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ural irritation has been expressed at the The despatches reached Lord Lyons at shipments of raw cotton from Liverpool to Washington during the night of the 18th, Boston and New York, which are now going and up to the 21st, it is announced, our amon to some extent. It is monstrous, people bassador had presented not merely no ultimsay, to permit the Northern States at the atum, but no despatches at all to the Cabsame time to prevent us from receiving cot- inet of Washington. But, as will be seen ton and to drain it away from us,-to com- from the above statement, under any cirpel us to put our mills upon short time, and cumstances, it was not till the 22d ultimo yet to obtain from us the material which that Lord Lyons was to present the ultimenables them to work full time,-to pre- atum. vent us from purchasing one article by the “We have also to state that, while forwardblockade, and from selling another by the ing these instructions to our ambassador, Morrill Tariff. It certainly does seem stag-Lord Palmerston lost no time in disabusing gering at first sight; but it cannot be helped, the mind of the American Minister in Lonnor, thus far, has any great harm been done. don of the idea-naturally produced by the The enormous Government demand in the rabid war-articles in some of our journalsUnited States, aided by their protectionist that England was eager to engage in hoslaws, enables the Lowell manufacturers still tilities with his country. The veteran Preto work to a profit, and to pay almost any mier took care to apprise Mr. Adams that price for the raw material. The cotton any proposal for arbitration was out of the which is worth 12d. a lb. to-day in Liverpool question,-asking him if he thought there is worth 18d. at New York.
The profit was any room for arbitration in a case where chiefly is pocketed by the British merchant, one man received a slap in the face from anOnly sixteen thousand bales, however, had other without any provocation. Still more, been thus sent up to the end of 1861; in order to show how groundless were the though larger lots are now in process of suspicions of the Cabinet of Washington that shipment.”
the British Government was desirous of inThe Press says: “Along with the formal the Premier made known to Mr. Adams that
tervening in favor of the seceding States, ultimatum, Lord Lyons received instructions to keep the ultimatum for awhile in reserve,
so early as June the French Government proand only to present it in the event of the posed to our government to recognize the infailure of his personal remonstrances. Three dependence of the Confederate States (a prodays were to be allowed before the final and that, both then and since, our govern
posal which was made through M. Fould); document was to be presented ; during which time, it was calculated, the Cabinet of Wash- although the industrial interests of the coun.
ment had refused to take any such course,ington would become aware of the true state of the case, without the ultimatum being of- try, as of France, were entirely in favor of ficially communicated to them. Bringing United States would have debarred the Cab
such a measure, and the very origin of the the case verbally before the Cabinet, Lord inet of Washington from taking exception to Lyons was to employ argument and reason such a policy on the part of England. These to procure reparation, and for three days to statements of Lord Palmerston were immepress his claims earnestly and courteously. diately communicated by Mr. Adams to his Meanwhile the contents of the mail would be - Government ; so that, at the very outset of come known to the American Government the negotiation between Lord Lyons and the and people. The export of saltpetre and the material of war stopped at our ports—one informed of this proposal of the French Gov
Cabinet of Washington, the latter would be fact. An army sent to Canada—another fact. Manifestly England is in earnest.
ernment, and would see in it a proof that And then the announcement of the resolute they need expect no aid from France, and in policy of our Government as announced in our refusal of it, the most perfect demonthe Times, and the hearty approval which stration of the sincere desire of England to that policy met with on the part of the Brit- remain neutral in the contest between North
and South. ish people. It was calculated that these infiuences would produce their full effect within
“ Although nothing is as yet known to the the three days. If they failed, on the fourth public as the reception which our ambasday Lord Lyons was to present the ultim
sador's representations have met with from atum, requiring the restoration of the pris- transmitted the intelligence in cipher, by
the Cabinet of Washington, he has doubtless oners to British protection within seven days, or else his passports.
telegraph, up to the morning of the 21st ult, " These instructions explain a portion of —or even to the later date vià Halifax ; and the intelligence brought by the last mail we understand that the impression which it which would otherwise seem unaccountable, has produced upon our Government is that
THIRD SERIES. LIVING AGE. 826
there is good hope of a pacific settlement of possible, and even probable, that before these the question.”
