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ends in the Old Bailey? We must consider the future of these children. It may be urged, that there is no particular harm in running along by the side of a carriage, and emulating, by means of the arms and legs, the example of the wheel, on which the vehicle rolls; but what we have to consider is, what this is to end in. There comes a time when this branch of the begging profession must be abandoned, and then the little urchin

we have laughed at grows up and be-
comes-what? A vagabond. Prevention
is better than cure, and, though we can
easily train the young plant when it first
shows its green shoots above ground, it
is not easy to do anything with the full-
grown tree, unless to cut it down. We
should have, at any rate, fewer grown-
up beggars about our streets, if we thus
arrested the career of the young beginners
at its earliest commencement.

OUR DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR SERVICES.

Since the introduction of the examina- Admiralty have of late years fallen ; and tion system into the Civil Service, public this has arisen from its staff being sufattention has been directed to the dif- ficient for the work to be done, from the ferent branches of the Home Service, but ability of the successive Foreign Secrethe working of the colonial and foreign taries, and from the circumstance, that departments has remained as much un- having had, for many years, a good repuknown as ever. And yet a knowledge · tation as a well-conducted governmentof the mode of management of our co- office, an efficient class of men have oblonial and foreign relations is one which tained appointments in it. Much also would not only be useful in the way of is to be attributed to Lord Palmerston's general information, but would materially long tenure of the post of Foreign Secreassist in forming an accurate opinion on tary. His extreme attention to matters many of the questions of the day. The of detail, on the proper discharge of recent Parliamentary inquiries into the which the character of any public office diplomatic and consular services, as well mainly depends, has had a most beneas the events of the day, suggest that this ficial effect in forming sound business would be a favourable time for giving habits among the senior clerks. some account of their present state, and The staff of the Foreign Office consists of the changes which appear to be in of two under-secretaries, one assistant contemplation, as well as to offer some under-secretary, forty-one clerks on observations respecting these professions. the establishment, divided into five The general impression on the subject classes, and about twenty supplementary has hitherto been, that the members of clerks attached to various departments. these bodies have resided at agreeable There are also translators of European places abroad, have enjoyed handsome and Oriental languages, and the employés salaries, and have had light duties to necessary for printing confidential papers, perform ; but, while the result of the in- binding old despatches, and for managing quiries referred to has been to point a branch of one of the foreign lines of out more clearly what the advantages telegraph. of their professions actually are, they The office is divided into eleven dihave unfolded counterbalancing cir- visions or departments, which are under cumstances which had previously been the supervision of one or other of the overlooked.

under-secretaries : of these, six are The Foreign Office has kept itself out political, and the others transact the of any very prominent public notice, in treaty, slave trade, consular, finance, consequence of its official business being and passport, and the librarian's on so conducted as to avoid the palpable dis- general reference business. The office

work of the day is done ; differing in this respect from other public offices, which have fixed and regular hours of attendance. The amount of work to be done is said to vary considerably, sometimes being very slight, and at other times overwhelming. The business is transacted in the following manner :There are four clerks resident in the office, who in turn attend to the receipt of despatches out of office hours, and forward them to the under-secretaries, by whom they are sent on to the Secretary of State. He returns them to the under-secretary, giving on each such directions as they appear to require, or asking for further information, and the under-secretary sends them out to the proper department to be registered and acted upon. Letters which arrive in office hours go to the under-secretary direct, and follow the same course. Drafts of answers are written by the senior clerk of the department to which they belong, and are submitted by him to the superintending under-secretary, who, in matters of importance, consults the Secretary of State. All drafts of political despatches are sent for approval to the Prime Minister and to the Queen, before the despatch is sent off. Despatches received are also sent to the Prime Minister and the Queen, and are afterwards circulated among the Cabinet Ministers. Business is carried on with great rapidity, and letters are often received and disposed of on the same day.

The salaries at the Foreign Office are as follows:-The permanent under-secretary receives 2,0001. a year; the parliamentary and the assistant under-secretary receive 1,5001. each. The chief clerk, who superintends the finance and passport business, has a salary of 1,0001., increasing at 501. to 1,2501. The salaries of the five classes of the ordinary clerks range

The salaries of the supplemental clerks vary, but are smaller in proportion to the above list. Promotion is by seniority, but no extra pay is given for work done after the nominal six hours of attendance, as is the case in many other Government offices.

The competition system of examination has been applied to clerkships. On a vacancy occurring, three candidates are named by the Secretary of State, who are examined by the Civil Service Commissioners,

1. In handwriting.

2. In writing English and French from dictation.

3. In French.

4. In making a précis or abstract of papers.

. In cases of equality, a knowledge of German is to decide to whom the preference is to be given. The limit of age is between eighteen and twentyfour.

