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Analogy of the human will.
nothing homologous or at the least analogous to such a mode of agency1 in the case of human volition and moral causation. Why should it be thought a thing incredible that man should exist in the image and likeness of God, who made him?* § 13. In this argument it has been sufficient to view the Divine Being as only a logical postulate in the scale of causation. I have done so, not, of course willingly, (for who, after all, can love or reverence a probable or even a demonstrated G-od ?)
1 "Sicut ab excrnplari, non secundum ajqualitatem "—Thorn. Aq., Sum., L L, p. 93, Art. I., and see Origen, c. Cels., VI. lxiii. "II est vrai que Dieu est le seul dont Taction est pure ct sans melange de ce qu'on appelle patir: mais cela n'cmpeehe pas que la creature n'ait part aux actions aussi, puisque Taction de la creature est une modification de la substance qui en coule naturellement, et qui renfermo une variation non-sculement dans les perfections que Dieu a communiques a la crdature, mais encore dans lcs limitations qu'elle y apporte d'clle-m§me pour etre ce qu'elle est."—Leibnitz, Tlieod., Pt. L, § 32. "Causa itaquo rerum quae facit nee fit, Deus est. Alias vero causao et faciuut et fiunt; sicut sunt omncs creati spiritus et maxime rationales. Corporales autem causa), qua) magis fiunt quam faciunt, non sunt inter causas efficientes annumerandre: quoniam hoc possunt quad ex ipsis faciunt spirituum voluntatcs."—August., Civ. D., V. ix.
'Thus is it literally true, ubi spiritus Domini, ibi liberias (to votpbv Ka\ avTcgofoiov). Cf. Delitzsch, Biblical Psych., p. 84, E. T. "Man in perfection of nature being made according to the likeness of his Maker, resembleth Him also in the manner of His working: so that whatsoever we work as men, the same we do wittingly work and freely: neither are we according to the manner of natural agents so tied, but that it is in our power to leave the things we do undone."— Hooker, Eccl. Pol., I. vii. 2. "God created man in His own image: to be the image of His own eternity created He man! Of eternity and self-existence what other likeness is possible, but immortality and moral self-determination ?"—Coleridge, Friend, I. 146. See the whole passage. Corhp. Hazard on The Will, Pt. I. "Well said Saint Clirysostom with his lips of gold, 'The true Shekinah is man.'"—Carlyle, S. P., p. 44.
but because of some prevailing modes of thought which should, where possible, be encountered on common ground.1 The original sin of Positivism is the refusal to acknowledge the idea of a true efficient cause (also a final one) to the universe, which thus emerges from nothing, and ends in nothing.2 Though philosophy properly denies to the human mind the knowledge of an efficient or physical cause to phenomena, it cannot, as it seems to me, ignore the necessity of a First Cause; or, as a fact in nature, of the common sense of a Divine original. A double error is committed. Engrossed with the material world, the subjective portion of the universe, with its necessities and claims, is
1 See Janet's remarks, La Crise Philosophique, p. 106. "No generalisation," it has been truly said, " of the phenomena of space, of time, of matter, or of force, can become a religious conception."—H. Spencer, First Princ., p. 23. Thus Pascal argued that from number we know there is an Infinite, but not its nature—only it must be different from any aggregation of number. But while admitting with Dean Mansel, Aids to Faith, p. 25, that " mind and not matter is the truer imago of God," following Kant, Kritik, Werke, II. 478-81, I cannot but think Sir W. Hamilton goes too far in his assertion that " the phenomena of matter, taken by themselves, do not warrant any inference to the existence of a God."—Lect. on Metaph., I. p. 26. See some good remarks of Mr. Mill, Exam., p. 491, on the danger of sacrificing successively one kind of evidence to another.
* See Comte, Phil. Pos., IV. 388. I have already remarked (p. 65) on the inconsistency of Comtism, in that, forsaking its fundamental Materialism, it reverts to a worship of humanity, "le Grand fitrc." Comte's own words were in a manner prophetic. Speaking of those who give up Positivism after holding it, and that they pass temporarily into Pantheism, "l'esprit," he says, "retombe involontairement dans la theologie ordinaire, la seule solide et consequente, parcc qu'ello a 6t6 construito par des esprits d'une toute autre trempe."— Littre, p. 174.
neglected; while further in the analysis of the object itself one antecedent in causation is omitted. The connection of such a frame of thought with Pantheism is a very close one. For the essence of The doc- Pantheism lies in insisting on a necessary coalition a creation of the Infinite with the finite.1 Its precursor is
the remedy m .....
to Pan- the absorption of the individual in the general, of the personal in nature. Its antidote is the dogma of a creation, not, indeed, from eternity, but in time; for eternity is no attribute of the finite. In this sense only is it true to say with Carlyle, (though the expression is not altogether free from objection), that " Nature, which is the time-vesture of God, and reveals Him to the wise, hides Him from the foolish."2 Nor can the view be admitted which is held by some leading physicists of our time, who, while rejecting materialism from their creed,3 look upon matter (after Goethe) as
1 Hence the theories of an " Anima Mundi "—as though the world could he considered as an animal or a substance. See Leibnitz, Works, p. 564, ed. Erdmann. "Personality," says Fcucrhach with truth, " is the antidote to Pantheism."—Ess. of Christianity, p. 220.
