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to gratify their curiosity, and a few, like Mr. When intelligence of these bigh-handed Ross, the United States Senator, hastened proceedings reached Philadelphia, the “Demto the field to restrain the people and pre- ocratic societies "—the prototypes of the vent mischief. The prompt response of the Knights of the Golden Circle of our daymasses delighted the leaders. They re- were jubilant because of the late brilliant garded it as a token of confidence in them victories of the French arms. They had reand the earnestness of the people in the covered from their depression caused by
Colonel Cook, one of the judges of former reverses suffered by the French army, Fayette County, was called to preside over and the disgrace of Genet, and were now the great meeting of armed citizens, and assailing the administration with unsparing Albert Gallatin, who had lately been refused malignity. The Philadelphia society did, a seat in the Senate of the United States be- indeed, pass a resolution which, after execause of ineligibility, as shown by his natu- crating the excise law in terms sufficient to ralization papers, was appointed secretary. give sustenance to the rebellion, disapproved Bradford, "before whom everybody cringed,” of the violent acts of resistance. But Presassumed the position of Major-General, and ident Washington had no faith in the sinreviewed the troops. His design seems to cerity of their leaders. He regarded them have been to march upon Pittsburg, seize as artful and designing men, while the great upon Fort Pitt and its arms and ammuni-body of the membership whom they contion, and declare the counties west of the trolled he believed meant well, and knew Alleghanies an independent State. He was little of their real plans for sowing “among one of the earliest avowed secessionists who the people the seeds of jealousy and distrust appears in our history. But timid or more of the Government by destroying all confiloyal militia officers refused to co-operate dence in the administration of it.” with him to that infamous extent. Bracken- sider this insurrection,” he wrote to Goyridge counselled against the measure, and ernor Lee of Virginia, in August, the scheme was abandoned.
first formidable fruit of the Democratic Emboldened by the formidable demonstra- societies, brought forth, I believe, too tion on Braddock's Field, the insurgent lead- prematurely for their own views, which ers expelled all the excise officers who re- may contribute to the annihilation of mained. Some were brutally treated and them.” their houses burned, even in districts where The President called a cabinet council. the opposition had hitherto been less vio- All regarded the moment as a critical one lent. The insurgent spirit spread into the for the republic. If the insurrection in neighboring counties of Virginia, and the re- Pennsylvania should not be immediately bellion began to assume huge proportions. checked, like or similar causes might pro
A meeting had been held at Mingo Creek duce like effects in other parts of the republate in July, near where the chief insurgents lic. The example of the whiskey-makers resided, when it was agreed to hold a con- might become infectious, and the very founvention at Parkinson's Ferry, on the Monon- dations of the State be shaken. It was agreed gahela, three weeks later. As the day for that forbearance must end, and the effective that convention approached matters assumed power of the executive arm must be put forth more threatening aspects. As in most re- to suppress the rising rebellion. Accordbellions, the measure of actual armed re- ingly, on the 7th of August, Washington sistance to the execution of the national issued a proclamation warning the insurlaws was advocated by only a few violent gents to disperse, and declaring that if tranand reckless men. Of these Bradford was quillity should not be restored in the disthe chief. With a desperate few, armed by turbed counties before the 1st of September, terrorism composed of threats and violence, or in about twenty days, an armed force he overawed the people, established an ab- would be employed to compel submission to solute despotism, and converted a whole the laws. At the same time the President community into a band of rebels, who, under made a requisition on the governors of New wise and righteous counsellors, might have Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virbeen loyal petitioners to a listening govern-ginia for militia sufficient to compose an ment for a redress of grievances.
army of thirteen thousand men. It was
estimated that the insurgent counties could structed by combinations too powerful to be raise sixteen thousand fighting men. suppressed by the ordinary course of judicial
General Miffin, a leading Democrat, who proceedings, he issued the proclamation and had taken an active part in the convivial made the requisition already mentioned, and meetings of his party when they welcomed fixed the time for movement of the troops Genet to Philadelphia, was then Governor of on the 1st of September. Pennsylvania. When the proposition of a The President reso!ved, however, to offer majority of the Cabinet to call out the mili- the insurgents the olive-branch before sendtia was suggested to him, he expressed a ing the sword. He appointed three comdoubt of the expediency of the measure, as missioners to proceed to the insurgent disit might exasperate the rebels and increase trict, and arrange, if possible, any time bethe difficulty: Ile doubted his own author- fore the 14th of September, an effectual ity to make such a call, and questioned submission to the laws. Governor Mifilin whether the militia of his sovereign State appointed two commissioners to represent would "
' pay a passive obedience to the the State, and at the same time issued two mandates of the Government "--whether proclamations, one for convening the Legisthere would not be a divided Pennsylvania. lature, and the other calling upon the rebels
He wished to act independently of the to submit to the laws, assuring them that he General Government, believing that his should respond to the President's requisiState was able of itself to suppress insur- tion for troops. rection within its borders, and to punish the These commissioners went over the mouoffenders under the due course of State law. tains together, and found the Convention He was therefore disposed to content hiin- already mentioned in session at Parkinson's self with an expression of official indignation, Ferry. There were more than two hundred and the issuing of orders for the State offi- delegates present. The meeting was held in cers in the West to use all their authority to a grove upon the crown of a hill overlooksuppress the tumults.
