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herent of the Pope. Unfortunately for “weaken my docile submission to the his peace and quiet, he could not approve “utterances of the Holy See, in which is of the system of hostility towards the “placed the glory, the boast, the conItalian cause, inaugurated by the Vati. “solation, and the hope of so many can. Probably on account of this dis- “millions of the faithful. Therefore, agreement with the ruling party at Rome, “most blessed Father,condemn, reprove, though, according to his own version, “proscribe, and stigmatize my work as solely on account of failing health, he “seems best to you, and I will humbly left Rome at the end of last January, “condemn and reprove it alsс.” for the healthier air of Florence. It No answer was returned to this supwas there that, in the month of June, plication. Monsignor Liverani was deMonsignor Liverani brought out his prived, without trial, of his benefices. famous pamphlet, “ Il Papato, l'Impero, The Ultramontane papers, the Armonia e il Regno d'Italia," recommending the and the Civilta Cattolica, abused him as Pope to make terms with the Italian a heretic and a renegade, and yet, even Government. The position and reputa- in his own narrative of the circumstances tion of the writer attracted great atten attending his deprivatior, he expresses tion to the work, and the indignation of no doubt of papal infallibility or dissent the Court of Rome was correspondingly from the doctrines of the Church. On bitter. Headed by Cardinal Patrizi, the the other hand he inveigis most bitterly most bigoted and pro-Austrian, perhaps, against the clique who form the governof the whole sacred college, the chapter ment of the Vatican. “Pray God," so of Santa Maria Maggiore at once be- his narrative ends, “hat Rome may sought the Pope to use “extraordi- “ once for all be raised from the mire nary measures" in order to enforce “ with which the foul iost of hucksterers their colleague's return to his vacant “ has bespattered her-that the holy stall. Without more than a day's “see may escape or ever from the delay, Pius IX. summoned Liverani “snares of the Filppanis, the Mires,' to return to Rome within the space of “the Antonellis, ind the Bank of two months, and then and there re- “ Rome—and tha' again it may be nounce and revoke the statements " said of the Holy Pontiff, as it was contained in his pamphlet, on pain of “ once said of the Divine author of his ipso facto losing his canonry. By “ priesthood, “He shall spare the poor canon law the stall could only be “and needy, and shall save the souls of declared ipso facto vacant on account of “ the needy ; he shall redeem their soul such crimes as heresy, murder, or simony, “ from deceit and violence; and preand even then only after the three “cious shall their blood be in his required citations; but the Pope con- “sight."" The reproof which thus by sidered the occasion important enough inference is coiveyed against the Court to outride common rules, and call for of Rome, is a zrave and solemn one in "extraordinary measures." Monsignor the mouth of papal prelate. Liverani thereupon addressed a letter to The Court of Rome may possibly still the Pope, offering to resign his canonry retain the innocence of the dove ; it is on the sole condition that “his cause certain she las lost the wisdom of the
might be decided on by the ordinary serpent. “ Vhosoever is not with me “regulations of the canon law, so as to is against ne,” has become her motto, “have the appearance of a judicial and any one of her members who refuses “decision, not of an act of vengeance,” to believe n the temporal power being while at the same time he thus expressed essential to the existence of the Church, his devotion to the Pope. “Whatever is at once cut off from her communion. “judgment it may please your Holiness Thus friends and well-wishers are turned “to pronounce upon my work, 'Il Papato, against teir will into open reformers. “l'Impero, e il Regno d'Italia,' it can A striking instance of this short-sighted
Canon Reali. This gentleman was, or, according to his own view, is, a monk of the order of San Salvator. During the revolutionary days of 1848 he was a warm partizan of the liberal doctrines, which Pius IX. was then believed to profess. When the reaction set in, either terrified at his own rashness, or startled by the excesses of the revolutionary party, he abjured his liberal errors, and, as the condition of being allowed to retain his ecclesiastical functions, consented to retract a pamphlet he had published on the advisability of an alliance between the Pope and the revolution. Still he remained a marked man, suspected by the dominant faction. The course pursued by the Papal Government after its restoration, dispelled any hopes he might have formed that the Vatican had learnt wisdom by adversity ; and, when the hopes of the national party revived with the progress of Piedmont, Canon Reali became an adherent of the cause of Italy. In 1859, he received an intimation, while residing at Fano, that he was likely to be summoned forcibly to Rome, to answer before the Inquisition for his opinions, and thereupon retired to Bologna, which had then revolted from the papal rule. Here he resided, in the convent of his order, until September, 1860, when he was sent to Turin, in order to petition the Government against the proposed dissolution of his convent-an errand in which he proved successful. Early in the present year he published a pamphlet in Turin, entitled, “Liberty of Conscience in relation to the temporal power of the Papacy." This pamphlet, which advocated the separation of the temporal and spiritual power, was at once placed in the Index Expurgatorius of Rome, and the author was formally summoned to renounce his errors on pain of excommunication. The Canon Reali appealed, but without effect. A decree was issued from the “Sacra Congregazione" at Rome, couched in these curious terms :
