A GOD-SPEED TO THE CANADA-BOUND. From the general to the private, not one among

them all, God speed yon, Guards and Rifles, Line-Regi- But blithely makes his sacrifice, be it great or ments and Artillery,

be it small. Punch flings liis old shoc after you, and drains his glass of Sillery,

And shall we grudge them a comfort, that purse And here's his toast, May boiled and roast, of ours can pay,

and drink and clothes and firing, A God-speed and a greeting as they sail upon Ne'er fail your pluck, and licre's good luck,

their way? stout arms and legs untiring.'

Blow fair, ye winds; be merciful, grim winter,

to our brave, The St. Lawrence lias its sleet and fogs, its ice- May our blessing serve to strengthen, our prayer wind keen and frore;

have power to save! On sea there's storm before you, and frost upon

-Punch. the shore; In the lony, long march, through pine and larch,

along the trampled snow, With the icy breath of a sleepy death about you

THE AMERICAN DILEMMA. as you go. But John Bull clothes your bellies and your And let me know what you call Mason and

Your passion and arrogance, Jonathan, bridle, backs with fooil and furs,

Slidell. And in your own brave veins the blood of man. Are they rebels? What right, if you take that

hood cheerly stirs ; So if there's pith in meat and drink, and manly Had you, boarding the Trent, to demand extra

position, licarts beside,

dition ? All safe vou'll land, and to arms you'll stand, whicre rolls St. Lawrence wide.

Had Mitchell and Meagher been Slidell and And the blessing of your countrymen, and coun- Mason, try women too

We you, and you wc, would you think no disWill cling and close about you, as hearty blessings do

Your Aag had been cast, its protection from Surpassing warmth of food and fire, from heart

under to heart they'll run

If we those two traitors had taken, I wonder ? And England's wide and watchful arms will clasp hier every son.

Belligerents call you the men you laid hands on, There are beardless chins among you, there are

And the charge of high treason against them

abandon? lieads all grizzly gray,

Were we fighting the French, then you'd have There are lads of tender nurture, and rough

no objection slips that none would stay:

To our seizing French envoys beneath your There's gentle blood and simple, there's noble

protection. man and clown, For suffering and for danger by common duty bounc.

Moreover, as prisoners of war if you take them,

And therefore their country's ambassadors make The fopling Guardsman flings his crust of fop

them, pery away,

You put yourselves then into this situation : And seis to work as lightly as e'er he set to You are first to acknowledge the Confederaplay:

tion. From club, boudoir, and drawing-room, and

Punch, 21 Dec. hunting-tield, be's there, To face thic lot that others face, and fare as oth

grace on

crs fare.

And some leave wives and children, sweethearts,

and parents dear, Warm licarilis for icy darkness, full cups for

sorry chicer :

A CONTRAST.-English character personified in John Bull. That of America is embodied in Jonathan Bully. --Punch.




From The Examiner. birth is worse than mere wealth; it excites Memoirs, Letters, and Remains of Alexis de not only enry, but fear. The remembrance

Tocqueville. Translated from the French of the Marian persecutions is still vivid in by the Translator of “Napoleon's Corre- England after three hundred years. Our spondence with King Joseph.” Two vol- fears of the revival of the tour et colombier Macmillan and Co.

are as fantastic as your dread of the faggot

and the rack ; but why should they not last When the original French edition of this as long ? work was published, some months ago, we noticed it at considerable length; and al

Here is a criticism on a celebrated writer, though large additions have been made to with the prospective ambition of supplying the present version, they are not of a kind his defects, which unfortunately was never to call for much additional comment; though

realized :we avail ourselves of them for the purpose “ We talked of Thiers' History of the of further illustrating the feelings and opin- Empire.' Its defect,' said Tocqueville, is ions of M. de Tocqueville on the public its inadequate appreciation of the causes, inevents of France and England as they took trinsic and extrinsic, which united to form place,—the source from which our extracts Napoleon. Few historics give to these two are taken being the journals kept by Mr. weight. Some attribute too much to the cir

sets of causes their due or their relative Senior when visiting his friend. As the

cumstances in which their hero was placed, translator observes, these journals are a others to the accidents of his character. slight and inadequate, but still the only rec- Napoleon, though gigantic in war and in ord of M. de Tocqueville's conversation.” legislation, was imperfect and incoherent in Without further preface, then, we proceed both. No other great general, perhaps no to show their character. A curious feature general whatever, suffered so many defeats. of the popular feeling in France with re- have lost two; but who ever survived the

