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wrathfulness, the hope or despondency prom- of view. The energy by which the mere inent in his nature. It was but half in bur- power of limb is put to use flows through lesque that some years ago there was in the nerves, and according to its will, irrevented a science of “nosology," purporting spective of the emotion or the intelligence
“ to deduct a man's whole temperament from by which he may be swayed, we estimate the the study of his nose. There is a measure man's primary character. One person is by of truth even in the pretensions of those nature active, vivacious, and enterprising ; quacks who undertake, on the receipt of another is languid, indifferent, and relucthirteen postage-stamps, to tell any one's tant. It is the same with masses of men. character from his handwriting; and a little In Europeans there is more energy than in of reason also was in the old science of chiro- Asiatics, and Englishmen take the lead in mancy, the starting-point of the gypsy's trade modern Europe, just as the Romans did in of fortune-telling by observing the shape and former days. configuration of the hand. Phrenology is Superior to the fundameutal property of better than all these, and if its votaries are the constitution, the machinery of action content to place it in the same category without reference to objects, is the emotional with them, solid good may result from their temperament. Like the other, it is partly studies, just as already sound encouragement made up of strictly physical material, but to one branch of mental science has come often it excels most where the energy is from its erroneous classification of the primi- weakest. In women it is far stronger than tive faculties of the mind.
in men, and those women have it least who Of these faculties-split up into nine pro- have or gain most likeness to the other sex. pensities, twelve sentiments, and fourteen Fat men possess it richly. The best historintellectual properties — Mr. Bain gives a ical type of the emotional character, says more careful and generous criticism than we Mr. Bain, was Charles James Fox. Round should have thought them entitled to receive. in his person, full of an intense enjoyment He shows how their arrangement is confused of life, violent in his expressions of liking and illogical, how numerous secondary ef- and dislike, a marvellous lover of company, fects are regarded as final, and how several of play, of recreative reading, and of every modifications of character have no provision other exercise of untrained feeling and unmade for them. There is very inadequate bridled power, he was psychologically no account taken of the vocal powers, as rep- less than politically the converse of Pitt, a resented in the structure of the head. The man endowed with a singularly dry, hard temperaments aroused by touch, smell, and intellect, but with the scantiest proportion taste, are not included, and to those con- of sentiment. nected with hearing very incomplete refer- Of this emotional character there are ence is made. No justice is done to sym- many divisions. The humblest sort is that pathy or love of truth, and in giving one dependent on simple muscular exercise, title of ideality to the numerous suscepti- shown in the enjoyment of gymnastic movebilities to beauty, whether in art or in poe- ments, of a brisk walk or of a fox hunt. try, there is grave error.
Next, according to Mr. Bain's classification, Professor Bain's own classification of the is the amorous sentiment, which, parted from elements of human character is very differ- the intellectual and higher emotional tendenent, and far more philosophical. The mind's cies that give it beauty, is lower in nature action, he teaches, being volitional, emo- than the simple love of eating and drinking. tional, and intellectual, it is clear that its Justice is seldom done by philosophers to character is evinced in each mode of activ- what is here called “ alimentary sensibility," ity. Apart from any stimulation of the the due regard to digestion and nutrition, feelings or any studied movement of thought, to the preserving and improving of the enthere is an inborn tendency to action, which tire tone of animal life. It differs essentially should be taken as the basis of all the varia- from taste; which has its own share in tions of temperament in both man and beast. the formation of a man's character, and is This is partly muscular, but chiefly nervous. on a par with the other special senses, The man of most muscle is often not the smell, touch, hearing, and sight. There is strongest man, even from a physical point no limit to the influences coming to us
through the eye, whether it be adapted to he can take hold of his impressions and fix form and movement, or to color and its har- them on the canvas. Without retentiveness monies. Other influences reach us through no language, not even a mother tongue, emotions which are not sensations. Won- could be learnt. But neither discrimination der, most prominent in children and savages, nor retentiveness are sufficient for the full stamps the character of many all through growth of intellect. Its grandest power is their lives. More notable is the feeling of in identification, the ability to link like with terror, as the tyrant over multitudes, and like, in spite of accompanying diversities, only properly destroyed by the acquirement and notwithstanding the separations of time of that noblest courage, which is animal and and space.“ A retentive mind is measured intellectual, no less than emotional. Linked by the rapidity shown in making acquisiwith courage as closely in psychological tions, by the fewness of the repetitions, grouping as in the events of daily life is the stimulants not being employed, that are apparently different emotion of tenderness requisite to cement a firm connection beand affection, whether felt for animals and tween a number of distinct impressions. plants or shown to the fellow-beings most The identifying mind, on the other hand, is nearly bound to us. In another category is proved by the number of occasions where love of self, within measure a necessary and an identity too faint or too disguised to be a noble sentiment, and only bad when it apprehended by men in general, makes itself sinks into self-complacency, or rises to van- felt by a stroke of recall.” ity, or branches out as an undue love of Intelligence is often displayed most power, often identical with love of tyranny. strongly where emotion has least sway. Tyranny begets wrath, of which the main The philosophers of old — Socrates and element is a mere pleasure of malevolence, Plato, Aristotle and Archimedes—are faand against which the true safeguard is the mous for their slight susceptibility to the cultivation of the noblest of all emotions, common feelings of mankind; and Bacon that of sympathy, the power by which we joy is not the only holder of a kingly intellect with those who joy and weep with those who who seemed to have no heart at all, and in weep.
