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my turn came to shake hands with Malle. Emma. I don't know whether it was I who first pressed hers unwittingly very tight, or she mine, or both of one accord pressed simultaneously; whichever it was, the pressure had this singular effect on both of us, that we did not find a single word to say, and stood gazing at each other like two geese. It was a very awkward moment. The next she was leaning on the window of the carriage, still gazing at me, and I at her. She looked like a picture—a beautiful picture-in a frame. A smile, her would be usual arch smile, was still lingering round her mouth, but there was a quiver at one of its corners ... and her eyes were filling fast.

What was there extraordinary in the

sight that it should upset me so? I felt a shock in the very centre of my heart. My eyes grew dim, and there rose to my lips, trembling for utterance, the first person singular of the first tense of a very hackneyed verb. ...

Lucky that the train glided on, as if by stealth, and, in less time than it takes to write it, Malle. Emma was out of the reach of a whisper. Now, mine being one of those bashful verbs, which can only be whispered, I had no choice but to drop it, and give out instead a loud and hearty “God bless you !”.

The sense of the narrow escape I had had was so strong upon me, that, unscathed though I came out of it, if I did, I vowed then and there that this should be my last flirtation.

THE NEW MORALITY: WORSHIP OF MAJORITIES.

To the Editor of Macmillan's Magazine. SIR,- It is seldom that a letter appear- his efficiency, their conduct would have been ing in a religious journal deserves to be perfectly intelligible, and no one would have

been entitled to complain. remembered a week after its publication.

But what are we to think, when, among the The following, which I read in the . objects assigned, that of remedying an act of Guardian of February 19th, is one of injustice committed by the University-in the excepted cases. The position of the other words, of discharging a debt which she

ought to have discharged herself—is ostentawriter, and its contents, give it more

tiously put forward ? than a transitory importance.

I am not going to reopen the controversy

respecting the endowment of the Regius ProMR. JOWETT'S FRIENDS. fessorship of Greek. But these gentlemen To the Editor of the Guardian.

surely need not be reminded (those of them,

at all events, who are members of the UniverSIR, -A somewhat extraordinary correspon sity; and it is not easy to understand why dence, introduced by a not less extraordinary others should have stepped out of their way to notification, has lately appeared in the public make good her deficiencies), that what they prints.

venture to call the injustice of the University It seems that a number of persons, “feeling was the course deliberately determined upon, the injustice of the course recently pursued by after a free and full discussion, by that body the University of Oxford ” towards Professor whose decision is definitive in such matters. Jowett, have raised a subscription among What possible end can there be of strifes, themselves, amounting to no less a sum than if restless spirits are thus to refuse acquies2,0001., and have tendered it to that gentleman cence in the sentence of authority, unless (who, however, has had the good taste to perchance that sentence happens to be in their decline the gift), not merely as marking their own favour ? “sense of the honourable and conscientious

C. A. HEURTLEY, manner in which, during six years, he has

Margaret Professor of Divinity. fulfilled his Professorial duty," but also as Christ Church, Oxford, Feb. 17, 1862. making good “the arrears of salary withheld by the University" and discharging “at least Those who signed the memorial to some portion of the debt which has accrued to Professor Jowett might anticipate many him during that period.". If these gentlemen, Sir, had offered the

objections to the course which they took. money simply as a testimony of their respect I doubt if any one of them anticipated

knew that Oxford had once, in a very to the most refined advocate in our formal manner, asserted the divine right courts. They could produce religious of a single person, and that fellows of reasons for what they had done, reasons Magdalene e and students of Christ that would make the fortune of any Church found some reason to repent casuist. One would have regretted such of that assertion not many years after a proceeding in the Common Council of it went forth. They did not know that London ; in any municipal corporation. the divine right of majorities was an It would have alarmed us for our comarticle of University faith ; they were mercial integrity. But it need have not aware that “restless spirits " was given rise to no protest. That becomes the only name which a teacher of necessary, when those who teach modivinity could find for those who held rality adopt and sanction a morality that the decrees of a Sanhedrim or a which is lower than that of clubs and council might be unjust. Now that common councils, and defend it by relithey do know it, I believe the reasons gious maxims. which induced them to sign the There might be better ways of bearing memorial have become immeasurably witness against this outrage upon all stronger than they were before.