Many have lost one army, some perhaps spect to that feudalism which it was the first destruction of four ? So in legislation, he object of the French Revolution to extin- subdued anarchy, he restored our finances, guish, is shown in the following passage :- he did much to which France owes in part

her power and her glory. But he deprived “ You saw the roofless tower in the court. her not only of liberty, but of the wish for My grandfather used it as a colombier. He liberty; he enveloped her in a network of kept there three thousand pigeons. No one centralization which stifles individual and was allowed to kill them, and no one else corporate resistance, and prepares the way in the commune could keep them. In 1793, for the despotism of an assembly or of an when the peasants were the masters, they emperor. Assuming him to have been perdid no harm to any of the rest of our prop- fectly selfish, nothing could be better planned erty. We have lived among them as pro- or better executed. He seized with a sagacteciors and friends for centuries ; but they ity which is really marvellous, out of the rose en masse against the pigeons, killed elements left to him by the Convention, every one of them, and reduced the tower those which enabled him to raise himself, to its present state. When I first was a can- and to level everything else; which enabled didate I failed, not because I was not per- his will to penetrate into the recesses of prosonally popular, but because I was a gen- vincial and even of private life, and rendered tilhomme. I was met everywhere by the those below him incapable of acting or thinkproverb, "Les chats prennent les souris.' ing, almost of wishing, for themselves. My opponent was of an humble family which Thiers does not sufficiently explain how it had risen to wealth and distinction in the was that Napoleon was able to do this, or Revolution. This is the most favorable why it was that he chose to do it; nor has combination in the hands of a man of abil- his private character been ever well drawn ity. Mere wealth is mischievous ; it gives as a whole. There is much truth in Bourrino influence, and it excites envy. The only enne, though mixed, and inseparably mixed, time when it led to political power was just with much invention. Napoleon's taste was after the Revolution of 1848. Every pos- defective in everything, in small things as sessor of property, and few persons in the well as in great ones; in books, in art, and provinces are quite without it, was alarmed ; in women, as well as in ambition and in and the greatest proprietors were selected glory. The history of the Empire and the as representatives, because they were sup- history of the Emperor are still to be writposed to have the greatest stakes. Mere 'ten. I hope one day to write them.""




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On the changes which have taken place in no one but a native can relish. There are French literature during the last hundred parts of Shakspeare which you admire, and and fifty years, De Tocqueville passed judg. I have no doubt very justly, in which I canment as follows:

not see any beauty. Can you,' I said,

'read the “ Henriade,” or the " Pucelle"?' " • If,' said Tocqueville, Bossuet or Pas- · Not the “Henriade," ' he answered, nor cal were to come to life, they would think us read the « Pucelle," but it is a wonderful

can anybody else; nor do I much like to receding into semi-barbarism; they would be unable to enter into the ideas of our fash- piece of workmanship. How Voltaire could ionable writers, they would be disgusted by

have disgraced such exquisite language, their style, and be puzzled even by their lan- poetry, and wit, by such grossness, is inconguage.' * What," I asked, do you consider ceivable; but I can recollect when grave your golden age ?' • The latter part,' be magistrates and statesmen knew it by heart. answered, “of the seventeenth century. Men If you wish for pure specimens of Voltaire's wrote then solely for fame, and they ad-wit, and ease, and command of language, dressed a public small and highly cultivated. look at his “Pièces Diverses.” As for his French literature was young; the highest tragedies, I cannot read them—they are artiposts were vacant; it was comparatively easy the best writer of French that ever used the

ficial-_so, indeed, are Racine's, though he is to be distinguished. Extravagance was not necessary to attract attention. Style then language. In Corneille there are passages was the mere vehicle of thought ; first of really of the highest order. But it is our all to be perspicuous, next to be concise, was prose writers, not our poets, that are our all that they aimed at. In the eighteenth glory, and them you can enjoy as well as I century competition had begun.

It had be- can. come difficult to be original by matter, so men tried to strike by style ; to clearness

Of the coup d'état of the 2nd of Decemand brevity, ornament was added-soberly ber, M. de Tocqueville expressed himself in and in good taste, but yet it betrayed labor these terms:and effort. To the ornamental has now succeeded the grotesque ; just as the severe

