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thoughts and nothing more. They yet his piece implies the most marvellous are subjective, and not objective. They discrimination of different tones, and are apparitions, having no reality out their effect upon the ear. Any one with side of the mind, however real-like they a taste for music may, in a similar manmay appear. They are ideas, mistaken ner, sing his favourite songs ; uttering for sensations. A very slight know- not a sound, yet in his mind accurately ledge of the facts of mind will convince discriminating the finest gradations of us of this. Let us look at some of these sound. How can this thing be, seeing facts bearing on this subject, as, at first that music essentially consists in sounds? sight, it is not very obvious how our How can we accurately discriminate bethoughts can assume a phantom shape, tween sounds where there is no sound ? and appear to move about the room, and know music and appreciate it, when look in our face, deceiving and alarm- there is no music? It is possible and ing us.

actual only because ideas do duty for The affinity which exists between sensations, and are perfect representasensations and ideas is closer than is tions of them. They are fac-similes, generally imagined. The only difference though somewhat more faintly printed seems to be that in sensation the object than their originals. Accordingly, we of sense is present : in ideation it is discriminate as nicely, between the ideas absent, but remembered. It is certain of sound as we could between sounds that ideas frequently masquerade before themselves; and enjoy a tune which is the mind as sensations and are mistaken wholly ideal, almost as much as one for them. It is so in dreams. What is which is poured in at our ears. more : they often produce the same S ir David Brewster—no mean auphysical results. This happens both in thority-maintains that, in the case of our sleeping and in our waking states. spectral illusions, the spectre is painted Van Swieten relates that, passing a spot on the retina and propagated to the where a dead dog was lying in a state of mind like a true sensation, and is in decomposition, the horrid stench caused everything subject to the same optical him to vomit; and that, happening to laws. He even proceeds further, and pass the same place many years after declares that the same fact “holds good wards, sickness and vomiting were again “ of all ideas recalled by the memory or induced by the mere recollection of "created by the imagination, and may what he had formerly experienced. Sir “ be regarded as a fundamental law in David Brewster mentions the case of a “the science of pneumatology." In lady (and such cases are not rare) who proof of this, he states that the spectres could never hear of any one having conjured up by the memory or the fancy been subjected to severe sufferings with- “ have always a local habitation ;' that out feeling acute twinges of pain in the “ they appear in front of the eye, and corresponding part of her own person. “ partake in its movements exactly like If she was told of an arm being ampu “ the impressions of luminous objects, tated, her own arm instantly suffered. “after the objects themselves are withIn these cases sensations seem to come “ drawn." from within : or rather ideas become so I am afraid the facts here adduced vivid as to resemble sensations, and to will not bear the conclusion which is produce the same physical effects. laid upon them. It would, in truth,

The substitution of ideas (I would require very strong evidence to establish prefer calling them “reminiscences," what is apparently so improbable—that “ recollections,” or “memories,") for we cannot think of St. Paul's without sensations is by no means uncommon. a picture of it being formed on our Perhaps the most extraordinary instance retina ; that we cannot think of a thunof this is in regard to sounds. The der storm without our tympanum being composer composes a tune, humming it affected. There are very strong objecwith whatever authority it may be en- world meaning the majority of the Eastdorsed.

ern and Western Churches; he must They must protest for his sake. Yes! proceed to declare that those were false and now also still more for Professor Apostles, who were brought before counHeurtley's sake. For, if the doctrine of cils, and were condemned to be beaten his letter to the Guardian is the doc- or killed by majorities of them; he trine which he proclaims in his chair must end with exalting Caiaphas and of Divinity, all who care that the youth Pontius Pilate, as chief in the roll of of England should not have the lessons saints. Of course he does none of these of their childhood confounded that things. Is it safe, then, to punish Prothey should not learn to despise the men fessors for all the heresies they may whom they have been taught to re- teach when they are not fulfilling their verence-are bound to lift up their voice appointed office? Is it not a duty to against such a Doctor. He must begin bear witness against them, when in conwith declaring the Protest at the Diet gregations or in newspapers they contraof Spires to be atrocious; he must go dict what they bid us observe and do on to denounce Athanasius as the most when they are sitting in Moses' seat ? restless of all spirits, because he dared

Your obedient Servant, to set himself against the world—the

F. D. MAURICE

ON VISIONS AND DREAMS.

BY THE REV. JOHN CUNNINGHAM, D.D.,
AUTHOR OP “THE CHURCH HISTORY OF SCOTLAND."

