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dens of the palace, and in the curious wooden streets of the town. No delay occurred in returning, and we had a beautiful moonlight drive over the Inkerman heights back to Sebastopol.
We considered the next day whether we could not still see the Alma, and proceed to Eupatoria ; but, happily, we gave it up, for, on this voyage, the weather turned out too rough to allow the steamer to touch there as usual.
One object still remained to be'accomplished, and that was the Malakoff, and on this, our last day, we drove up to it. Its labyrinth of earthworks is very striking when contrasted with the single earth-ridge of the Redan; and the commanding position of the elevation told its own story why such labour had been bestowed upon its defences. Two of the tiers of loopholes remain in the ruined tower. In the cellar, or magazine below, a lame horse was sheltering itself from the glare of the midday sun. For the last time we looked down upon the ruined town, and round upon all the scenes connected with it.
Early the next morning we were up, and were on board the Odessa steamer by eight; but a gale sprang up, freshening as the day advanced, and the captain was too cautious to venture out to sea, and was confirmed in his resolution by the arrival of a merchantsteamer from Odessa at noon, which, besides having a boat washed over
board, was seriously injured in the storm. At night the gale increased to a hurricane. We landed and walked to the point of the harbour, where we could see the open sea. We could scarcely stand. Two vessels had been wrecked just outside the harbour. The sea was rolling in angrily; the sky was leaden ; we ascended the broad steps of Prince Menschikoff's grounds, and, sheltering ourselves behind the monument in the garden, we watched the fury of the storm, and discussed the probabili. . ties of the morning. “This reminds me,” said Colonel H~-, “of the fearful 14th of November, 1854. It did not blow harder then than now. However, wild as the Black Sea storms are, they do not last.”.
The hurricane went down as the sun rose next day, and by twelve the sea had so far calmed that we were able to embark. We had a somewhat rough passage to Odessa. The dim outline of the Alma we passed on the seventh anniversary of the battle. We reached Odessa by dawn on the 19th of September, and, through the kind exertions of the Consul, who represented to the Governor that urgent private affairs required us to depart without the necessary three days' notice, we obtained a permit to leave Russia in time to embark that same day for Constantinople.
THE RAISED BEACH OF BRITAIN, AND HOW SCOTLAND HAS
RISEN IN THE WORLD.
who wished for some information as to certain recent researches in the later physical changes of Britain.
In the first place, then, no one who has been in the habit of spending an occasional week at different parts of our British coast, can have failed to see a raised beach. He must have noticed a comparatively level terrace stretching
along the sea-margin, with a height of to an almost indefinite extent. Such a twenty or thirty feet above high-water feature, of course, early attracted the mark, and a breadth varying from only notice of the islanders, and hence some a few yards to several miles. This is of our oldest maritime towns stand on what geologists call a “raised beach.” the raised beach. Where a broad river If you trace it back from the sea, you enters the sea, and the terrace, leaving will find that sometimes its level sur- the shore, extends up each side of the face is lost along the foot of the undu estuary, man finds a collection of phylating ground that slopes upward into sical advantages that seem almost dethe interior; that sometimes it termi- signed for the growth of a large comnates against a sinuous line of incon- mercial city. The banks of the stream, spicuous inland cliff, just as the present skirted by this level platform, are built sea beach often ends off at the base of over with quays and docks, harbours, a low winding bluff; and, that along the warehouses, and streets. The town, inmore rocky parts of the coast line, the creasing with the rise of its commerce, raised beach often runs back till it abuts pushes outward on the same platform, against a face of irregular crag, worn which stretches along the sea-margin for into clefts and caves and isolated stacks, miles, both to the right and the left of exactly as in the same neighbourhood the river mouth. The streets and squares the existing beach may be crowned with creep steadily onward, ever preceded by a similar mural front of scarred and a host of villas and cottages and gardens, wasted rocks. Again, the seaward edgy like a cloud of skirmishers that ere long of this level terrace is sometimes cut are enveloped and lost in the advancing away by the waves, so as to rise steeply army. And then, in the course of genefrom high-water mark in a line of low rations, arises a city of merchant princes, cliff, while in other places, when the to which, day by day, come vessels from tide perhaps does not reach it, it sinks all quarters of the heaven, laden with gently down into the present shore. Such the riches of every clime. Examples are the general features of a raised of these features will readily suggest beach. It will be seen at once that they themselves to every reader. The lower possess not a few economical advantages. parts of London, for example, that run The level surface of the terrace, covered along the margin of the Thames, inas it is with a light but dry soil, is duly cluding, of course, the docks and quays, appreciated by the farmer, and skirts are built upon a portion of the raised the sea as a bright belt of green fields beach. The same has been the site of and gardens. Even in the wilder parts the great commercial works along the of the islands, where the ground has not Mersey, which have made Liverpool a been brought under the plough, the same mart for the world. And in Glasgow, terrace is conspicuous from the fresh- also, the Broomielaw, and warehouses ness of its verdure contrasting well with skirting the Clyde, extend along the the deep blue of the sea and the sombre same level terrace. grey of the mountains that rise behind. Since then this strange platform, which Few pieces of maritime scenery are thus indents our islands, presents so many more impressive than where this lovely points of importance to us as a commercial strip of green runs along the base of the and agricultural people, it may be well hills that rise, dark and lonely, from the to ask, with my friend, how such a fiords of Mull and Skye, and the western platform came to exist ? No one, I shores of Ross, Inverness, and Argyle. think, who sees it, even for the first time, the But the raised beach has other ad- can fail to perceive that it is truly what vantages than those which are claimed its geological name indicates it to be by agriculture. Its level surface affords -an old sea-beach worn out of the an admirable site for the erection of coast, when the relative height of sea towns and villages, which can spread and land was different from that which