whom wonderful grandeur of thought was Higher than emotion, however, in the joined to a strange meanness of action. formation of character is intelligence. The But emotion is never wholly absent, and feelings are only half capable of training; many men have an even balance of the two a wise man can develop his intellect almost constituents of character. Intellect also without limit. Under three divisions are shows itself in the senses, and in their use comprehended the distinguishing properties it is hard to separate exactly between it and of the mind. It can discriminate ; it can emotion. Taste and smell have little intelretain; it can identify. Discrimination lectual capacity, but it is widely shown in grows with the use of our fa ies One sight and hearing. To the artist, the poet, whose business it is to taste wines gains the naturalist, and the architect, the optia marvellous susceptibility of palate. A cal sense, revealing form to some and color chemist can detect the subtlest properties to others, opens broad channels of commuby the sense of smell. A practised hand nication between the mind and the outer can almost dispense with weights and meas- world. The musical sense, the sense of caures; and where, as in the case of blind dence in elocution, and the sense of articupeople, most burden lies on the power of late form, are three great sorts of capability touch, no work is too minute, no form too possessed in various degree by all who delicate, to be traced by the unaided hand. speak or sing, and all who hear. Courage The ear, the eye, and the vocal organs have is a finely complicated element of character. still larger scope for increase and refine- Animal courage, the mere strength of limb ment by means of discrimination. Built on and bodily fitcess, endurance of evils seen discrimination is retentiveness. No one or unseen-emotional courage, the overcan remember a melody who has not first throw of the excitement of fear by exciting listened to it attentively. The artist's skill thoughtfulness, self-esteem, generosity, or in the discernment of endless varieties of patriotism – and intellectual courage, the form and color is of little use to him unless calm balancing of the advantages and du
THIRD SERIES. LIVING AGE. 822
ties, with the perils and misfortunes belong- of purpose, the firmness of life, which proing to the strife—all go to the making of a cures happiness in things little and great, is truly brave man.
the grandest work of the intellect in gove Intellect should be always the guide of erning the world of self. There is one emotion, and memory—of which, according grander work open to it, just as a truer to Hobbes, hope is an outgrowth-should be wealth is ours when we give to others than its constant instrument. If men would only when we take for ourselves, so prudence is remember what things in former cases have a less noble property of soul than sympathy. brought them pain, and whence have come To the emotional part of sympathy we have their greatest pleasures, there would be a already referred. It is for intellect to train universal prudence. In some cases people the emotion, and raise it to a heavenly digare anxiously imprudent. Few pains are nity. To adapt all the powers of mind to more grievous than toothache ; yet few peo- the effecting of some high purpose for the ple take any precaution against it. No one good of others was the effort of such a man is without knowledge of the disastrous issue as Howard. It was the perfect achievement of evil life, yet experience must repeat its of him whose birth we at this season celelessons many times, and there must be num- brate with some of our actions, and desire berless repentings of sin before most men to celebrate by daily effort to approach bring themselves to live with persistent up- through Him to the ideal of human characrightness. The gaining of the steadiness ter.
