to Then out of these, gradually, by induc- the promotion, not merely of war, nor tion, larger generalizations will be commerce, nor the abstruse controversies reached, one principle after another will of theology; not merely to the advancebe ascertained, and the laws regulating ment of physical or mathematical public health, crime, pauperism, &c., science, of arts, or of literature ; but will be discovered. It is obviously im- directly and immediately to the promopossible at first to know where ex- tion of the virtue and happiness of the actly to look for the more important human race. Social Science aims to facts, and to choose among those pre- embrace every department of the vast sented to us only such as may be of field wherein must be waged the warfare permanent value. We must be content of Orinuzd against Ahrimanes, virtue to act like a geologist at a quarry, and against vice, innocence against crime, be satisfied though the workmen bring health against disease, knowledge against many worthless stones along with some ignorance, peace against war, industry precious fossils, out of which, by and against pauperism, and woman against by, may be framed a form of life and the degradation of her sex. No wonder beauty all unseen hitherto by mortal that the mockers sneer at the immensity eyes. The general benefits of the whole of the undertaking, as they did when scheme may be summed up as follows the education of the poor was attempted Of the particular practical achievements twenty years ago, and the jest ran on we will speak by and by.

the efforts to convey the “rudiments of 1. The science itself is advanced by omniscience” through a penny magazine. the accumulation, comparison, and veri- It is a gigantic science, that of the laws fication of the discoveries of the leading which govern human society. It is an students year by year, the facts they enterprise almost hopeless in its magnihave noted, and the experiments they tude, to attempt to cope with the sin have made.

and misery of the world, and, like 2. Individual students receive instruc- Kehama, storm the citadel of evil on all “Self-multiplied, down all the roads of Pada general kinds which we have already | lon.”

indicated, and which cannot be reduced He who would say that the labours of to definite statements, although we may twenty such associations in a dazen years form some judgment of their magnitude could actually accomplish any one de- by the rise in the barometer of public partment of the task, would “talk opinion on all matters connected with the Utopian;" but not the less must we wish objects of the Association when treated God-speed to a plan which promises to by the press. It is a very few years ago do more than a thousand isolated workers since the Morning Post gave it as its have done or could do in centuries. opinion that one of the ablest heads in

The first beginning of the Social England was unquestionably cracked, Science congresses may be traced to a because the owner stood foremost among small meeting of persons interested in the advocates for the reformation of the reformatory movement, at Hardwick juvenile criminals. We should be Court, in Gloucestershire, the seat of rather surprised in 1861, to find the Mr. Barwick Baker, in the autumn of labours of the Recorder of Birmingham 1855. Before separating on this occasion, thus treated even in journals remarkable the members of the meeting formed for antiquity, both of date and of sentithemselves into a society, under the ment. A tone of contemptuous comname of the National Reformatory passion was generally adopted by Union.

those “whose charity outran their disIn August, 1856, the society held at cretion,” and who believed that their Bristol its first provincial meeting; fellow-creatures might be reclaimed from which, in all respects, resembled those) crime and pauperism. As to the lower of the present congresses, except that class of journals, they merely sneered subjects connected with crime and refor- and jested, and hinted at the vanity mation were the only ones discussed in and love of notoriety which are well the sections. The extended interest known to underlie all philanthropy. excited by the proceedings of this pro- Perhaps we have some vestiges of this vincial meeting suggested naturally that bygone folly in some quarters yet; but a still wider field of discussion should the general tone is immensely altered. be opened. At the next assemblage, Those who first rowed hard against the at Birmingham, in October, 1857, the stream of public feeling now find it “National Reformatory Union" merged carrying them forward with its tide. in the “ Association for the Promotion of But the Social Science Association does Social Science," under the auspices of not lack specific achievements to allege Lord Brougbam. The second congress in its own behalf, as well as general of the new society took place in Liver- utility. In the first place, the whole pool, in 1858, the third at Bradford, in legislation of the last few years on the 1859, the fourth at Glasgow, in 1860,' subject of crime has been importantly and the fifth and last in Dublin, in influenced by its action. This last sum1861. On each occasion, the numbers mer, in Dublin, the greatest achievement both of speakers and audience at the of all has been accomplished by the meetings have shown a large increase, public recognition of Captain Crofton's till the congresses have assumed their Intermediate Convict System, as the present proportions, and the vast halls only one which has ever successfully of the Dublin Four Courts were not coped in this country with the problem more than sufficient to contain the of reforming adult criminals, and the throngs of members and associates. consequent re-establishment of its foun

