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capability of the law to grapple with such cases. Had the prisoners been acquitted, they could not again be tried for the same offence.

Some have begun to write down grand juries as a clumsy machinery, and a need less call on men's time. They are, however, a great safeguard against the evil of malicious or tyrannical indictments, as is shown by their manifold cases of No Bill; and they fulfil some share of the office of the British and Saxon-English jury.

It might still be good that we should

have trial by jury in all criminal cases; and we might have it for light cases in lower bundred courts or district courts, with six, if not twelve, jurymen—as the Britons had for light cases fewer than twelve oathsmen, and as the Hindoos have, I think, village juries of five men. Six plain good men might be paid each half-a-crown or more for their day out of the court fees, might sit under a magistrate as judge, and might form a court which, for some squabbles, might act as a court of arbitration.

THE SHADOWS.
My little boy, with pale, round cheeks,

And large, brown, dreamy eyes,
Not often, little wisehead, speaks,

But yet will make replies.
His sister, always glad to show

Her knowledge, for its praise,
Danes
Said yesterday : “God's here, you know;

“He's everywhere, always.
“He's in this room.” His large, brown eyes

Went wandering round for God;
In vain he looks, in vain he tries,

His wits are all abroad.

“He is not here, mamma? No, no;

“I do not see Him at all.
“He's not the shadows, is He ?" So

His doubtful accents fall

Fall on my heart like precious seed,

Grow up to flowers of love ;
For as my child, in love and need,

Am I to Him above.

How oft before the vapours break,

And day begins to be,
In our dim-lighted rooms we take

The shadows, Lord, for Thee.
While every shadow lying there,

Slow remnant of the night,
Is but an aching, longing prayer,
For Thee, O Lord, the light.

STRAY NOTES OF NATURAL HISTORY FROM THE CONTINENT.

BY CORNWALL SIMEON.

It is but a few years since steam established its dominion on the great highroad between Havre and Paris, and the horses which, harnessed to malle poste or diligence, could hardly fail to attract the attention of the traveller who entered France by that route, yielded to their more powerful rival. A very striking team it was, behind which he found himself on taking his seat in the dili, gence in those bygone days. Probably few things which during his stay in France may have attracted his notice as more or less different in their form, arrangement, or management, from those which would have served similar purposes in his own country, will have left a more lasting impression on his mind. Though gainers by the change which has taken place, it is almost a matter of regret that there, or elsewhere, we can never expect to see the like again. It must be still familiar to many readers ; yet, as from its very age it may savour of novelty to some, the former will, perhaps, forgive a short sketch of it.

It consisted of seven white horses, not large, but compactly made, active fellows, probably standing about fifteen hands and an inch in height, and matching so nearly, in general shape as well as in colour, as to render the tout ensemble eminently symmetrical. In looking them over, the principal points which at once struck one were the massiveness of their crests, the lurking devil in their eye, their round, full quarters, and their knot tied tails. They were harnessed four and three ; four as leaders, and three at wheel, one of the latter doing duty as the de cookipos mentioned by Herodotus.

To us, accustomed as we were but to comparatively light coaches and lighter mails, with four-horse teams, such a one as that which I have just attempted to describe, appeared at first sight to possess an amount of strength more than

adequate to any work which they could possibly have to do. But a cursory examination of the ponderous and unwieldy machine, called a diligence, which they were required to draw, would be quite sufficient to convince one that, if it were tolerably well loaded, the horses hart their work fully cut out, particularly if the pace expected of them were taken into consideration, it being equal generally, with stoppages (about which the conducteur took his time), to about eight miles an hour.

The diligence was ordinarily constructed to hold (besides conducteur and driver) at least eighteen passengers. In addition to these, the luggage, a miscellaneous collection of goods, containing many objects which would, with us, have been considered too heavy or bulky for a coach, and been forwarded by waggon or canal, was stowed away in a high, roomy, loft-like place communicating with the banquette in front. It almost invariably also carried its live stock, in the person of a Pomeranian dog, black-eyed, black-nosed, with the curliest of tails, and whitest of coats, who had the run of the whole top of the diligence amongst the luggage, with free access to his master in the banquette, where he usually kept him company, when it was not otherwise occupied. He completed the cargo-ostensibly at least ; for the conducteur was not above occasionally accommodating, in excess of his regular load, a short-stager or two, who stowed themselves away, as best they might, in, or behind, the banquette. Such was the load, weighing not much, if at all, under six tons, which these teams had to draw at the rate above mentioned ; and well they did it.