THERE never was, and probably never will nature, the reverent faith and love for the Word, be, a more interesting subject of political study which have made this veteran in the Bible cause than the present condition of America. Every so honored through the land. Some of the problem of the past, and every political difti- bymns are graceful, and will eventually find culty of the present, is there working itself out their way into the collections. The book is visidly before our eyes. Evils which have per- prettily printed and illustrated. It should be plexed the nations since the dawn of history bought and read as a memento of one who has demand their instant removal, while every form tried to put to good use the gifts with which a of government from mob-rule to the closest oli- generous Providence has endowed him, and garchy is asserting by force its right, not only done great good in his day. And the quaint to exist, but to become supreme. The compar- autobiography in the Appendix, will make it ative force of democracy and aristocracy, their all the more welcome to those who love him.relative power of remedying discovered mis- Evangelist. chiefs, their ultimate tendencies, and their common evils, are exhibited on a scale and with a rapidity which affords to mankind the opportunity of a political education such as it has not Scott's NOVELS FOR CATHOLICS.-It is not enjoyed since Grecce was submerged under the generally known, we believe, that an expur. Roman wave. And, amidst all these difficul- gated edition of Walter Scott has been published ties, the American people alone in history have for the benefit of Roman Catholics; but the fact to work out, not in the course of ages but at is recorded in the new edition of Féller's " Bioonce, the problem which is older than any form graphic Universelle," published at Lyons, with of government now in existence, the extinction a continuation by the Abbé Simonin. *** Though of human slavery:-Spectator, 28 Dec.
Walter Scott,” we are told in the notice of his name,“ is not a romancer of the dangerous
class, he gives, nevertheless, too lively a picture Poems. By Rev. T. H. Stockton, Chaplain to Catholic institutions ; this has led D’Exauvillez
of the passions, and makes frequent attacks on Congress, William S. & Alfred Martien, to undertake a new and abridged translation of Philadelphia,
his works, in which he has taken care to omit This little volume has three divisions, all that is condemnable. This translation is Rhythm, Rhyme, and Hymns, in all of which published under the auspices of the Society of will be found much that is characteristic of its St. Nicholas, No. 39 Rue de Sèvres, Paris, and well-known author. A patient reader will fall is principally suited for young persons.” It will upon many pleasant passages, sometimes highly be long, we presume, before there is any English poetic in conception and finished in form; and “Family Walter Scott" to take its place by the always pervaded with the geniality and good- side of the Family Shakspeare.-Athenæum.
From The Saturday Review. smaller and less wealthy dependencies, alRESULTS OF THE FIRST AMERICAN REV- most degenerates into caricature, and is not OLUTION.
exempt from inconvenience. An EnglishAMONG the popular commonplaces which man travels abroad with the conviction that have usurped the place of political axioms, in every remote sea, and almost in every none is more generally accepted than the strait, he will touch at some cape, continent, profession that, in every respect, the inde- or island where the English standard waves, pendence of the United States has been a where the English tongue is spoken, where gain and a benefit to Great Britain. It is English law is administered, where supplies put forward by grave authors with no less are voted and enactments passed by a trippositiveness than by beardless politicians on artite Legislature, and where the social hiertheir maiden hustings, or young writers in archy is graduated on a similar scale and their maiden essays, as if it were a maxim governed by similar codes to those which obthat it argued only blind bigotry or stolid tain in his native land. That the laws, cusobstinacy to controvert. We are told to toms, social instincts, and national feelings compare
the exports of Great Britain to the of these communities have not been warped United States with the exports to the colo- into provincialism or hardened into rusticity, nies, old and new, as if that one comparison is the result of the communication which settled and bounded the whole question of commerce, adventure, and steam have cethe advantages or disadvantages which re- mented between England and her forty or sulted from the disruption of the Thirteen fifty colonies. Every year some colony, exBritish Colonies on the Continent of North cept the poorest and smallest, attracts to its America. And yet there are many points of shores a greater or lesser number of young view from which that great historical event Englishmen-many of gentle blood-almost may be regarded, besides that which is purely all educated, both morally and intellectually, commercial. Looking at the question in all up to a far higher standard than was attainits bearings, moral, social, and political, we able by the same classes when the States of may reasonably doubt whether too facile and the North American Republic were colonies too credulous an assent has not been given to of Great Britain. The young lawyer, the this allegation. That the material develop- young clergyman, sometimes the young merment of the United States has been enhanced chant or banker-often the young planterand accelerated by their independence is is a member of one of our two ancient uniprobably true. But whether this develop-versities. Other immigrants, again, who ment has been beneficial to themselves or to have not had the advantage of a Cambridge the world at large, may reasonably appear or Oxford education, have been trained at doubtful to any one who has studied their the London University, at Edinburgh, at history, their government, their manners, Dublin, or at some of the better of those and their dealings with foreign nations. proprietary schools which are doing for the That, under any circumstances, they could higher sections of the middle classes that have remained for a century longer depend - which the great public schools do for the upent upon a remote insular power like that of per classes. Add to these the young miliEngland, may perhaps be regarded as en- tary officers fresh from school and English tirely impossible; but that a longer connec- homes, and the Creole youth—who for the tion with the mother country, followed by a most part at the suggestion of wise and libpeaceable and pre-arranged separation, would eral governors, and rarely at the instigation have been eminently salutary to both, seems of the Downing Street authorities — have to us to admit of no doubt.