*** The 18th Brumaire was nearer to this, style of our old Norman architecture grad- for that ended as this has begun, in a miliually became florid, and ultimately flamboy- tary tyranny. But the 18th Brumaire was ant. If I were to give a scriptural genealogy almost as much a civil as a military revoluof our modern popular writers, I should say tion. A majority in the councils was with that Rosseau lived twenty years,and then be- Bonaparte. Louis Napoleon had not a real gat Bernardin de St. Pierre ; that Bernardin friend in the assembly. All the educated de St. Pierre lived twenty years, and then classes supported the 18th Brumaire; all begat Chateaubriand ; that Chateaubriand the educated classes repudiate the 2nd of lived twenty years, and then begat Victor December. Bonaparte's consular chair was Hugo ; and that Victor Hugo, being tempted sustained by all the élite of France. This of the devil, is begetting every day.' •Whose man cannot obtain a decent supporter. For son,' I asked, “is Lamartine?' Oh,' said a real parallel you must go back eighteen Tocqueville, he is of a different breed; his hundred years. I said that some persons, father, if he had one, is Chenier ; but one for whose judgment I had the highest remight almost say that he is ex se ipso nutus. spect, seemed to trent it as a contest between When he entered the poetical world, all two conspirators, the Assembly and the men's minds were still heaving with the President, and to think the difference beRevolution. It had filled them with vague tween his conduct and theirs to be that he conceptions and undefined wishes, to which struck first. This,' said Tocqueville I utLamartine, without making them distinct terly deny. He, indeed, began to conspire enough to show their emptiness or their in- from the 10th of December, 1848. His diconsistency, gave something like form and rect instructions to Oudinot and his letter color. His

Meditations, especially the to Ney, only a few months after his election, first part of them, found an accomplice in showed his determination not to submit to erery reader. He seemed to express thoughts parliamentary government. Then followed of which every one was conscious, though no his dismissal of ministry after ministry, unone before had embodied them in words.' til he had degraded the office to a clerkship. I said that I feared that I should be unable Then came the semi-regal progress; then to read them; and that, in fact, there was the reviews of Satory, the encouragement of little French poetry that I could read. I treasonable cries, the selection for all the have no doubt,' answered Tocqueville, that high appointments in the army of Paris of there is much poetry, and good poetry, that men whose characters fitted them to be tools.


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Then he publicly insulted the Assembly at candid criticism, I will give you one. You Dijon; and at last, in October, we knew couple as events mutually dependent the that his plans were laid. It was then only continuance of the Imperial Government, that we began to think what were our means and the continuance of the Anglo-Gallic Alof defence; but that was no more a conspi- liance. I believe this opinion not only to racy than it is a conspiracy in travellers to be untrue, but to be the rererse of the truth. look for their pistols when they see a band I believe the Empire and the Alliance to be of robbers advancing. M. Baze's proposi- not merely not mutually dependent, but to tion was absurd, only because it was imprac- be incompatible, except upon terms which ticable. It was a precaution against imme- you are resolved never to grant. The Emdiate danger ; but if it had been voted, it pire is essentially warlike, and war in the could not have been executed; the army had mind of a Bonaparte, and of the friends of already been so corrupted, that it would have a Bonaparte, means the Rhine. This war disregarded the orders of the Assembly. I is merely a stepping-stone. It is carried on have often talked over our situation with for purposes in which the mass of the people Lamoricière and my other military friends. of France take no interest. Up to the presWe saw what was coming, as clearly as we ent time its burdens have been little felt, now look back to it, but we had no means as it has been supported by loans, and the of preventing it.' But was not your in- limits of the legal conscription have not lended law of responsibility,' I said, • an at- been exceeded. But when the necessity tack on your part ?' • That law,' he said, comes for increased taxation and anticipated was not ours. It was sent up to us by the conscriptions, Louis Napoleon must have reConseil d'Etat, which had been two years course to the real passions of the French and a half employed on it, and ought to have Bourgeoisie and peasantry, the love of consent it to us much sooner. We thought it quest, et la haine de l'Anglais. Don't fancy dangerous—that is to say, we thought that, that such feelings are dead ; they are scarcely though quite right in itself, it would irritaté asleep; they might be roused as soon as he the President-and that in our defenceless thinks they are wanted.

What do you supstate it was unwise to do so. The Bureau pose was the effect in France of Louis Nato which it was referred refused to declare poleon's triumph in England ? Those who it urgent-a proof that it would not have know England attributed it to the ignorance passed with the clauses which, though rea- and childishness of the multitude. Those sonable, the President thought fit to disap- who thought that the shouts of the mob had prove. Our conspiracy was that of the lamb any real meaning, either hung down their against the wolf.'. Though I have said,' he heads in shame at the self-degradation of a continued, that he has been conspiring ever great nation, or attributed them to fear,since his election, I do not believe that he the latter was the general feeling. “Il intended to strike so soon. His plan was faut,” said all our lower classes, to wait till next March, when the fears of gens là aient grand peur de nous.