sound ethics, than that of offering some We who are engaged in the practice acknowledgment to Professor Jowett of different professions in the heart of for his services. I can imagine a much London, feel to what perils our moral worse way. An attempt might have code is continually exposed. Lawyers been made to extend the rule against are tempted to let quirks and quibbles in- Professor Jowett to those who estaterfere with the plain downright maxims blished it. upon which Englishmen and Christians The Professor of Hebrew intimatesought to act. Clergymen are liable to if he does not say directly—that every all the influences of a subtle religious one who wishes to secure a legitimate casuistry. We send our sons to the payment for the services of the Professor University that they may learn sound of Greek makes himself responsible for principles of ethics ; that they may that Professor's theological tenets. Has see them illustrated in the practice of he forgotten whither such a doctrine men not exposed to the friction of might lead ? If it is true, it must apordinary society, without those excuses ply, at least, as strongly to the Hebrew for making principles bend to expediency chair. I say only “at least as strongly"which are continually urged in the most people would say that one whose world. Oxford undertakes to teach business is to lecture on the Old Testamany things. She especially boasts to be ment has more to do with theology a school of ethics. She asks help in than a lecturer on Æschylus or Plato. teaching ethics from a great moralist But I do not press that point. I only of the old time, who looked upon say, that any one who subscribes to Dr. justice as the chief of virtues, the sum Pusey's maxim, who admits it under of all the virtues. She promises that any modification, must be prepared to whatever is weak in him shall be take every possible step for interferstrengthened, whaterer is lacking in ing with his emoluments, or else must him shall be supplied, by the theology be responsible for his theology and his of the New Testament.

ethics. Most who repudiate his theoA congregation, consisting in great logy and his ethics, yet believe him to part of Oxford tutors and professors, be the fittest person for a lecturer of distinctly set at defiance the maxim that Hebrew, and would count it a crime to a labourer is worthy of his hire; that do anything which would weaken him it is just to pay men for services which in that position. What course, then, they have done. They could produce most must they take? They must protest plausible apologies for their doctrine; against the decree which he and the

with whatever authority it may be endorsed.

They must protest for his sake. Yes! and now also still more for Professor Heurtley's sake. For, if the doctrine of his letter to the Guardian is the doctrine which he proclaims in his chair of Divinity, all who care that the youth of England should not have the lessons of their childhood confounded that they should not learn to despise the men whom they have been taught to reverence—are bound to lift up their voice against such a Doctor. He must begin with declaring the Protest at the Diet of Spires to be atrocious; he must go on to denounce Athanasius as the most restless of all spirits, because he dared to set himself against the world—the

world meaning the majority of the Eastern and Western Churches; he must proceed to declare that those were false Apostles, who were brought before councils, and were condemned to be beaten or killed by majorities of them; he must end with exalting Caiaphas and Pontius Pilate, as chief in the roll of saints. Of course he does none of these things. Is it safe, then, to punish Professors for all the heresies they may teach when they are not fulfilling their appointed office? Is it not a duty to bear witness against them, when in congregations or in newspapers they contradict what they bid us observe and do when they are sitting in Moses' seat? Your obedient Servant,

F. D. MAURICE

ON VISIONS AND DREAMS.

BY THE REV. JOHN CUNNINGHAM, D.D., AUTHOR OF “THE CHURCH HISTORY OF SCOTLAND."

The age of ghosts is gone ; but spectres are still occasionally seen. Indeed, the majority of mankind never go to bed, without, in “the visions of the night, when deep sleep falleth on men," see ing phantoms flitting about them. A smaller number see visions in broad daylight, with their eyes wide open. A shadowy figure enters at a window or a door, or rises from the ground “like an exhalation,” moves noiselessly about the room, takes a seat at the fire, sits for a time silent as death, and then melts into air, to the infinite relief of the spellbound spectator. Some peculiarly nervous people have such visitors almost daily. Others, the victims of intemperance, are tormented by “ familiars" of a more fearful kind. A hundred devils dance before them, grin at them, deftly elude their blows, mock at their fury. Regarding the reality of such apparitions there is no doubt; they are the real representatives of the mythical

little has been written regarding them; for it is certain that, while they are understood by the few, they are still a subject of profound wonder to the many. It is in the writings of medical men chiefly that we have narratives of spectral illusions, and they too often content themselves with stating the case without accounting for it. It is true, the explanation lies a little beyond the strict limits of their profession-in the constitution of the mind rather than of the body; but a knowledge of mental science may surely be presumed on the part of every well-educated physician. Still, we want a philosophy of spectres. Even Dr. Abercrombie, with all his marvellous powers of observation, and his devotion to the study of psychology, is extremely confused in his explanation of spectral appearances, though nothing can be better than the cases which he cites.

The simple, but undoubted, explanathoughts-and nothing more. They are subjective, and not objective. They are apparitions, having no reality out side of the mind, however real-like they may appear. They are ideas, mistaken for sensations. A very slight knowledge of the facts of mind will convince us of this. Let us look at some of these facts bearing on this subject, as, at first sight, it is not very obvious how our thoughts can assume a phantom shape, and appear to move about the room, and look in our face, deceiving and alarming us.

The affinity which exists between sensations and ideas is closer than is generally imagined. The only difference seems to be that in sensation the object of sense is present : in ideation it is absent, but remembered. It is certain that ideas frequently masquerade before the mind as sensations and are mistaken for them. It is so in dreams. What is more : they often produce the same physical results. This happens both in our sleeping and in our waking states. Van Swieten relates that, passing a spot where a dead dog was lying in a state of decomposition, the horrid stench caused him to vomit; and that, happening to pass the same place many years after wards, sickness and vomiting were again induced by the mere recollection of what he had formerly experienced. Sir David Brewster mentions the case of a lady (and such cases are not rare) who could never hear of any one having been subjected to severe sufferings without feeling acute twinges of pain in the corresponding part of her own person. If she was told of an arm being amputated, her own arm instantly suffered. In these cases sensations seem to come from within : or rather ideas become so vivid as to resemble sensations, and to produce the same physical effects.