“It certainly was to have been hoped “ that the priest Eusebio Reali, belong
“holy order of the Salvatore Lateran“ense,' after having once publicly “retracted his errors in former days, “ would have remained firm to his “ plighted faith. From his public acts, "however, it is evident that he has re“ turned to his vomit (sic), and has " entered on a path of life which is not “ only unfitted for a man in holy orders, “ but offers grave cause of offence and “ scandal to Christian people. Being “therefore only a disgrace and injury “to his order, and there remaining no “hope of his reformation, our most “ holy master, Pius IX., though with “regret, thinks it incumbent on him to “ remove a tainted sheep from amongst “his brethren. He therefore orders " the Superior-General of the above" named order to proceed to the expul“sion of Eusebio Reali, and herewith “declares him expelled, omitting the “ prescribed forms, and notwithstanding “any provisions that may exist to the “ contrary.”
This decree was communicated by the Superior-General to Reali, accompanied by a letter, in which the following remarkable passage occurred :-“I am “ certain you will lay the responsibility “ of this proceeding on our order. You “ may think as you like, but this false “impression is due to your ignorance of “the feelings entertained here in high " quarters towards all priests who com“ promise themselves in the present “ troubles. You ought to be acquainted “ with the fact that all these acts are “ done in cases where the Holy See “ considers that she has external and “ public evidence to proceed upon 'pro“prio motu' by his Holiness, and that “ many other priests have been ex“ pelled without any representation be“ing made to the Pope by their order." The heresy of which Reali seems to have been guilty consisted in disputing the validity of the French Ultramontane theory, that the temporal power of the Papacy was essential to the freedom of the Catholic faith. For this heresy he has been expelled from his order, and deprived, by the Pope
religious functions. He refuses to admit vain, in Belgium. It seems, that the prothe validity of this sentence, and still fessors of this University are accused by considers himself as a priest. He has the Jesuits of being guilty, in their public been appointed to a Professorship in the lectures, of the heresy of traditionalism. Lyceum of Ravenna ; and in spite of This heresy, if heresy it is, consists in these acts of disobedience calls himself denying the power of human reason to “ a devout Catholic, ready to submit his decide questions relating to religious " private judgment to the judgment of truths, and in asserting, therefore, that “ the Church," and affects to see no tradition is required to supply the faith defect in the Papal system, except in which the light of reason cannot give the composition of the “Curia Romana.” unaided. The doctrine of the Louvain “ Down with the Pope's counsellors” professors, according to the Abbé Paswould be the battle-cry of his reform saglia's report on this subject, submitted movement. « The Pope," he writes into the Congregation of the Index, may an expostulatory letter addressed to the be expressed briefly thus :head of his order in Rome, “is sur “That mankind, as a matter of fact, “ rounded by flatterers, and deceivers, “are not competent to form a primary, " and traitors, who, Judas-like, sell “ complete, and clear opinion on any “ again in his person the blood of our “ metaphysical or abstract truth, with“ Divine Master. Society is torn to “ out some external intellectual aid, “ pieces by a party which calls itself " which can assist the internal powers « Catholic, with as little right as Simon, " of mind, and the natural force of “ who thought he would barter with " reason." “ Saint Peter for the gifts of the Holy The reason why this doctrine was “ Ghost. Italy is calumniated by men unpalatable to the Jesuits, seems to be, “ who call themselves devoted to the that the necessity of admitting the evi“ Holy See, and are, in truth, like the dence of tradition in doctrinal points, “ Pharisees, who crowded into the obviously shackles the authority of the “synagogue to get the foremost places. Pope in deciding on matters of doctrine. “ The Church is torn to pieces by per- Thus, for example ;-if the authority of “sons who enter her service in order to tradition had been deemed necessary to “ divide her vestments among them, the establishment of a religious doctrine, " just as the ribald scoffers at the suffer- Pius IX. could hardly have promul. “ings of the God, who died for mankind, gated the dogma of the Immaculate Con“ assembled at the foot of the cross, by ception. Still it is probable there were “ the side of Mary Magdalen, to divide other causes of enmity between the “ the garments of Christ. ... It is notLouvain professoriate and the Jesuits, “ to an Antonelli, or a Merode, or a though the charge of teachingfalse doctrine " De Courcelles, or a Montalembert, or was the one openly brought against the “a Veuillot, or to the writers in the University. The charge was first made 6 Civilta Catholica and the Armonia, in 1844, but those were the days of old “ that the guardianship of His shepherds Gregory XVI., the principle of all whose “ and His sheep has been entrusted by policy was " après moi le déluge ;" and “ Christ, but to the Pope alone."