ing the Monongahela. Near by stood a tall Randolph, the Democratic Attorney-Gen-pole bearing the words, in large letters, eral, coincided with Mifilin in his views. He - LIBERTY AND NO EXCISE! No Asylum expressed great fears that if the National For COWARDS AND TRAITORS ! ” Colonel Government should attempt coercion there Cook was Chairman, and Albert Gallatin would be civil war. Brackenridge had writ- was Secretary. ten a letter to a friend in Philadelphia, which It was evident that those who evoked the bad been sent to the Cabinet, doubtless for storm were alarmed at its unexpected fury. the purpose of intimidating it, in which he Gallatin and Brackenridge had already permaintained that the Western counties were ceived the folly and danger of their course, able to defend themselves, and suggested and the dilemma into which the people were that the midlanıl counties would not be dis- plunged, and they were endeavoring by posed to allow the march of national troops conciliatory measures to extricate them. to the West over teir sacrel soil! He also Marshall had offered a resolution for the intimated that if coercion should be at- appointment of a committee of public safety, tempted, the insurgents might make appli- empowered" to call forth the resources of the cation to Great Britain for aid, and even western country to repel any hostilo attempts march on Philadelphia, the national capital. against the citizens.” Gailatin had boldly
Washington was not to be trifled with. moved to refer the motion to a select comHe perceived the danger and the necessity mittee, but quailing before the eye of Bradfor prompt action, and resolved to discard ford, no one present dared second it. Marevery semblance of a temporizing policy shall, already wavering, had finally offered with the rebels. When Mifflin refused to to withdraw it, provided a committee of call out the militia of his State, he took the sixty be appointed with power to call anrespousibility on himscli'; and after making other moeting. This was done, and a comthe necessary arrangements, by obtaining a mittee of fifteen were appointed to confer certificato from a judge of the Supreme with the National and State commissioners. Court that in certain countics thc cxecution In all their proceedings no ono dared to go of the laws of the United States was ob-l so far as to agree to submit to the excise.
The commissioners and the committee of | There had been great and unexpected fifteen met a few days afterward at Pitts- alacrity in the response to the President's burg. Marshall, Brackenridge, Cook, Gal- call. A most gratifying manifestation of latin, and Bradford, were of that committee. loyalty was exhibited on every hand. The All but the latter were favorable to an ac- citizens readily contributed means for the commodation. The commissioners demanded support of the wives and children of the from the committee of sixty an explicit dec- volunteers during their absence; and the laration of their determination to submit to quota of each State, composed chiefly of volthe laws of the United States, and their rec- unteers, was promptly furnished. ommendation to the citizens at large to do It was soon evident that this military exlikewise; and also to abstain from all oppo- pedition was highly necessary. The insursition, direct or indirect, and especially from gent spirit was rapidly spreading, and had violence or threats against the excise officers appeared at Carlisle and other places east of or the loyal distillers. The commissioners the mountains. It was checked suddenly promised, on the part of the Government, in and effectually when the iroops approached. the event of a compliance with these re- Bradford and his associates, over-estimating quirements and perfect submission to the the strength and disloyalty of the Democratic laws, a final pardon and oblivion of all of- party, had laughed at the President's procfences. The committee of fifteen agreed lamation calling for troops. He did not that these terms were reasonable, and pro- believe that the people of the loyal portion ceeded to call a meeting of the committee of of the country could be induced to appear sixty.