You acMay, 1852, would be most intense. Two cuse, in the second place, all the Royalist circumstances forced him on more rapidly. parties of dislike of England. Do you supOne was the candidature of the Prince de pose that you are more popular with the othJoinville. He thought him the only danger-ers ? that the Republicans love your arisous competitor. The other was an agitation tocracy or the Imperialists your freedom ? set on foot by the Legitimists, in the Con- The real friends of England are the friends seils généraux, for the repeal of the law of of her institutions. They are the body, the 31st of May. That law was his moral small perhaps numerically, and now beaten weapon against the Assembly, and he feared down, of those who adore constitutional libthat, if he delayed, it might be abolished èrty : they have maintained the mutual good without him.'"

feeling between France and England against

the passions of the Republicans, and the The Anglo-Gallic Alliance did not seem you trust, that this good feeling is to con

prejudices of the Legitimists. I trust, as to M. de Tocqueville likely to be of long cn- tinue, but it is on precisely opposite grounds. durance. Mr. Senior had asked him his My hopes are founded, not on the permaopinion on an article of his on the state of nence, but on the want of permanence of the the Continent, which had been published in Empire, I do not believe that a great nathe North Brilish Review in February, 1855, its head. My only fear is, that the over

tion will be long led by its tail instead of by a few months before the conversation re-ihrow of this tyranny may not take place corded :

early enough to save us from the war with

England, which I believe to be the inevitable “ • Since you ask me,' he answered, for a consequence of its duration.'”


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The feelings of the French religious world, don houses, all built and furnished on exwith respect to heretics are amusingly illus- actly the same model, and that a most untrated :

interesting one. Whether a girl is bred up at home or in a convent, she has the same

masters, gets a smattering of the same ac“«X. Y. Z. was one of the best men that complishments, reads the same dull books, I have known, but an unbeliever... The and contributes to society the same little Archbishop of tried in his last illness contingent of superficial information. When to reconcile him to the Church. He failed. a young lady comes out, I know beforehand X. Y. Z. died as he had lived. But the how her moiher and her aunts will describe Archbishop, when lamenting to me his her. “Elle a les goûts simples, elle est death, expressed his own conviction that so pieuse, elle aime la campagne, elle aime la excellent a soul could not perish. You rec- lecture, elle n'aime pas le bal, elle n'aime pas ollect that Duchess, in St. Simon, who on le monde, elle y va seulement pour plaire à the death of a sinner of illustrious race, said, sa mére.” I try sometimes to escape from “On me dira ce qu'on veut, on ne me per- these generalities, but there is nothing bebuadera pas que Dieu n'y regarde deux fois hind them.' And how long,' I asked, does avant de damner un homme de sa qualité." this simple, pious, retiring character last ?' The archbishop's feeling was the same, only • Till the orange flowers of her wedding changing qualité into virtue. There is some- chaplet are withered,' he answered. In thing amusing,' he continued, “when, sepa- three months she goes to the Messe d'une rated as we are from it by such a chasm, we heure.' • What is the Messe d'une heure ?' look back on the prejudices of the ancien I asked. “A priest,' he answered, must régime. An old lady once said to me, "I celebrate mass fasting, and in strictness have been reading wiih great satisfaction the ought to do so before noon. But, to accomgenealogies which prove that Jesus Christ modate fashionable ladies who cannot rise descended from David. Ca montre que by noon, priests are found who will starve notre Seigneur était gentilhomme.” We all the morning and say mass in the afterare somewhat ashamed," I said, in general noon. It is an irregular proceeding, though of Jewish blood ; yet the Levis boast of their winked at by the ecclesiastical authorities descent from the Hebrew Levi.' • They are still to attend it is rather discreditable; it proud of it,' said Tocqueville ; ' because they is a middle term between the highly meritomake themselves out to be cousins of the rious practice of going to early mass, and blessed Virgin. They have a picture in the scandalous one of never going at all.? which a Duke de Levi stands bareheaded · What was the education,'I asked, of before the Virgin. “Couvrez vous donc, / women under the ancien régime?' * The mon cousin,” she says. “C'est pour ma convent,' he answered. • It must have becu commodité, madame," he answers."

better,' I said, “than the present education,

since the women of that time were superior The loss of the influence formerly pos- to ours.' • It was so far better,' he answered, sessed by women in France is accounted for

that it did no harm. A girl at that time

She came from the in the annexed passage, with which our il- i was taught nothing. lustrations end:

convent a sheet of white paper. Now her mind is a paper scribbled over with trash.

The women of that time were thrown into " • They have lost it,' said De Tocqueville, / a world far superior to ours, and with the . partly in consequence of the gross vulgar- sagacity, curiosity, and flexibility of French ity of our dominant passions, and partly women, caught the knowledge and tact and from their own nullity. They are like Lon- expression from the men.'”

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Tuue moon is np! the moon is up,

The larks begin to fly,
And like a breezy buttercup,

Dark Phoebus skims the sky :
The cleplant with cheerful voice

Sings blithely on the spray,
The bats avd licerles all rejoico,

Thien let inc too be gay!

Last night I was a porcupine,

And wore a peacock's livil,
To-morrow, if the moon but shine,

Perchance I'll be it whale :
Then let me, like the cauliflower,

Bc incrry while I m:ly,
And, ere there comes a sunny liour

To cloud my licart, be gay!

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