been sent for their education to England, or, Generally, we may lay it down as a prin- as they themselves say, with a fond and genciple, that colonies are happy and civilized in erous patriotism, " sent home.” Add also a direct ratio to the intimacy of their con- another element, important in proportion to nection with the mother country. The colo- its rarity,—the young Creole ladies who have nies of England are for the most part small received an education in quiet and elegant antitypes of England. They repeat the con- English houses,—and it is easy to see why the stitutional and social forms of the old coun- English type is so visible in the social structry with a minute imitation which, in the ture of our colonies. The same effects were
not apparent in America, because the same they were too few to impress their own causes were not in operation there. The characters and principles on the mass of emigration to the American colonies was men by whom they were surrounded and the sparse, uncertain, and rarely of a high or principles which the Revolution ultimately very respectable kind. That to the North- made supreme in the new Republic unfortuern colonies was composed mainly of those nately rendered it impossible that popular whom religious sympathy identified with the respect or popular imitation should be atdescendants of the Puritans--men probably tracted either by gentlemanly manners or of strong, stern, and strict characters, but of gentlemanly attainments. no breadth of moral view, utterly destitute It is now useless, though not uninterestboth of secular learning and polite manners, ing, to consider how different might have not wholly free from the imputation of hy- been the condition of American society and pocrisy, and too often remarkable for very the tone of American manners, had the Rev. loose commercial ethics. In the South, after olution been postponed for half a century. the first settlement of the Cavalier colonies, We make due allowance for the effect of clithe emigration to them from Europe was mate, of situation, and, above all, of large, scantier than that to those of the North. open, and unappropriated territory. We Except here and there a cadet of the old know that in an extensive province, sparsely Cavalier stock, or a youthful adventurer who peopled, the physical conditions of the counlooked to find in America a field for the dis- try forbid the exact reproduction of metroplay of his energies and courage, which the politan life and society. We know that the cessation of great continental wars and the concurrent amplitude of untilled land and discontinuance of foreign military employ- paucity of laboring hands is favorable neither ment denied to him in Europe, the immi- to polite manners nor to polite learning, nor, grants into Virginia, Carolina, and latterly strange to say, to the manly sports of Enginto Georgia, were, we fear, men of whose land. We cannot help seeing also that there antecedent history their descendants could is a mysterious genius loci, which in time not be proud. There was no steam in those does strangely change the ancestral type of days. Little was known of America. The a race. It is not the large influx of Irish, little that was reported was not such as to French, and German immigrants which has attract colonists from the better portion of alone so completely changed the English society. Moreover, there was not in Eng- physiognomy in America, for a somewhat land that pressure of population or that com- analogous change is going on among our petition for employment which, at a later cousins in Australia. But what we contend period, drove young men of respectable is, that despite the operation of these various positions to hew down forests, plow vir- causes, the postponement of the American gin land, or open virgin mines. Such hard Revolution would have greatly modified work too, as was to be done, was, we fear, their effects and retarded the estrangement often done by the hands of white slaves, between England and her transatlantic child. convicts, at least, little better than slaves in This postponement would have ensured in treatment or relf-respect, and who met the the mean time a closer and more frequent few black slaves of those days on a footing communication with Europe. A higher class of equality.
of immigrants would have settled in the Thus, then, at the beginning of the great American colonies. Their influence would revolutionary struggle, the state of Ameri- have reacted on their friends and connections can society did not bear to the contemporary of their own rank in England. A more state of English society that resemblance courteous, and more liberal tone would have which colonial society bears to the English been infused into any controversial discussociety of the present day. There were, in- sions with the mother country. A race of deed, gentlemen in America equal to any men would have grown up imbued with gentlemen in Europe. George Washington English predilections, and trained up in the was a thorough gentleman. His friend, A. manly sports, in the manly school-lore, in Hamilton, was a gentleman. There were the generous school-feelings, of English other gentlemen and scholars among the boys. Above all, a race would have grown authors and leaders of the Revolution; but up imbued with the English principle of fair