The harness was, in appearance, of the roughest, being of untanned leather, with rope traces ; and the bloused and sahoted driver—to call him coachman would convey an erroneous impression

—who was changed, with his horses, at every stage, undistinguishable in dress and appearance from an ordinary labourer. Whatever they may have been, however, in the outer man, they undoubtedly drove remarkably well; the horses, indeed (a great proof of good driving), apparently requiring next to no management. It was a remarkable sight to see this particular team of seven “tooled” through the narrow streets and round the sharp corners of Rouen on a market day, when densely crowded with booths and stalls. The quickness and activity displayed by the horses individually was, too, astonishing ; so much greater than could have been expected from their “stocky" forms. I remember seeing a leader come conpletely down while the team was descending a long incline at a sharp trot, and recover himself without injury before there was time for him to be dragged.

The change was always a lively sight; for, at a meeting of fourteen such horses, it was scarcely to be expected but that some freak of temper, or ebullition of wilfulness, would occur, more entertaining to the passengers than soothing to the temper of the ostler, judging from the very particular and energetic manner in which he anathematised them "Sacré bm de crapaud vert," being, for in stance, an endearing expression I have heard made use of under the circumstances. I once saw a tremendous fight between two of these horses, a nearleader and an off-wheeler, when just taken out of the diligence after rather a long stage—having been prepared for it by the conducteur, who told me that those two horses, when measures were not taken to prevent them, were always certain to have a battle. On this occasion they were left to themselves when unharnessed (I think to prove the correctness of the conducteur's assertion), and in a moment they were at it, the leader turning round and fixing the wheeler by the neck in the most determined and savage manner. The stable-helpers succeeded, after considerable difficulty, in

much damage ; but the conducteur told me be fully believed they would never rest satisfied till they had succeeded in obtaining a combat à l'outrance, and the victor only came alive out of it.

The days of such teams are gone, never to return; but the colour which characterized them in the north of France stills forms a conspicuous feature in the horses throughout that part of the country, including Paris, where, while taking refuge from a shower of rain under an arch in the Rue de Rivoli, last spring, I had the curiosity to count those which passed, and found the numbers to be a hundred of white and grey to seventy-four of other colours. In the Bois de Boulogne the relative numbers would probably show a considerable difference; so large a proportion of the horses used for riding (or their parents) being imported from England, while those used for purposes of draught are still mainly recruited from the northern breeding grounds. As one proceeds southwards, towards Italy, the colour of the horses may be observed to undergo a gradual change, becoming darker and darker, brown being that prevailing amongst those along the district of the Rhone (where, owing to their natural development being generally interfered with, they also lose in great measure the roundness and symmetry of form which distinguishes them in the north), while in the neighbourhood of Rome the majority are absolutely black.

It is certainly somewhat singular that, while the colour of the horses becomes thus darker as one draws southwards, the reverse is the case with regard to cattle; which, being mostly of the darker shades in the northern districts of France, are found gradually lighter and lighter as one gains a more southern latitude, until, in Central Italy, they are, almost universally, of a very light, delicate dun.

Ordinarily, whether as regards animals in a natural state, or those bred under the immediate eye of man, it will, I think, be found that the prevalent breed or variety is that which has proved itself, for some reason or other,

trict or the climate. Now, considering that Dr. Samuel Clarke, S.T.P., had how large a proportion of the horses in but an imperfect notion of the fulness of the north, and of the cattle in the south, the meaning conveyed by the epithet, are light-coloured, it may fairly be sup- when he translated it magmos oculos posed (if there be any truth in the above habens." theory) that the prevalence of the lighter It is curious to turn from these noble shades are, in both instances (to some beasts to their ungainly congeners, the extent at any rate), attributable to the buffaloes, with their uncouth forms, influence of climate, or perhaps a com- their coarse heads and limbs, their bination of other local circumstances. small, inexpressive eyes, and their stunWhy these, whatever they may be, ted and deformed-looking horns. Of should have a diametrically opposite all the beasts which man has made subeffect on the two species of animals, it servient to his use for purposes of would be difficult to hazard a plausible draught, there is perhaps none which conjecture.