It may now be fitly asked, What der in the post which he was on the work has been done by this new and point of quitting, in despair, to the gigantic machine? The answer is not probable ruin of his undertaking. Not far to seek. Of course a large share of only for Ireland is this beneficent plan

paralysing to the energies of all save tion and encouragement each from each, the noblest souls. Therefore we repu- and are further immensely aided in diate all imaginary connexion between carrying out their special tasks by acit and social science, and maintain that quaintance with all others similarly though it is the office of such science to engaged in the kingdom, whose work supply the experimental basis of facts and their own henceforth proceed with on which the moral law is to take effect, mutual co-operation. yet it appeals for its impulse of duty 3. Persons not hitherto occupied in and its divine sanction to a very dif- practical philanthropy acquire an interest ferent principle, namely, to “the law in one or other branch of the subject, written on the hearts” of all men, and thenceforth give their influence, whether Jew or Gentile,

time, or money to the cause. "The unwritten law Divine,

4. The Legislature receives with respect Immutable, eternal, not like these of yes- the opinions and advice of those who terday,

have made these matters their study, But made ere time began.” 1

because they are now presented, not as The province then of Social Science, isolated views of individuals, but as the as we would understand it, is simple deliberate resolutions of a large and reenough. At the present stage our task spectable body of thinkers and workers. is nearly the same as that which In a word, the principle of associated Bacon commenced for physical science action, whose adoption Channing so in the Novum Organon. In the first well described as one of the most displace a vast accumulation of facts and tinguishing characteristics of our century, Observations, statistics and experiments, and one of the most powerful of future need to be gathered and constated. agencies in the world, is now applied to Then out of these, gradually, by induc- the promotion, not merely of war, nor tion, larger generalizations will be commerce, nor the abstruse controversies reached, one principle after another will of theology; not merely to the advancebe ascertained, and the laws regulating ment of physical or mathematical public health, crime, pauperism, &c., science, of arts, or of literature ; but will be discovered. It is obviously im- directly and immediately to the promopossible at first to know where ex- tion of the virtue and happiness of the actly to look for the more important human race. Social Science aims to facts, and to choose among those pre- embrace every department of the vast sented to us only such as may be of field wherein must be waged the warfare permanent value. We must be content of Orinuzd against Ahrimanes, virtue to act like a geologist at a quarry, and against vice, innocence against crime, be satisfied though the workmen bring health against disease, knowledge against many worthless stones along with some ignorance, peace against war, industry precious fossils, out of which, by and against pauperism, and woman against by, may be framed a form of life and the degradation of her sex. No wonder beauty all unseen hitherto by mortal that the mockers sneer at the immensity eyes. The general benefits of the whole of the undertaking, as they did when scheme may be summed up as follows. the education of the poor was attempted Of the particular practical achievements twenty years ago, and the jest ran on we will speak by and by.

the efforts to convey the “rudiments of 1. The science itself is advanced by omniscience" through a penny magazine. the accumulation, comparison, and veri. It is a gigantic science, that of the laws fication of the discoveries of the leading which govern human society. It is an students year by year, the facts they enterprise almost hopeless in its magnihave noted, and the experiments they tude, to attempt to cope with the sin have made.

and misery of the world, and, like 2. Individual students receive instruc Kehama, storm the citadel of evil on all “Self-multiplied, down all the roads of Pada- general kinds which we have already | lon.”

indicated, and which cannot be reduced He who would say that the labours of to definite statements, although we may twenty such associations in a dozen years form some judgment of their magnitude could actually accomplish any one de- by the rise in the barometer of public partment of the task, would “talk opinion on all matters connected with the Utopian;" but not the less must we wish objects of the Association when treated God-speed to a plan which promises to by the press. It is a very few years ago do more than a thousand isolated workers since the Morning Post gave it as its have done or could do in centuries. opinion that one of the ablest heads in

The first beginning of the Social England was unquestionably cracked, Science congresses may be traced to a because the owner stood foremost among small meeting of persons interested in the advocates for the reformation of the reformatory movement, at Hardwick juvenile criminals. We should be Court, in Gloucestershire, the seat of rather surprised in 1861, to find the Mr. Barwick Baker, in the autumn of labours of the Recorder of Birmingham 1855. Before separating on this occasion, thus treated even in journals remarkable the members of the meeting formed for antiquity, both of date and of sentithemselves into a society, under the ment. A tone of contemptuous comname of the National Reformatory passion was generally adopted by Union.