Such is a brief sketch of the organization of the Foreign Office, and of the system of transacting business adopted there. This system has certainly succeeded in preventing the confusion from arising which has elsewhere taken place ; while the amount of salary, and the prospect of regular promotion, combined with the social position which its service is supposed to give, have obtained for the office a higher character than that of most other public establishments.

The diplomatic corps is divided into the heads of missions and their subordinates. The former consists of ambassadors, envoys, ministers and chargés des affaires. The subordinate employés are secretaries of embassy and legation, and paid and unpaid attachés. The career is in theory a regular one, and it is supposed that a man begins as unpaid attaché, and works his way up to the top of the profession ; but this is by no means the case in practice, for there are numerous instances of “interlopers,” possessing strong political influence, having been brought in and put over the heads of those who have

8 senior clerks at 7001. increasing at 251. a year to 1,0001. Sassistant

clerks: „ 5507. „ 201. „ 6501. 10 first-class junior clerks , 3501.

201. , 5451. 9 second-class junior clerks,, 1501.

3002. 6 thiri-class

ends in the Old Bailey ? We must consider the future of these children. It may be urged, that there is no particular harm in running along by the side of a carriage, and emulating, by means of the arms and legs, the example of the wheel, on which the vehicle rolls; but what we have to consider is, what this is to end in. There comes a time when this branch of the begging profession must be abandoned, and then the little urchin

we have laughed at grows up and be-
comes-what? A vagabond. Prevention
is better than cure, and, though we can
easily train the young plant when it first
shows its green shoots above ground, it
is not easy to do anything with the full-
grown tree, unless to cut it down. We
should have, at any rate, fewer grown-
up beggars about our streets, if we thus
arrested the career of the young beginners
at its earliest commencement.

OUR DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR SERVICES.

Since the introduction of the examina- Admiralty have of late years fallen; and tion system into the Civil Service, public this has arisen from its staff being sufattention has been directed to the dif- ficient for the work to be done, from the ferent branches of the Home Service, but ability of the successive Foreign Secrethe working of the colonial and foreign taries, and from the circumstance, that departments has remained as much un- having had, for many years, a good repuknown as ever. And yet a knowledge · tation as a well-conducted governmentof the mode of management of our co- office, an efficient class of men have oblonial and foreign relations is one which tained appointments in it. Much also would not only be useful in the way of is to be attributed to Lord Palmerston's general information, but would materially long tenure of the post of Foreign Secreassist in forming an accurate opinion on tary. His extreme attention to matters many of the questions of the day. The of detail, on the proper discharge of recent Parliamentary inquiries into the which the character of any public office diplomatic and consular services, as well mainly depends, has had a most beneas the events of the day, suggest that this ficial effect in forming sound business would be a favourable time for giving habits among the senior clerks. some account of their present state, and The staff of the Foreign Office consists of the changes which appear to be in of two under-secretaries, one assistant contemplation, as well as to offer some under-secretary, forty-one clerks on observations respecting these professions. the establishment, divided into five The general impression on the subject classes, and about twenty supplementary has hitherto been, that the members of clerks attached to various departments. these bodies have resided at agreeable There are also translators of European places abroad, have enjoyed handsome and Oriental languages, and the employés salaries, and have had light duties to necessary for printing confidential papers, perform ; but, while the result of the in- binding old despatches, and for managing quiries referred to has been to point a branch of one of the foreign lines of out more clearly what the advantages telegraph. of their professions actually are, they The office is divided into eleven dihave unfolded counterbalancing cir- visions or departments, which are under cumstances which had previously been the supervision of one or other of the overlooked.

under-secretaries : of these, six are The Foreign Office has kept itself out political, and the others transact the of any very prominent public notice, in treaty, slave trade, consular, finance, consequence of its official business being and passport, and the librarian's on so conducted as to avoid the palpable dis- general reference business. The office

work of the day is done ; differing in this respect from other public offices, which have fixed and regular hours of attendance. The amount of work to be done is said to vary considerably, some times being very slight, and at other times overwhelming. The business is transacted in the following manner :There are four clerks resident in the office, who in turn attend to the receipt of despatches out of office hours, and forward them to the under-secretaries, by whom they are sent on to the Secretary of State. He returns them to the under-secretary, giving on each such directions as they appear to require, or asking for further information, and the under-secretary sends them out to the proper department to be registered and acted upon. Letters which arrive in office hours go to the under-secretary direct, and follow the same course. Drafts of answers are written by the senior clerk of the department to which they belong, and are submitted by him to the superintending under-secretary, who, in matters of importance, consults the Secretary of State. All drafts of political despatches are sent for approval to the Prime Minister and to the Queen, before the despatch is sent off. Despatches received are also sent to the Prime Minister and the Queen, and are afterwards circulated among the Ca. binet Ministers. Business is carried on with great rapidity, and letters are often received and disposed of on the same day.