lines meet our reader's eyes, the news of the
Africa may be superseded by the more conThe Saturday Review says : According clusive reports of a later packet. In the to the latest reports from Ameriea, the Con- mean while, however, we may be allowed to federate commissioners are to be given up; remark that the most recent accounts suband although the statement is positively stantially confirm the anticipations we excontradicted, the surrender is made more pressed in our article of last week, on the probable by the admission of the New York · Prospects of Peace.' The considerations papers that it is not beyond the power of the which we pointed out as likely to effect the Government. All the accounts, while they American decision seem to have had their open a doubtful prospect of peace, throw un- full effect on the transatlantic mind. It is usual light on the most effectual means of true, as has been observed, that we have as securing it. When it was first known at yet no authoritative expression of official New York and Washington that the affair opinion. But the great source of apprehenof the Trent was under dispassionate consid- sion which lay in the violence of the press eration in this country, Federal opinion was and the mob, appears to have been considerdecided and unanimous against the surren- ably abated. The New York Herald, which der of the prisoners. It was, to the Ameri- is a very perfect mirror of the rowdy mind,' can mind, unintelligible that a whole nation begins—to use a colloquial phrase-to sing should wait to ascertain its right before pro- small.' Bully and braggart as it is, it is ceeding to enforce it. The delay which was equally shameless in its bluster and its polnecessary for legal deliberation was unani- troonery. The New York Herald is undermously attributed to weakness and timidity, stood to enjoy the confidence of the Washand it never occurred to any northern politi- ington Foreign Office, and it certainly seems cian that, if the seizure of the commission to be in all respects a very congenial repreers had been illegal, the wrong ought to be sentative of its temper and policy. Of course repaired, even though there were hopes that an endeavor is made to cover the political it might have been committed with impu- Bull's Run. Mr. Seward, we are told, “ feels nity. That judicial calmness which has no apprehension of a rupture;' the Cabinet been incessantly recommended by the Amer- are calm and unruffled ;' the war panic in ican faction in England had, in fact, been England is a bubble which is about to colmaintained as long as the merits of the ques- lapse.' In short, mine Ancient Pistol sees tion were under discussion, and the effect the necessity of eating his leek, and so he which it produced in America consisted in a eats, but eke he swears.' What sauce the general outburst of confident defiance. A New York Herald and Mr. Seward may prefew days later, the admirers of Captain fer for their savory dish is quite immaterial Wilkes heard that the surrender of the pris- to us, and so long as they are prepared to oners was peremptorily demanded, and that swallow it, it signifies very little with how England was arming in anticipation of a re- much swearing' they may choose to garfusal. The ultimate decision is not yet nish the process. known, but on the first receipt of the news " What is the particular course which the the winds began to fall and the threatening Washington Cabinet may take in order to clouds to disperse. It was argued with salve over to themselves and their people the much force that, if the Federal Government unpalatable duty which they feel to be inevwas wrong in taking the men, there was no itable, it is of course difficult to predict. disgrace in giving them up, and it was dis- That they will take the honest and manly covered that, as the despatches had reached course of at once and in a handsome manner England safely, the “disposition of the per- making the reparation which they cannot sons of the rebel envoys is a matter of sec- and dare not refuse, nothing which we know ondary moment, and not worth a great in- of their antecedents permits us to hope. ternational struggle.” The House of Rep- This, it is true, would be the really wise as resentatives, having previously passed some the most magnanimous policy. It would of the most scandalous votes on this subject produce a reaction in English and European which have ever degraded a representative opinion which might be of most essential assembly, refused, by a large majority, to service to the Northern cause. But Mr. confirm by a formal resolution its premature Seward is not a man who has either the indecision in favor of Captain Wilkes and his tellect or the heart for a policy at once sagapiratical proceedings.”