in arms against their brethren who were, in Bradford and his bad associates were dis- imitation of their Revolutionary fathers, only satisfied. Tom the Tinker declared in the seeking to establish their independence of Pittsburg Gazette, that the conferees had the tyrannical National Government at Phil. been bribed by the Government, and an adelphia, and asked for nothing more than armed party assembled, when the sixty con- to be let alone. They had resolved not to vened, to overawe them. Such would have submit to a tariff on their staple production, been the effect but for the courage and ad- nor allow the National Government to coerce dress of Gallatin, seconded by Bracken- them into submission to its laws; and it was ridge. They urged submission ; but Brad- an infringement of their sovereign rights as ford, in a violent harangue, called upon the freeman, and a great public crime to inaupeople to continue their resistance, and to gurate a civil war by sending troops to subform an independent State. Bad counsels jugate them. finally prevailed, and the commissioners re- But Bradford and his more violent associturned to the seat of Government without ates were compelled to come down from their accomplishing the object of their mission. stilts. They were amazed when they heard
On the day after the return of the com- that Democratic leaders, like Miffin, were missioners (September 25) the President is- in arms against them; and when they learned sued another proclamation, giving notice of that the troops were actually approaching the advance of the troops. Governor Henry the Eastern slope of the Alleghanies they Lee, of Virginia (“Legion Harry” of the fled from the country. Calmer thought and Revolution), was appointed Commander-in- wiser counsels prevailed. A new convention chief of the expedition. The Virginia troops was held at Parkinson's Ferry, when resoluwere led by the veteran General Morgan, tions to submit were adopted. Findley, and those of Maryland by General Smith, who had found it much easier to arouse the then Member of Congress, from Baltimore. bad passions of men than to control them, o Thesc, forming the left wing, assembled at and had mustered courage sufficient to place Cumberland, thence to march across the himself decidedly on the side of law and mountains by Braddock’s Road. Governors order, was despatched, with another, to meet Mifflin and Howell led in person the respec- the advancing troops with proffers of loyalty, tive troops of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. and, if possible, to stay their progress. These formed the right wing. They rendez- The President and Secretary of the Treas. voused at Bedford, to cross the niountains ury had accompanied the right wing of the by what was known as the north route. army, and were at Carlisle when Findley and
his associate arrived there. Washington (from the country of the late rebels. Twentytreated the penitent insurgents kindly, but five hundred of them encamped in the disthey did not bring sufficient evidences of trict, under General Morgan, until spring, the loyalty of their constituents to cause when every vestige of disloyalty had disaphim to countermand the order for the forward peared. march of the troops. The alarmed ambas- Thus terminated a rebellion engendered sadors immediately turned back, crossed the by politicians, which at one time threatened mountains in great haste, and called another the stability, if not the very existence of the meeting at Parkinson Ferry. With fuller Republic. It was put down without the assurances of the absolute submission of the shedding of a drop of blood. This result was insurgents, Findley, recrossed the Allegha- owing chiefly to the wisdom, prudence, vignies to stay the march of the national troops. ilance, energy, and personal popularity of The President had returned to Philadelphia, the President. He did not wait until the leaving Hamilton to act as his deputy. rebellion had assumed proportions too great The Minister was not satisfied. He would to be managed with ease. He comprehended not trust the professions of loyalty made by the magnitude of the threatened evil and
so lately in rebellion. The troops his duty respecting it, and was fearless and moved steadily onward. They crossed the energetic in the performance of that duty. Alleghanies in a heavy rain-storm, encount. The event, so ominous of dire calamity at ering mud knee-deep in many places. The one time, was overruled for the production two wings of the army met at Uniontown, of great good. The Government was amazand proceeded together to the disaffected ingly strengthened by it. The national audistrict. Lee made his head-quarters at thority was fully vindicated ; and the genParkinson Ferry, and there issued a procla- eral rally to its support when the Chief mation of offering conditional pardon and sounded the bugle-call, even of those who peace. The inhabitants were all required to had hitherto leaned toward or acted with the take the oath of allegiance to the United opposition, was a significant omen of future States.
stability and power. Every honest man A few days after this proclamation was expressed his reprobation of the violent reissued General Lee made a seizure of all sistance to law, and the Democratic Societies persons supposed to have been criminally the chief fomenters of the insurrection, concerned in the late violent proceedings. showed a desire to be less conspicuous. The most guilty had fled from the country. Hamilton, who had always distrusted the Many were dismissed for want of evidence strength of the Government in such an emeragainst them, and a considerable number gency, was now perfectly convinced of its were bound over for trial at Philadelphia. inherent power, and both he and WashingOnly two were found guilty of capital of- ton regarded the affair as a fortunate circumfences, and sentenced to be hung-one for stance for the nation. And thus it will ever arson, the other for robbing the mail. There be with this Republic; for its foundations were palliating circumstances in their cases are laid upon the the solid foundations of and the President finally pardoned them. Truth and Justice.
Most of the troops were soon withdrawn
THE LIVING AGE.
No. 926.—1 March, 1862.
1. Chronicles of Carlingford Conclusion of The Doctor's Family, :
Blackwood's Magazine, 2. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu,
National Review, 3. Mr. Gladstone on America,
London Review, 4. The Spaniard in Mexico,
Examiner, 5. The Rev. John Rogers, 6. Intellectual Instincts,
Spectator, 7. Eliminate, 8. A National Currency and Sinking Fund, Editorial,
483 501 517 519 521 523 525 526
POETRY.-Extracts from Rev. T. H. Stockton's Poems, 482. To Englishmen; by J. G. Whittier, 516. The Nation's Prayer, 516. Sailor Boy, 516. Dead, 528. Under the Cross, 528. Absence, 528.
SHORT ARTICLES.-Poison for the whole Animal Kingdom, 515. Mother of Louis Napoleon, 515.
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