The salaries at the Foreign Office are as follows:- The permanent under-secretary receives 2,0001. a year; the parliamentary and the assistant under-secretary receive 1,5001. each. The chief clerk, who superintends the finance and passport business, has a salary of 1,0001., increasing at 501. to 1,2501. The salaries of the five classes of the ordinary clerks range

The salaries of the supplemental clerks vary, but are smaller in proportion to the above list. Promotion is by seniority, but no extra pay is given for work done after the nominal six hours of attendance, as is the case in many other Government offices.

The competition system of examination has been applied to clerkships. On a vacancy occurring, three candidates are named by the Secretary of State, who are examined by the Civil Service Commissioners,

1. In handwriting.

2. In writing English and French from dictation.

3. In French.

4. In making a précis or abstract of papers.

In cases of equality, a knowledge of German is to decide to whom the preference is to be given. The limit of age is between eighteen and twentyfour.

Such is a brief sketch of the organization of the Foreign Office, and of the system of transacting business adopted there. This system has certainly succeeded in preventing the confusion from arising which has elsewhere taken place ; while the amount of salary, and the prospect of regular promotion, combined with the social position which its service is supposed to give, have obtained for the office a higher character than that of most other public establishments.

The diplomatic corps is divided into the heads of missions and their subordinates. The former consists of ambassadors, envoys, ministers and chargés des affaires. The subordinate employés are secretaries of embassy and legation, and paid and unpaid attachés. The career is in theory a regular one, and it is supposed that a man begins as unpaid attaché, and works his way up to the top of the profession ; but this is by no means the case in practice, for there are numerous instances of “interlopers,” possessing strong political influence, having been brought in and put over the heads of those who have

8 senior clerks at 7001. increasing at 251, a year to 1,0001. Sassistant

clerks , „ 5507. „ 201. 6501. 10 first-class junior clerks „ 3501.

6451. 9 second-class junior clerks,, 1501.

3001. 6 thin!-class

ends in the Old Bailey? We must consider the future of these children. It may be urged, that there is no particular harm in running along by the side of a carriage, and emulating, by means of the arms and legs, the example of the wheel, on which the vehicle rolls; but what we have to consider is, what this is to end in. There comes a time when this branch of the begging profession must be abandoned, and then the little urchin

we have laughed at grows up and becomes—what? A vagabond. Prevention is better than cure, and, though we can easily train the young plant when it first shows its green shoots above ground, it is not easy to do anything with the fullgrown tree, unless to cut it down. We should have, at any rate, fewer grownup beggars about our streets, if we thus arrested the career of the young beginners at its earliest commencement.

OUR DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR SERVICES.

Since the introduction of the examina. Admiralty have of late years fallen ; and tion system into the Civil Service, public this has arisen from its staff being sufattention has been directed to the dif- ficient for the work to be done, from the ferent branches of the Home Service, but ability of the successive Foreign Secrethe working of the colonial and foreign taries, and from the circumstance, that departments has remained as much un- having had, for many years, a good repuknown as ever. And yet a knowledge · tation as a well-conducted governmentof the mode of management of our co- office, an efficient class of men have oblonial and foreign relations is one which tained appointments in it. Much also would not only be useful in the way of is to be attributed to Lord Palmerston's general information, but would materially long tenure of the post of Foreign Secreassist in forming an accurate opinion on tary. His extreme attention to matters many of the questions of the day. The of detail, on the proper discharge of recent Parliamentary inquiries into the which the character of any public office diplomatic and consular services, as well mainly depends, has had a most beneas the events of the day, suggest that this ficial effect in forming sound business would be a favourable time for giving habits among the senior clerks. some account of their present state, and The staff of the Foreign Office consists of the changes which appear to be in of two under-secretaries, one assistant contemplation, as well as to offer some under-secretary, forty-one clerks on observations respecting these professions. the establishment, divided into five The general impression on the subject classes, and about twenty supplementary has hitherto been, that the members of clerks attached to various departments. these bodies have resided at agreeable There are also translators of European places abroad, have enjoyed handsome and Oriental languages, and the employés salaries, and have had light duties to necessary for printing confidential papers, perform ; but, while the result of the in- binding old despatches, and for managing quiries referred to has been to point a branch of one of the foreign lines of out more clearly what the advantages telegraph. of their professions actually are, they The office is divided into eleven dihave unfolded counterbalancing cir- visions or departments, which are under cumstances which had previously been the supervision of one or other of the overlooked.

under-secretaries : of these, six are The Foreign Office has kept itself out political, and the others transact the of any very prominent public notice, in treaty, slave trade, consular, finance, consequence of its official business being and passport, and the librarian's on 80 conducted as to avoid the palpable dis- general reference business. The office

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