cious and great. He is an adept only in
those arts of low cunning which avoids a fair The London Review says: “ The public im- encounter with an adversary and seeks by patience is naturally intolerant of the delay astuteness and subterfuge to gain a petty in decisive intelligence from America. It is advantage when he cannot hope to secure a
victory. If we find we have done injustice | York Times may lay to its soul, it seems to to the American Foreign Secretary in this have a very definitè comprehension of the supposition we shall be happy to make him necessity of yielding to the English demands. amends when he has shown that he deserves. There is but one sentiment,' we are told, it. In the mean while the policy suggested prevalent, and that is, that no quarrel with for him by his supposed organ is eminently England should be permitted to interfere at worthy of a second-rate provincial attorney, this moment, to stay the reduction of the • We presume,' says the New York Herald, Southern rebels. It believes that it has no
that Lord Lyons will forward his case in right to give life to the rebellion by entering one of those diplomatic notes of several col- on another and vaster quarrel, which would, umns in extent, and that an appropriate re- at the same time, increase tenfold the burply will demand an extension of the argu- dens on the people of the North, and it natment and so on until the issue of war shall urally hesitates to adopt a policy which would have melted away into an amicable arrange- carry joy to every traitor in the country, and ment.' We suspect that when the organ of weigh down to poverty the loyal and lawMr. Seward receives a communication of observing citizen.' In the opinion of the Lord Lyons' despatch, it will find that a New York Times, “The disposition of the very small portion of one of its columns will person of rebel envoys is one of secondary suffice for its publication. It is now known moment, and a most inadequate one on which that the despatch was not to be formally de- to rest a great international struggle. The livered till two days after its arrival, and administration, we are reminded, is yet that seven days of grace were to be allowed uncommitted, and the language of Secretary for the final answer. The .extension of the Willes, in his report and his letter to Capargument'is therefore confined to very defi- tain Wilkes, is rather professional and pernite limits. And if we are correctly informed, sonal than diplomatic, and in no degree Lord Lyons' instructions will not admit of binds the State Department.' What does any disputation at all; but if the categorical all this stuff mean except this, that America demand of an apology, and the surrender of will give in, not because she feels the justhe prisoners, is not complied with in the tice of the demand, or because she thinks it prescribed period, he will positively leave no dishonor to redress a flagrant wrong, but New York. The New York Herald is confi- that she must perforce capitulate, because dently informed that the British Govern- she cannot and she dare not resist. Such is ment will not make any exorbitant demand the spirit of the American people, und such upon the United States with reference to the is the language of the American press.” seizure of the traitors.' The value of this “ The American people throughout the information depends on what may be that whole of this transaction have flagrantly rejournals apprehension of the value of the jected all considerations of right and of jusepithet.exorbitant. If it flatters itself that | tice. While they thought they could do so the demand is anything short of the absolute with impunity, there was no limit to their and unconditional surrender of the captives, exultation at an act of violence and wrong. it will find itself, as it has often done before, When the retribution of their crime seems most egregiously mistaken. The New York about to overtake them there is no subterTimes consoles itself by the reflection that fuge which they think tou mean to shelter
the subject will not be settled without an them from the penalty they have incurred. important curtailment of the English preten- Whatever may be the issue of this affair it sions to enforce a right of search, which she will leave on the national character of the finds it so unpalatable to concede to other American people the stigma of indelible disa powers.' Whether the surrender of Messrs. grace. It will have shown that there is but Slidell and Mason will act as such a'curtail- one argument to which the moral sense of ment,' is a matter on which the New York the American mind is amenable, and that Times is entitled to its own opinion. But is the argument of fear. For throughout we are very much mistaken if either Lord the whole of this transaction they have, Lyons or the Foreign Office have the least from the highest to the lowest amongst them, intention of permitting the peremptory re-exhibited a mixture of brutality and poltroondress of a violent act to degenerate into an ery which makes them a just object of scorn endless discussion on international law. and reprobation to the civilized world.”
“But, whatever flattering unction the New
Shake hands forever, cancel all our vows,
And when we meet at any time again,
That we one jot of former love retain.
Now at the last gasp of love's latest breath, And a cot that o'erlooks the wide sea;
When his pulse failing, passion speechless
lies, With an ambling pad-pony to pace o'er the lawn,
When faith is kneeling by his bed of death; While I carol away idle sorrow,
And innocence is closing up his eyesAnd blithe as the lark that cach day hails the
dawn, Look forward with hope for to-morrow..
Now, if thou would'st, when all have given him
From death to life thou mightst him yet reWith a porch at my door, both for shelter and cover ! shade too,
ON THE MOUNT
I. From the bleak northern blast may my cot be When from the thunderous, lightning-flashing completely
cloud, Secured by a neighboring hill ;
That overhung Mt. Sinai's awful height, And at night may repose steal upon me more
Shrank the weak Israelites in sore affright, sweetly
One man alone, with heart in meekness bowed, By the sound of a murmuring rill :
Heard in the trumpet sounding long and loudAnd while peace and plenty I find at my board,
His ear being bent to hear the voice arightWith a heart free from sickness and sorrow,
A call from lips of Infinite power and might. With my friends may I share what to-day may Then at the high behest, all eager-browed, afford,
He through the darkness pressed ; Jehovah And let them spread the table to-morrow.
there Met with him face to face : while thunders
pealed And when I at last must throw off this frail And lightnings flashed around him, in his ear, covering,
The audible voice of God His will revealed, Which I've worn for threescore years and ten, While to his wondering eyes were given clear On the brink of the grave I'll not seek to keep High visions by Omnipotence unsealed.