2 Sartor liesartus, p. 183. "What Bossuet said of Polytheism, is true of Pantheism, " Tout est Dieu: excepte Dieu meme."
3 Thus Prof. Huxley (on Yeast, Cont. Rev., XIX. 36) states that "one great object of 'Protoplasm' is to show that what is called 'materialism' has no sound philosophical basis." Lange (Gesch. des Materialismus, p. 238) most truly remarks, "Dies ist in der That die Stellnng unserer moisten heutigen 'Materialisten.' Sie sind wesentlich Skeptiker: sie glauben nicht mchr dass die Materie, wie sie unseren Sinnen erscheint, die letzte Losung aller Riithsel der Natur enthalte: atlein sic verfahren grundsatzlich als oh es so sei, und warten, bis ihnen aus den positiven Wissenschaften sellwt cine Nothigung zu nndercn Anuahmen entgegentritt."
an omnipresent form in which the unknown cause
is manifested to us. They seem to regard it as Faulty
noble only because, after all, it is incomprelien- tion of sible; and are at least as ready to formulate all with the phenomena even of life, mind, and society, in mind by terms of matter, motion, and force, as in any other thfnkeL terms.1 A latent assumption here lurks under a professed nescience.
S 14. It is not enough to urge that Positivism Defects of
3 n ° 0 . Positivism
does not in its principles negate Deity or render as an ex
ii- Mi T T • Tt' planation
bod impossible. It seeks not to require Him. As of Phe
.. , . 1 ,, . nomena,
a system it leaves no mysteries; it resolves all into laws of physical agents; it has no Heaven;2 it professedly renounces all concern with what happens to living things after their death; or, as it is said, " at the consummation of the ages, if the ages have a consummation." It makes the attempt to divide the area of knowledge3 into Sciences
1 See Prof. Huxley, Lay S., Lecture on Descartes. Tyndall, Fragm. of Thought, p. 87. H. Spencer, Princ. of Psych., I. § 63, 272. First Prine., pp. 222, 280, 502. It would seem evident that if the notion of an intelligent First Cause is in abeyance, all progress and morality become at most facts, and are no longer laws of the universe.
2 Mr. Morley, Crit. Misc., p. 257, speaks of Goethe as the poet of that "new faith which is as yet without any universally recognized label; but whose Heaven is an ever closer harmony between the consciousness of man and all the natural forces of the universe, whose liturgy is culture, and whose Deity is a certain high composure of the human heart." The tendency of Positivism in declining to investigate causes, is to omit the notion of cause altogether. This reduces all forms of existence to modifications of a substance, i. e. to Spinozism.
• PhU. Pos., Lecon II. and V., pp. 13,14. G. II. Lewes, Comte's Phil, of Sciences, p. 41. Littr6, Paroles, p. 33. "Laphilosophie Positive ne nie rien, n'affirme rien: car nier 011 affirmer ce scrait declarer que Ton a Concrete, those relative to beings or objects, and Sciences Abstract, those relative to events; that is, to the general laws and possibilities of operation. But this encyclopaedic purview of the realm of knowledge will be found defective. A fact in and in its nature, the elementarv atom of a positive system,
definition . . .
of causa- is not simply explained by an enumeration of physical agents working uniformly or under fixed laws. The collocation or co-presence of those agents is a necessary condition of the result, and should form part of the definition of causation. But of this co-existence and combination of phenomena, or of the part-causes of phenomena, of the organism with its environment, no scientific account can be rendered. It is a fact unique, sui generis, yet undoubtedly a fact; and it is incumbent on a positive philosophy to estimate and include it. Neither atomic particles nor elemental forces can be "the joint artists of their own combinations."
une connaissanco quelconque do l'origine des etres et de lew fin." "Au dela de ces deux termes, Matiere et Force, la Science Positive ne connait rien."—Principe.1, Pref., II.
1 This is recognized by Mr. Mill, Logic, I. 417,549, II. 44. "The element which is not a law of causation but a collocation of causes, cannot
itself be reduced to any law The utmost disorder is apparent in
the combination of the causes, which is consistent with the most perfect order in their effects. For when each agent carries on its own operations according to an uniform law, even the most capricious combination of agencies will generate a regularity of some sort, as we see in the kaleidoscope, where any casual arrangement of coloured bits of glass produces, by the laws of reflection, a beautiful regularity in the effect." This remark, it will be observed, assumes the uniformity of the operation of the agencies in accounting for the order resulting in their effects.