face sloping with an almost impercep- of the otter and the screaming sea-mew. tible inclination towards the present And thus we see that the ocean is now beach, the sinuous cliff which so often only carrying on at ather points the bounds its inland margin, the caves and same work of demolition which marked clefts, and creeks, into which that cliff its limits in ancient times. The hard is so frequently worn-these are features rock, which forms the existing beach, which the observer sets down at once as must therefore run inland under the the products of the action of the sea, terrace and join the old cliffs where these and he concludes with reason that, as sink below the surface. Let us now the tides never rise now nearly so far see what the waves have laid down as the surface of the platform, far less upon the almost rectangular incision advance inland to the base of the old which they have thus cut along the caves and cliffs, there must have been a margin of our islands. Standing again change of level, the sea being either at the base of the low cliff along which lower, or the land higher, than it was the materials that compose the terrace when the older beach was thrown up, are being laid bare by the tides, we find and the inland caves were worn and that this terrace consists of nothing but hollowed by the restless surge.
successive layers of sand, silt, and gravel, If the mere outward aspect of the often full of shells ; in short, that its terrace be enough to assure us that it compartments resemble exactly the has been the work of the sea, we obtain deposits which are at this moment a clue as to how and when this work thrown down by the waves on the prewas carried on, by considering the sent beach. The flat surface which so nature of the materials of which the arrests the eye, skirting the shore as it terrace is composed. Let the reader does, with a belt of gardens and fields, imagine himself at some part of the villas and towns, is really the surface of coast where the structure of the terrace an old beach which is made up of sand, has been laid bare along a line of low and gravel, and shells, like any beach of cliff exposed, at high tides, to the wash the present day. So that not only in its of the breakers. At the bottom of this general appearance, but still more in the cliff, and forming perhaps the floor of nature and arrangement of its materials, the present beach, we may chance to this flat maritime platform affords deci. see a surface of hard rock, limestone, sive evidence that sea and land have sandstone, granite, or porphyry, the had at one time, in Britain, a different origin of which has evidently nothing relation to each other from that in which whatever to do with either the present they stand to-day. or the former beach, but which must The surface of the terrace varies have been just as hard and ancient from twenty to thirty feet above highlooking a rock, and must have offered water mark. Let us take it at an as much resistance to the waves, when average height of twenty-five feet. This, they piled up the old beach, as it does then, represents the difference between to the waves that are piling up the new the present and the former levels. one. Further along the coast we may It is plain that, to account for such see the same rocks rising up into huge a difference, we must have recourse cliffs, that are worn by the breakers into to some other explanation than a mere creeks and caves, and isolated crags. variation in the form of the coastAnd, away inland, it may be several line, caused by the wearing effects of miles, at the further side of the level the sea, whereby the waves now no terrace, we may see another line of cliffs longer have access to cliffs and crags, as wasted and worn as those of the shore, among which they had previously toiled but now silent and at rest—their sides for ages. The general uniformity and not dark with sea-weed, but feathered persistence of the terrace round so large with fern and brier, and their caverns a part of the British Isles, shows that it ful cause. Either, therefore, the sea placed by one of an opposite kind. The must have receded, or the land must rest of Sweden, towards the north, is have risen to the extent of at least actually rising, and the rate has been twenty-five feet since the sands and ascertained to be as much as from three gravels of the terrace were deposited to four feet in a century. Beds of
That such changes of level are due to marine shells occur even two hundred the upheaval of the land, rather than to feet above the present tide-mark, and the recession of the sea, will be evident, if extend along the coast for many miles. we reflect that the sea-level over the Further north, the upward movement whole globe must, on the whole, remain appears to become gradually feebler, and uniform; so that the waters of the ocean we know that the coasts of Greenland cannot retire from the shores of our are actually sinking, and at so rapid a land, without also receding from the rate that the settlers have had, more shores of every other part of the earth. than once, to remove inland the poles Undoubtedly there must have been, in on which they used to place their boats. times past, and there may be going on It is unnecessary to enter here into even now, depressions of various portions the question of the cause of these moveof the bed of the sea, and such down- ments. They are, of course, merely the ward movements tend, of course, to external signs of vast agencies that are lower the sea-level over the whole globe. at work within the crust of the earth. But even the greatest depression which That these agencies have been in operawe can suppose probable would produce, tion. beneath