so the matter was placed in the hands The aversion with which men like of the Sacred Congregation of the Index, Reali look upon the Antonelli despotism referred to a sub-committee, reported on, is not confined to the lower priesthood. and allowed to sleep. This year, howAgainst his will, perhaps, a cardinal has ever, the old feud was revived. Monalready been involved in this anti- signor Malou, the Bishop of Bruges, Court-of-Rome movement. The story is took up the cause of the Jesuits, and a curious one. For the last sixteen years sent up a petition to Rome, accusing the there has been a standing dispute—a sortLouvain professors of heterodoxy. The of theological Chancery suit-between petition was referred to Cardinal Andrea, to have its tenor discussed, first by a think of denying the system of theology committee of " consultori," and then by to which the doctrine of the Immaculate a committee of cardinals. Both these Conception owes its existence, as Adams committees reported that the Louvain or Le Verrier would deny the compeprofessors had not expressed opinions tency of astronomy to discover the inconsistent with orthodoxy. It is existence of a comet. Till very recurious, by the way, as a specimen of cently, he was looked upon as one of the repute in which, so late as last June, the pillars of the Church. In the chair the Abbé Passaglia was held in at Rome which be held as Professor of Philoas a theologian, that he was called in by sophy, at the University of the Sapienza, the cardinals to aid them with their in Rome, his lectures were celebrated opinion. While the investigation was for the soundness of their doctrine, while going on, the Jesuits made great exer- in the disturbances which occurred at tions to have the cause removed to the the Roman University, a year and a tribunal of the “Santo Uffizio,” where half ago, I never heard of his being their influence was greater than with suspected of any leaning to the side of that of the Index. Their exertions for the students. The one single respect in the time were unsuccessful. After the which his opinions were known to differ decision of the Index, nothing remained from those in fashion with the Court of but for the Pope to give his sanction to Rome, was in a want of sympathy for the report, and the question was appa- the Jesuits. There is a story told in rently decided. The influence of the connexion with his separation from Jesuits was again exerted, and this time the Order of Jesus, which is a curious with greater success. A communication one, and, I believe, not commonly was received, directing the cause of the known. When Mrs. Foljambe, whose Louvain professors to be tried anew be- name has lately been mentioned so fore a joint committee of the Index and frequently in Roman letters, first came the Holy Office. The Congregation of to Rome, she obtained permission, as the Index very naturally felt insulted a fervent and wealthy convert, to have at this slight on the merit of their deci- a semi-conventual establishment in her sions, and Cardinal Andrea resigned his residence at the corner of the Quattrooffice of prefect. The letters to Anto- Fontane, opposite the new palace of the nelli, in which the determination to Queen Christina of Spain. Of this esresign the Prefecture was expressed, have tablishment the Abbé Passaglia, then a since been published, without Cardinal Jesuit, was appointed director. In course Andrea's permission, though possibly with of time, Mrs. Foljambe, with the view his connivance; and, though couched of keeping up the establishment in the in studiously polite language, they ex- event of her death, made a free gift of hibit grave dissatisfaction with the her house to the order of the Jesuits, ruling in Rome.