The age of ghosts is gone; but spectres little has been written regarding them; are still occasionally seen. Indeed, the for it is certain that, while they are majority of mankind never go to bed, understood by the few, they are still a without, in “the visions of the night, subject of profound wonder to the when deep sleep falleth on men,” see many. It is in the writings of medical ing phantoms flitting about them. A men chiefly that we have narratives of smaller number see visions in broad spectral illusions, and they too often condaylight, with their eyes wide open. A tent themselves with stating the case shadowy figure enters at a window or a without accounting for it. It is true, door, or rises from the ground " like an the explanation lies a little beyond the exhalation,” moves noiselessly about the strict limits of their profession-in the room, takes a seat at the fire, sits for a constitution of the mind rather than of time silent as death, and then melts into the body; but a knowledge of mental air, to the infinite relief of the spell- science may surely be presumed on the bound spectator. Some peculiarly ner- part of every well-educated physician. vous people have such visitors almost Still, we want a philosophy of spectres. daily. Others, the victims of intem- Even Dr. Abercrombie, with all his perance, are tormented by “familiars” marvellous powers of observation, and of a more fearful kind. A hundred' his devotion to the study of psychology, devils dance before them, grin at them, is extremely confused in his explanation deftly elude their blows, mock at their of spectral appearances, though nothing fury. Regarding the reality of such can be better than the cases which he apparitions there is no doubt ; they are cites. the real representatives of the mythical The simple, but undoubted, explana

thoughts and nothing more. They yet his piece implies the most marvellous are subjective, and not objective. They discrimination of different tones, and are apparitions, having no reality out their effect upon the ear. Any one with side of the mind, however real-like they a taste for music may, in a similar manmay appear. They are ideas, mistaken ner, sing his favourite songs; uttering for sensations. A very slight know- not a sound, yet in his mind accurately ledge of the facts of mind will convince discriminating the finest gradations of us of this. Let us look at some of these sound. How can this thing be, seeing facts bearing on this subject, as, at first that music essentially consists in sounds? sight, it is not very obvious how our How can we accurately discriminate bethoughts can assume a phantom shape, tween sounds where there is no sound ? and appear to move about the room, and know music and appreciate it, when look in our face, deceiving and alarm- there is no music? It is possible and ing us.

actual only because ideas do duty for The affinity which exists between sensations, and are perfect representasensations and ideas is closer than is tions of them. They are fac-similes, generally imagined. The only difference though somewhat more faintly printed seems to be that in sensation the object than their originals. Accordingly, we of sense is present : in ideation it is discriminate as nicely, between the ideas absent, but remembered. It is certain of sound as we could between sounds that ideas frequently masquerade before themselves ; and enjoy a tune which is the mind as sensations and are mistaken wholly ideal, almost as much as one for them. It is so in dreams. What is which is poured in at our ears. more : they often produce the same Sir David Brewster—no mean auphysical results. This happens both in thority--maintains that, in the case of our sleeping and in our waking states. spectral illusions, the spectre is painted Van Swieten relates that, passing a spot on the retina and propagated to the where a dead dog was lying in a state of mind like a true sensation, and is in decomposition, the horrid stench caused everything subject to the same optical him to vomit; and that, happening to laws. He even proceeds further, and pass the same place many years after declares that the same fact “holds good wards, sickness and vomiting were again “ of all ideas recalled by the memory or induced by the mere recollection of " created by the imagination, and may what he had formerly experienced. Sir “be regarded as a fundamental law in David Brewster mentions the case of a the science of pneumatology." In lady (and such cases are not rare) who proof of this, he states that the spectres could never hear of any one having conjured up by the memory or the fancy been subjected to severe sufferings with “ have always a 'local habitation ;' that out feeling acute twinges of pain in the “ they appear in front of the eye, and corresponding part of her own person. “ partake in its movements exactly like If she was told of an arm being ampu “ the impressions of luminous objects, tated, her own arm instantly suffered. “after the objects themselves are withIn these cases sensations seem to come “ drawn." from within : or rather ideas become so I am afraid the facts here adduced vivid as to resemble sensations, and to will not bear the conclusion which is produce the same physical effects.

laid upon them. It would, in truth, The substitution of ideas (I would require very strong evidence to establish prefer calling them “reminiscences," what is apparently so improbable-that “ recollections,” or “memories,”) for we cannot think of St. Paul's without sensations is by no means uncommon. a picture of it being formed on our Perhaps the most extraordinary instance retina ; that we cannot think of a thunof this is in regard to sounds. The der storm without our tympanum being composer composes a tune, humming it affected. There are very strong objecregard to spectral illusions. It seems to have the stage entirely to themselves. imply that the mind can create light Sensations are shut out, and ideas having, and project it from within upon the as it were, the house to themselves, rios retina, for it is only by light that a true and revel within at their pleasure. In picture can there be formed. It seems this lies the explanation of dreams. It also to imply that the mind first creates is not exactly that we confound ideas the spectre, then projects it upon the with sensations, but that no sensations retina, and from the retina receives it are present. Thought follows thought, back again, probably with more of a according to the usual laws of associasensational character than it possessed tion, like the ever-shifting scenes of a before. That this is really involved in panorama, and we live for the time in the theory may be made manifest. The a purely ideal world. It is probable, picture said to exist on the retina must moreover, that during our sleep our have some cause. That cause is nothing ideas become more vivid, just because real-nothing in the external world, for our attention is not distracted nor disspectres are allowed, on all hands, to turbed. Our whole mind is concen. have no actual objective existence. We trated upon them. The outer world does must seek for it, therefore, in the mind. not divide with the inner world our Nor can we believe that a vague idea mental energy. The latter monopolises would be represented by a definite and it all, and accordingly rises into greater distinct picture on the optic nerve; the prominence. This is, probably, the reaidea must be the counterpart, as it is son why we remember some of our the cause, of the retinal painting. Con- dreams so well, and remember them, sciousness, however, does not reveal, in too, as peculiarly vivid and real-like; the case of spectral illusions, first, an while the fact of our forgetting so many idea in the mind, and then that idea of our sleeping thoughts may be taken projected into the outer world, and then as a proof that they were not more vivid returning to the mind in an objective than many of those waking thoughts form. Moreover, nature never acts in which we forget so soon too. such a way-it is simpler in all its But in our dreams everything seems processes.