The substitution of ideas (I would prefer calling them “reminiscences," “recollections," or “memories,") for sensations is by no means uncommon. Perhaps the most extraordinary instance of this is in regard to sounds. The composer composes a tune, humming it

yet his piece implies the most marvellous discrimination of different tones, and their effect upon the ear. Any one with a taste for music may, in a similar manner, sing his favourite songs ; uttering not a sound, yet in his mind accurately discriminating the finest gradations of sound. How can this thing be, seeing that music essentially consists in sounds? How can we accurately discriminate between sounds where there is no sound ? know music and appreciate it, when there is no music? It is possible and actual only because ideas do duty for sensations, and are perfect representations of them. They are fac-similes, though somewhat more faintly printed than their originals. Accordingly, we discriminate as nicely, between the ideas of sound as we could between sounds themselves ; and enjoy a tune which is wholly ideal, almost as much as one which is poured in at our ears.

S ir David Brewster- no mean authority-maintains that, in the case of spectral illusions, the spectre is painted on the retina and propagated to the mind like a true sensation, and is in everything subject to the same optical laws. He even proceeds further, and declares that the same fact “holds good “ of all ideas recalled by the memory or " created by the imagination, and may “ be regarded as a fundamental law in “the science of pneumatology." In proof of this, he states that the spectres conjured up by the memory or the fancy “ have always a local habitation ;' that “they appear in front of the eye, and “ partake in its movements exactly like “ the impressions of luminous objects, “after the objects themselves are with“ drawn.”

I am afraid the facts here adduced will not bear the conclusion which is laid upon them. It would, in truth, require very strong evidence to establish what is apparently so improbable—that we cannot think of St. Paul's without a picture of it being formed on our retina ; that we cannot think of a thunder storm without our tympanum being affected. There are very strong objec

with whatever authority it may be endorsed.

They must protest for his sake. Yes! and now also still more for Professor Heurtley's sake. For, if the doctrine of his letter to the Guardian is the doctrine which he proclaims in his chair of Divinity, all who care that the youth of England should not have the lessons of their childhood confounded—that they should not learn to despise the men whom they have been taught to reverence-are bound to lift up their voice against such a Doctor. He must begin with declaring the Protest at the Diet of Spires to be atrocious; he must go on to denounce Athanasius as the most restless of all spirits, because he dared to set himself against the world—the

world meaning the majority of the Eastern and Western Churches; he must proceed to declare that those were false Apostles, who were brought before councils, and were condemned to be beaten or killed by majorities of them; he must end with exalting Caiaphas and Pontius Pilate, as chief in the roll of saints. Of course he does none of these things. Is it safe, then, to punish Professors for all the heresies they may teach when they are not fulfilling their appointed office? Is it not a duty to bear witness against them, when in congregations or in newspapers they contradict what they bid us observe and do when they are sitting in Moses' seat? Your obedient Servant,

F. D. MAURICE

ON VISIONS AND DREAMS.

BY THE REV. JOHN CUNNINGHAM, D.D.,
AUTHOR OF “THE CHURCH HISTORY OF SCOTLAND."

The age of ghosts is gone ; but spectres little has been written regarding them; are still occasionally seen. Indeed, the for it is certain that, while they are majority of mankind never go to bed, understood by the few, they are still a without, in “ the visions of the night, subject of profound wonder to the when deep sleep falleth on men,” see many. It is in the writings of medical ing phantoms flitting about them. A men chiefly that we have narratives of smaller number see visions in broad spectral illusions, and they too often condaylight, with their eyes wide open. A tent themselves with stating the case shadowy figure enters at a window or a without accounting for it. It is true, door, or rises from the ground “like an the explanation lies a little beyond the exhalation,” moves noiselessly about the strict limits of their profession-in the room, takes a seat at the fire, sits for a constitution of the mind rather than of time silent as death, and then melts into the body; but a knowledge of mental air, to the infinite relief of the spell science may surely be presumed on the bound spectator. Some peculiarly ner- part of every well-educated physician. vous people have such visitors almost Still, we want a philosophy of spectres. daily. Others, the victims of intem- Even Dr. Abercrombie, with all his perance, are tormented by “familiars” marvellous powers of observation, and of a more fearful kind. A hundred' his devotion to the study of psychology, devils dance before them, grin at them, is extremely confused in his explanation deftly elude their blows, mock at their of spectral appearances, though nothing fury. Regarding the reality of such can be better than the cases which he apparitions there is no doubt; they are cites. the real representatives of the mythical The simple, but undoubted, explana

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