looks so little at home in shafts, or geneStriking as is the delicate pure hue rally so little fitted for his work, of the cattle of Central and Southern One was some years ago to be occasionItaly, it is far from constituting their ally seen about the streets of Oxford, only, or chief attraction ; so admirably harnessed with a cow; and it would does it harmonize with their other gene have been almost a matter of impossiral characteristics. So nearly approach bility to produce any animal more ening to perfection indeed are a very large tirely out of his place, or miserableproportion, both as to individual"points” looking, than he appeared under the and in the tout ensemble, that one finds circumstances. To be seen perfectly at oneself gazing on them with quite as their ease, and in the fulness of much admiration, when familiarised to enjoyment, they should be sought them by a prolonged residence, as during the heat of summer in such when looking for the first time on localities as the Pontine marshes, where, their symmetrical, yet massive forms in a deep canal, twenty or thirty may be Where can be seen a more picturesque seen lying (or rather half standing, half sight than a pair of these magnificent supported by the water), with their oxen, dragging with bent heads, and bodies completely submerged and their paces as certain as they are slow, a load heads thrown back, so that no part of of hay up some broken and precipitous them is_visible but the eyes, nose, and road, or in a state of repose, sleeping or mouth, with the flat facial line which chewing the cud in the Forum, each pair connects them, the herd showing no by their empty waggon, while waiting more than so many bits of dry wood to return after the day's market to their floating on the surface. homes in the Campagna ?

He who has seen them thus Apart from general shape, the four features to which they principally owe

"wallowing

Through the hot summer day," the extreme picturesqueness of their forms, are the slightness of their bone, will but need to be reminded of the the delicacy and smallness of their derivation of their name, to acknowledge muzzles, the great size and length of the appositeness of their distinctive title, their wide-spreading and finely-tapering as emphatically the Boeuf à l'eau. horns, and their round, black, contem- It is scarcely possible that the traplative eyes. No one, I am persuaded, veller, by whom the stir of animal life who has not seen animals of this or about him does not pass unnoticed, or similar breeds, can realize the character indeed any one not absolutely deaf to the of expression with which Homer de- musical hum of birds (which seems to signed to invest the high divinity Juno, pervade the atmosphere of our rural in distinguishing her as BowTiS. At districts to such an extent as to be any rate I think it may be conceded almost mechanically and unconsciously capability of the law to grapple with such cases. Had the prisoners been acquitted, they could not again be tried for the same offence.

Some have begun to write down grand juries as a clumsy machinery, and a need less call on men's time. They are, however, a great safeguard against the evil of malicious or tyrannical indictments, as is shown by their manifold cases of No Bill; and they fulfil some share of the office of the British and Saxon-English jury.

It might still be good that we should

have trial by jury in all criminal cases ; and we might have it for light cases in lower bundred courts or district courts, with six, if not twelve, jurymen—as the Britons had for light cases fewer than twelve oathsmen, and as the Hindoos have, I think, village juries of five men. Six plain good men might be paid each half-a-crown or more for their day out of the court fees, might sit under a magistrate as judge, and might form a court which, for some squabbles, might act as a court of arbitration.

THE SHADOWS.
My little boy, with pale, round cheeks,

And large, brown, dreamy eyes,
Not often, little wisehead, speaks,

But yet will make replies.
His sister, always glad to show

Her knowledge, for its praise,
Said yesterday : “God's here, you know;

He's everywhere, always.
“He's in this room." His large, brown eyes

Went wandering round for God;
In vain he looks, in vain he tries,

His wits are all abroad.

“He is not here, mamma? No, no;

“I do not see Him at all.
“He's not the shadows, is He?” So

His doubtful accents fall

Fall on my heart like precious seed,

Grow up to flowers of love ;
For as my child, in love and need,

Am I to Him above.

How oft before the vapours break,

And day begins to be,
In our dim-lighted rooms we take

The shadows, Lord, for Thee.
While every shadow lying there,

Slow remnant of the night,
Is but an aching, longing prayer,
For Thee, O Lord, the light.

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