those “whose charity outran their disIn August, 1856, the society held at cretion," and who believed that their Bristol its first provincial meeting; fellow-creatures might be reclaimed from which, in all respects, resembled those) crime and pauperism. As to the lower of the present congresses, except that class of journals, they merely sneered subjects connected with crime and refor- and jested, and hinted at the vanity mation were the only ones discussed in and love of notoriety which are well the sections. The extended interest known to underlie all philanthropy. excited by the proceedings of this pro. Perhaps we have some vestiges of this vincial meeting suggested naturally that bygone folly in some quarters yet ; but a still wider field of discussion should the general tone is immensely altered. be opened. At the next assemblage, Those who first rowed hard against the at Birmingham, in October, 1857, the stream of public feeling now find it “ National Reformatory Union" merged carrying them forward with its tide. in the “ Association for the Promotion of But the Social Science Association does Social Science," under the auspices of not lack specific achievements to allege Lord Brougbam. The second congress in its own behalf, as well as general of the new society took place in Liver- utility. In the first place, the whole pool, in 1858, the third at Bradford, in legislation of the last few years on the 1859, the fourth at Glasgow, in 1860,' subject of crime has been importantly and the fifth and last in Dublin, in influenced by its action. This last sum1861. On each occasion, the numbers mer, in Dublin, the greatest achievement both of speakers and audience at the of all has been accomplished by the meetings have shown a large increase, public recognition of Captain Crofton's till the congresses have assumed their Intermediate Convict System, as the present proportions, and the vast halls only one which has ever successfully of the Dublin Four Courts were not coped in this country with the problem more than sufficient to contain the of reforming adult criminals, and the throngs of members and associates. consequent re-establishment of its foun

It may now be fitly asked, What der in the post which he was on the work has been done by this new and point of quitting, in despair, to the gigantic machine ? The answer is not probable ruin of his undertaking. Not far to seek. Of course a large share of only for Ireland is this beneficent plan

paralysing to the energies of all save tion and encouragement each from each, the noblest souls. Therefore we repu- and are further immensely aided in diate all imaginary connexion between carrying out their special tasks by acit and social science, and maintain that quaintance with all others similarly though it is the office of such science to engaged in the kingdom, whose work supply the experimental basis of facts and their own henceforth proceed with on which the moral law is to take effect, mutual co-operation. yet it appeals for its impulse of duty 3. Persons not hitherto occupied in and its divine sanction to a very dif- practical philanthropy acquire an interest ferent principle, namely, to “the law in one or other branch of the subject, written on the hearts” of all men, and thenceforth give their influence, whether Jew or Gentile,

time, or money to the cause. “The unwritten law Divine,

4. The Legislature receives with respect Immutable, eternal, not like these of yes- the opinions and advice of those who terday,

have made these matters their study, But made ere time began." 1

because they are now presented, not as The province then of Social Science, isolated views of individuals, but as the as we would understand it, is simple deliberate resolutions of a large and reenough. At the present stage our task spectable body of thinkers and workers. is nearly the same as that which In a word, the principle of associated Bacon commenced for physical science action, whose adoption Channing 80 in the Novum Organon. In the first well described as one of the most displace a vast accumulation of facts and tinguishing characteristics of our century. observations, statistics and experiments, and one of the most powerful of future need to be gathered and constated. agencies in the world, is now applied to Then out of these, gradually, by induc- the promotion, not merely of war, noi tion, larger generalizations will be commerce, nor the abstruse controversio reached, one principle after another will of theology ; not merely to the advance be ascertained, and the laws regulating ment of physical or mathematio public health, crime, pauperism, &c., science, of arts, or of literature : bu will be discovered. It is obviously im- directly and immediately to the prom possible at first to know where ex- tion of the virtue and happiness actly to look for the more important human race. Social Science in facts, and to choose among those pre- embrace every department of sented to us only such as may be of field wherein must be wagede permanent value. We must be content of Ormuzd against Ahrimaire to act like a geologist at a quarry, and against vice, innocence a be satisfied though the workmen bring health against disease, know many worthless stones along with some ignorance, person against precious fossils, out of which, by and against pamiam by, may be framed a form of life and the degrn beauty all unseen hitherto by mortal that the eyes. The general benefits of the whole of the scheme may be summed up as follows. the ed Of the particular practicchievements twent we will speak by and

the 1. The science itse

nced by the accumulation, co

ind veri fication of the discov

leading students year by ye

Its the have noted, and the have made. 2. Individual stud

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