the area occupied by the perhaps, a scarcely appreciable change, British isles is abundantly evident in since its effect would have to be distri- the lines of elevated shore-deposits buted equally over every ocean, and sea, which skirt our coasts, and which repreand firth, and estuary, and bay, from sent the extent to which the upheaving pole to pole. Besides, traces of the movements have been carried within recession would be more or less visible a comparatively recent geological period. in every country, and these would retain Now, when did this upheaval take a uniform level above the previous tide- place ? Must it be assigned, like so mark. The old beach would never many other changes of which the geoloappear ten feet above the tides at one gist tells, to some unknown and indefiplace, and twenty feet at another. Hence, nite period that long preceded the advent as a matter of theory, geologists hold that, of man? Or is there any evidence to where the sea seems either to encroach show that it has been effected since the upon or retire from its shores, the change first aborigines paddled their canoes lies, not with the sea, but with the land among the creeks and estuaries of BriThe ocean, which we take to be the em- tain ? Let me answer, in one word, that, blem of all that is fickle and unstable, is with regard to the Northern half of the thus, in reality, constant and unchanging; island, the upheaval has undoubtedly while the solid earth and the everlasting been completed since man set foot on hills, which form our types of stability these shores, nay, that there are good and rest, have risen above the ocean grounds for believing it to be of later level, and sunk below it, many times date than the Roman invasion. A in the past history of our planet, present I cannot determine to what exand are, in not a few places, rising tent the central and southern parts of or sinking even now. The coast of England participated in the change. Sweden is a well-known example of Possibly they may have remained at rest, the progress of these movements. The and the raised beaches which fringe southern part of that peninsula is, at their coast-line may belong to an older this moment, undergoing a slow sub- era. But that Scotland, and probably mergence beneath the waters of the also the Northern counties of England, Baltic. Further north this downward have been upraised within the human The evidence on which this conclu- but naturally deposited and covered sion rests is of the simplest kind. The over with layers of silt and sand, and deposits of the raised beach, consisting even with beds of shells. Hence we of sand, clay, and beds of shells, are cannot for a moment hesitate to accept clearly such as could only be formed the conclusion that man must have witunder high-water mark; and, as they are nessed the last upward movement by now greatly above the reach of the which the island attained its present highest tides, we infer, as a necessary level. deduction, that the land has risen above The elevated silt of the Clyde at the sea. If now we find associated Glasgow has been especially rich in with the shells various implements of these relics of our aboriginal ancestors. human workmanship, arranged in such No fewer than eighteen canoes are rea way as to preclude the supposition corded as having been at various times that they could by any chance have disinterred in that neighbourhood. Some been buried there artificially, or have of these were actually found below the fallen into the shell-beds through cracks streets of the town, in the process of of the ground, we are forced to the con- digging out foundations for buildings or clusion not only that the land has been constructing sewers and drains. For elevated, but that this elevation has the most part they were of rude workbeen effected since the appearance of manship, consisting each of one solid man. And this is exactly the state of oak stem, hollowed out roughly either the case in Scotland.
with fire or by means of some stone imThe three great estuaries of the Clyde, plement. Others, however, evinced the the Forth, and the Tay, are each skirted use of metal tools, and showed no small by strips of flat ground, the surface of amount of ingenuity and mechanical which may be on an average about five- skill. Probably they did not all belong and-twenty feet above the limit of high to one period; the more primitive ones tide. These level flats are sometimes only being the work of the earlier inhabia few yards broad ; but, in some places tants, while the more elaborate were they expand into broad plains, which are executed by later and somewhat more known as carses, and are famed as the civilized generations. They were immost fertile tracts in the country. As bedded in the clay in such a way as to the reader may have conjectured, they indicate that they had sunk in water, are really parts of the old raised beach; and had been slowly enveloped in the the sea once alternately ebbed and flowed mud that gathered over the bed of the across their levél surface, and deposited river. One of them was stuck in the there those layers of mud and silt upon clay in a nearly vertical position, with which the present fertility of the soil the prow uppermost, as if it had been depends. Moreover, in the clay which out in a storm, and, capsizing, had gone now composes this carse-land, sea-shells to the bottom. They lay at various abound; every ditch or deep drain in depths from the surface—some being at certain localities lays them open in the level of low water, while others were thousands, showing how complete was situated considerably above the limits of the ascendancy of the sea over those the highest recorded tide or river-flood. plains, where in one district the farmer And in every instance they were overnow ploughs his fields, and the merchant laid by the common alluvium of the builds his villa, and where in another river-a well-stratified clay, not formed direction stretch the streets and squares by any sudden rush of water carrying of a busy city. But, in addition to these mud along with it, but by the slow demarine remains, there occur in the up- posit of the river. It is plain that, at raised deposits of all the three estuaries the present relative levels of the estuary traces of the presence of man-canoes, and its banks, this alluvium could not flint-hatchets, harpoons, anchors, and have been laid down where we find it.