to take an objective form. There apI hesitate, therefore, to go so far as the pears to be not merely a process of distinguished optician, and believe that thought, but an actual outside world. in every case of spectral illusion there We see men walking; we hear them is a picture on the retina which is the speaking; we join with them in convercause of the deception in the mind. sation. Mountains and streams, or, it But the facts which have been adduced may be, palaces, and towers, and temples, warrant us to believe that ideas fre surround us on every side. There is a quently become so vivid as to be mis- stage on which the visionary actors taken for sensations; and this alone is strut. This is generally regarded as sufficient to account for the phenomena.' the peculiar and mysterious element in

In our waking state, we generally dreams. But it is not really peculiar discriminate accurately enough between or mysterious. In all our thinking we our sensations and our ideas, and that give to our thoughts an objective form, just because we are always conscious of though they stand out more distinct and both at the same time. The genuine more fully defined in our dreaming than sensations which are constantly pouring in our waking states, on account of the in upon us through every one of our absence of the disturbing element of senses keep our ideas in their proper sensation. In all thinking we are conplace. But in sleep it is different; our scious not of our thoughts, but of their senses are then, in a great measure, objects. But these objects belong to led. The only sensations which reach the outer world, and are therefore

of a dull indistinct character. always thought of as existing there.

thought is such a representation of it as the nerves, and in the brain, which only memory or imagination supplies. We require the excitement to be developed think of its great outlines, of its snowy in consciousness? There are several peak, of the scenery amid which it lifts circumstances which strengthen this itself aloft. It stands before the mind suspicion into a belief. as a picture. It is not a mere thought No physical influence perishes all at in the brain : there is a thought in the once. Some men say that no physical brain, but it is of a mountain existing influence once created ever perishes. in Switzerland, and of this alone are we The vibrations of the atmosphere excited conscious. In every thought there is a by sound continually diminish, but never representation less or more distinct of cease. In like manner, may not the the thing thought of, and such repre- effect produced upon the nerves of sentations in our sleep form dreams. sense by the objects of sense, whether In truth, our day dreams illustrate our these be vibrations and vibratiuncles, as night dreams. Absent men, when walk- Dr. Hartley held, or something else, coning along the street, or sitting by their tinue, though in a diminished and dimifire-side, may frequently be seen com- nishing degree, after the sensation has placently to smile, or to knit their brows, disappeared ? We know that the sensaor to clench their hands; and the secret tional influence remains, and is even felt of it is, that they have been placed by for a moment after the object is withtheir own thoughts amid scenes and drawn. A dazzling body may be discircumstances which have had such tinctly seen after the eyes are shut. A reality to them as to excite these phy- burning stick rapidly whirled round sical manifestations of pleasure or an- appears an unbroken ring of light; noyance. There is nothing, therefore, which can be accounted for only by peculiarly mysterious in the objective supposing that the sensation produced form which our thoughts take in dreams, by the object, when at one point of the as this is a condition of all thinking. circumference, has not vanished before

In these mental facts, as we shall it reaches it again. The length of time afterwards see, lies the explanation of the sensation remains has even been almost every case of spectral illusion. made the subject of calculation. It is There is, however, another circumstance, said to have been found by M. D'Arcet, half mental and half physical, worthy of a French philosopher, that the impresnote.

sion of light continued on the retina It is a singular, and it may be a sig about the eighth part of a second after nificant fact, that all our various sensa- the luminous body was withdrawn. Is tions may, in some measure, be produced there, then, anything to prevent us supby one common agent, electricity. When posing that the sensation may remain in this marvellous influence is transmitted the organ even after it has disappeared along the several nerves of special sense, from the consciousness, and that the it excites the sensation peculiar to each, organ only requires to be stimulated by and may be made to produce, in the electricity, or excited by a blow, to send same individual, and at the same time, a faint sensation into the mind ? flashes of light, crackling sounds, a pecu. There are some facts to give probaliar taste, a prickling feeling, and a phos- bility to the supposition. Mr. Boyle phoric smell. In a similar manner a has mentioned an individual who conbox on the ear will produce a ringing tinued for years to see the spectre of the sound; a blow on the eye, a spark of sun when he looked upon bright objects, light. In all these cases it is probably and this fact appeared so interesting and the violent stimulus which is given to inexplicable to Locke, that he consulted the nerve which is the proximate cause Sir Isaac Newton regarding its cause. of the sensation. And may not that. The great philosopher in his reply lead us to suspect that feeble sensational stated an experiment which he had made

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