on the understanding that it was to be Without doubt, however, the most left in her possession throughout her formidable opponent that the Papal life. The arrangement was satisfactory party has yet met with, is the Abbé to all parties while Passaglia remained Passaglia. I read a story the other day, in the order. Unfortunately, four or which seemed to me to describe exactly five years ago, the Abbé made up his the character of the Abbé's reform move- mind to quit the Jesuits, and, having ment. When the crowd cheered him great influence with the Pope, obtained on his arrival at Siena, after his escape a release from his vows. The Jesuits from Rome, and raised the old cry, were indignant at the defection of so “ Viva l'Italia una ed independente!” distinguished a member, and intimated the Abbé cried out in reply, “Si, si, ma to Mrs. Foljambe, that she must receive Cattolica.” If Passaglia is not a Catho- another director. On her refusal to part lic, he is nothing. He is a theologian with Passaglia, they turned her out of
and broke up, the religious establishment. Mrs. Foljambe had nothing to do but submit, and removed to the Palazzo Spada, where Passaglia resided with her, till the other day. During last spring, the Abbé was engaged in the negotiations for a compromise which Count Cavour carried on with the Court of Rome very shortly before his death. It was asserted at the time at Rome, and I believe with truth, that Passaglia found means to speak to the Pope alone, without the intervention or the knowledge of Antonelli, and that Pius IX. was so impressed by his argu, ments, as actually to consent to some arrangement proposed by Passaglia. Unfortunately, the negotiations came to the ears of Antonelli and his party, who at once stopped their progress, and re-established their influence over the feeble mind of Pio Nono. It is supposed to have been on account of some participation in the Passaglia mission, that Dr. Pantaleone was ordered to leave Rome.
Thus, like the other reformers, of whom I have spoken, Passaglia's quarrel is with Antonelli, the Jesuits, and the Court of Rome, not with the Church. Of this fact, his pamphlet, Pro causâ Italicâ, addressed to the Catholic episcopate, affords sufficient proof. There is little in the pamphlet to gratify a Protestant, who looks in it for a confirmation of his own principles. Indeed, the chain of argument rests throughout on the necessity for unity in the Church of Christ. It is to secure this object that the whole constitution of the Church has been framed. “The “ institution, therefore, of bishops in “ general, and of the Sovereign Pontiff “ the bishop of bishops in particular, is “ purposed (and according to the words “ of Christ shall always remain pur“posed) to preserve the unity of the 6 various Churches which form the “ Catholic Church, and to maintain " that unity victorious over heresy and " schism."
For the maintenance then of unity, no sacrifice the Church can make, is too
imperilled by the recent policy of the Court of Rome. “Who," Passaglia asks, " can be so blind as, not to see “ that the Italian nation is placed in “such an unfortunate position, that “ there exists a danger, not distant, but “ near, at hand---not slight, but most “ weighty-lest the majority of Italians " should fall from out the paradise of “ the Church, either by an open or “ tangible separation, or by a secret and “ moral one, and that thus the Church, “our mother, should be bereft of her “best-beloved offspring. In fact, a “ great portion of the clergy is at vari“ance with the greater half of the “ laity; almost all the shepherds are "separated from their flocks ; and the “ very shepherd of the shepherds, the “ successor of Peter, the illustrious “ vicar of Christ on earth, has opposed “ the kingdom of Italy and the new “ status of Italian society with cen“sures and the awful thunders of “ excommunication.”
With regard to the conduct of the priesthood under the present circumstances of Italy, Passaglia's language is even more decided. To quote one passage. “What,” he says, “is the conduct “of our fathers in Christ, our pastors “ and masters? The answer is too “obvious to be mistaken. The Italian “ people are rejoicing with a joy incred"ible, but their overseers are lamenting “their own loss and their own sorrow “ with querulous accents and bitter “ words. The people are anxious to “return thanks to God for the blessings « vouchsafed to them, but their over“ seers proclaim that the wrath of God “ has to be appeased, and the judgments " of God diverted, on account of the “ crimes committed by the people. The “people crowd to the holy shrines of “God, but their overseers drive them “ away, and pronounce them unworthy “of crossing the sacred thresholds. The “ people long to worship the peaceful, "atoning, redeeming, and eucharistic “ Host of God; but their overseers “ forbid the priesthood under dread “penalties to administer the sacra