God's voice, amid the busy scenes of life, May become everlasting to-morrow.
Oft calls to us above the rush and strife, The author's name was Collins.
And in our path, amidst the clang and din,
He was of the Lo! Sorrow's Sinai suddenly is scen. 17th Century. No more is known.
Then shrink thou not :-though clouds and
storms are rife About its brow,-press on ;-the words of
life Speaketh the awful voice that sounds within. And 0, my country! in this awful hour
Jehovah draweth near in storms and cloud ; LOVE'S FAREWELL.
But though the lightnings flash and tempests
lower, Since there's no help, come, let us kiss and And humbly learn the lesson of his power,
List, for the voice that calls to thee aloud, part
Who hears the humble but resists the proud. Nay, I have done, you get no more of me; And I am glad, yea, glad with all my heart, Xenia, o.
H. M. E. That thus so cleanly I myself can free;
From The London Review. it cost £60 per lb., while from the AluminAPPLICATION OF ALUMINIUM TO PRAC- ium Works recently established at NewcasTICAL PURPOSES.
tle, in our own country, it is now supplied The constant appearance in our jewellers' at less than sixty shillings. Every step shops of fancy articles of aluminium is be- taken in the reduction of the prime cost of ginning to draw very general attention to a raw material widens the range of its adapthat valuable, but not admittedly precious, tibility to ornamental purposes in the arts metal. A few years ago (1855) small spec- or useful applications in the manufactures. imens were handed about and examined as It is malleable and ductile, being reducible curiosities from Deville the French chem- to very thin sheets, or capable of being ist's laboratory, and regarded with great in- drawn into very fine threads. In tenacity it terest. It is true it had been discovered is superior to silver, and in a state of purity eight and twenty years before (1827), by it is as hard. It files readily, and is an exProfessor Woehler, of Gottingen ; but peo- cellent conductor of electricity, and combiple then heard the announcement of the nations of it with other metals have already elimination of the metallic base of clay, with been used with advantage. The most imlittle more than that ordinary indifference portant of these compounds is aluminiumwith which the description of a merely new bronze, formed of one part of aluminium element is commonly received. Deville, with nine of copper. This bronze possesses whose name is everywhere familiar for his great malleability and strength, Professor many valuable labors, however, in his inves- Gorden's experiments giving the following tigations of its characters, found that it relations of wires of the same diameter : possessed peculiar and curious properties, iron, 100; aluminium-bronze, 155 ; copper, and he unhesitatingly stated his impression 68. This immense tenacity and strength that it was a metal destined to occupy an confer on this bronze admirable qualities important position in the requirements of for the working parts of machinery where mankind as as the means could be great durability is required, and notwithfound of obtaining it in manufacturable standing its higher price than that of the orquantities.
dinary metals, the quantity of aluminium In his first statements (1855) he drew at- required is so small, that it is said that tention to its power of resistance to all acids practically the cost of the bronze does not save hydrochloric, to its fusibility, its beauti- exceed that of ordinary brass or gun-meta ful whitish-blue color, and the fact of its un- bearings. dergoing no change of lustre or color by the Another property of aluminium is its exaction of the atmosphere or of sulphuretted treme sonorousness, and this has also had hydrogen. Its density, as low as glass, he very serviceable application in the construcforesaw would insure for it many special appli- tion of musical instruments. So highly cations, while superior to the common metals sonorous is it that a mere ingot suspended in respect to the innocuousness of its com- by a fine wire emits, when struck, a clear and pound with the feebler acids, and intermedi- ringing sound. ate between them and the precious metals it | The metal can be beaten out into leaves was evidently a fitting material for domestic for gilding, or rolled in the same way as gold purposes. “ And when it is further remem- or silver, and it can be drawn out into wire bered,” he added then, “that aluminium fine enough for the manufacture of lace. It exists in considerable proportions in all is also easily run into metallic moulds, or, clays, amounting in some cases to one-fourth for complicated objects, into moulds of sand. of the weight of a very widely diffused sub- It is very finely susceptible of what is techstance, one cannot do otherwise than hope nically called “matting,” by being plunged that sooner or later this metal may find a into a weak solution of caustic soda, and place in the industrial arts."
then exposed to the action of nitric acid. It This prevision seems to be realizing itself is also easily polished or burnished by a polevery day, and a forcible proof of the rapid ishing stone steeped in a mixture of rum strides made in its economic production is and olive oil. When aluminium is soiled by afforded by a comparison of its past and greasy matters it can readily be cleaned with present commercial prices. A few years ago benzine. "Soiled by dust only, india-rub