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practical and immediate interest the declar- grossly outraged, and that England was not ations of neutrality put forth by England and only justified in seeking ample reparation, France, and which have been published in even by arms if necessary, but was bound to Egidi's “ Archives of State.” According to obtain reparation, so as to prevent a repetithe text of the declaration made by your tion of the outrage either to herself or others. Government every British subject is prohib- Nay, more ; some people who pretended to ited from compromising, by any act whatso- be well informed affirmed that a very moderever, the character of a neutral State to ate degree of solicitation on the part of Engwhich their country binds itself, and among land would induce his Imperial Majesty to the acts having such an effect is mentioned join her in putting aside the blockade of the the carrying of despatches. The French Southern ports. But within the last two or declaration, dated June 8, enjoins that " the three days a somewhat different view of the French people will have to refrain from any affair has been taken. The Yankees are act which being committed in violation of considered not to have been so much in the the laws of the Empire, or of the law of na- wrong as was at first thought. The English tions, might be considered as an act hostile Government is accused of having acted with to one or the other of the two parties, and precipitancy in resolving to demand an apolcontrary to the neutrality which we have re- ogy and the release of the captured envoys, solved to observe."
before being acquainted with the American Looking, therefore, to the terms of these version of the facts. It is considered quite two declarations, we are led to regret that shocking that you should have already sent your Government should have treated the out ships and be preparing to send more to affair of the Trent as a question of form blaze away cannon against our loving rather than on the substantial merits of the “ brothers across the Atlantic, instead of case, and that it should have adopted a submitting to this new insult with as much course of policy which leaves the Cabinet of patience as you have endured others ; in a Washington little or no chance of any alter- word, the old leaven of hatred to perfidious native in a conciliatory and pacific direction. Albion is acting. Still, I do not apprehend At the same time I must not conceal from that any harm will come of this. It is not you that if the conflict is to issue in recog- the interest of the Emperor of the French to nition of the Southern States by England, be on bad terms just now with England ; the impression produced by such a course and it is manifestly impolitic for him to dethroughout Germany will be of a painful clare for the “party” in the coming conflict character. We are warm partisans of slavery which is sure to be thrashed. Moreover, he abolition, and the German emigrants, so nu- has even greater reason than England has to merous in the United States Þave brought see the braggarts of the North put down ; these sentiments over with them to their for France is in pressing need of cotton to adopted country. In support of this asser- keep her manufacturing population at work tion I may point to a telegraph just received, -a population which, as is known, makes stating that in New York eighty thousand the Government responsible for all the evils Germans have expressed an opinion against it suffers, and which when work runs scarce going to war with England as it would bring and distress comes, throws up barricades, about a recognition of the South, and con- and brings forth the secreted musket, or sequentiy insure the triumph of the cause to use its own oft-repeated expression is deof slavery. Is it not also to be apprehended termined to live by working, or die fightthat the Government of Washington, at war ing.”. And it is only, of course, by smashat once with England and with the South, ing the North that cotton can be lei loose. may, as a desperate resource, decree the I must not, however, disguise from you emancipation of the blacks—a measure the that if the Government were to gratify the consequences of which are fearful to contem- inclinations of the bulk of the French people, plate ?
or at least that chattering and noisy portion of them collected at Paris, it would adopt an
unfriendly policy to England in this AmeriCorrespondence of The Press. can affair. These people are delighted at FRENCH OPINION.
the idea of your being engaged in war, be
cause war, they say, will weaken you, even
Paris, Dec. 5. though-a thing they dare not deny-it is Of course the American affair is the prin- morally certain to end in your triumph. If cipal subject of discussion in these parts. they could reasonably foresee defeat for you, The French Government at first assumed they would not be sorry-au contraire : but with respect to it an attitude (as diplomatists as they cannot do that, they content themBay) which was friendly to your country. It selves with visions of privateers capturing admitted that the English flag had been your merchant ships by the hundred, of Canada being invaded, and of your exhausting
From The Saturday Review, 7 Dec. men, ships, and money in a series of insig
PEACE OR WAR. nificant combats. And when, say they, you are weakened, then—then will be the time By an unfortunate accident, the Federal for the Emperor to pick a quarrel with you, Congress assembled on the 4th of this mouth, and to attempt to execute the great enter and the President's message will have been prise which He is supposed to be nursing in delivered several days before the receipt of that mysterious breast of his-the humilia- the English demands. If Mr. Lincoln has tion of England.
been prudent enough to pass over in silence That war between the States and Great the capture of the Southern commissioners, Britain is inevitable is the firm opinion here, he may still be at liberty to comply with the even in governmental circles. The States requisitions of international law. The Senit is held, are certain to refuse what England ate or its Committee on Foreign Relations, requires, -apologies for the insult to her flag, may perhaps waive its concurrent authority; and the surrender of the prisoners; and Eng- or, if it has the wisdom and patriotism to land, consistently with her own honor, and share the responsibility of a just concession, with the position she has taken up, cannot, it may protect the Executive against the it is thought, yield an inch. Poor old Gen- unpopularity which might otherwise be ineral Scoit
, the ex-chief of the Federal curred by the surrender of the prisoners. “ army,” has, to be sure, written a letter to There is, however, too much reason to fear the newspapers, in which he hints that that Mr. Seward may have persuaded the
perhaps the United States would consent to give President to sanction and adopt the illeup the prisoners provided England would ef- gal ect of Captain Wilkes. If the Governface the right of search from her maritime ment is once officially pledged to a wrongcodemand that by some such arrangement ful course, it will be difficult or impossible war might be avoided. But this worthy old afterwards to retract in the presence of the gentleman does not appear to understand ignorant and excited multitude. It seems, that England cannot stoop to the degrada-l on the whole, probable that the outrage on tion of buying redress for an outrage. The the Trent was not directly planned by the French, moreover, believe war to be inevita- Government; but the announcement that ble, for the reason that England has, apart naval officers have been ordered to allow altogether from the Trent affair, many grave
themselves considerable latitude in their reasons for being anxious to chastise the dealings with English ships, indicates a deYankees, and they have the candor to admit sire, not so unintelligible as it is disgracethat she could hardly hope for a more favor- ful, to provoke a wanton quarrel. In no able opportunity of doing so, thoroughly and other civilized country are professional polieffectively, than the present. It is worthy ticians so much in ihe habit of pursuing of note that even the official Government objects of their own in disregard of the pubjournal the Moniteur speaks to-day of war lic interests. The members of Mr. Buchanas almost certain.
an's Cabinet, as their enemies assert, inThe French people are, as I have said, flicted a deadly injury on the Souihern pleased at seeing you plunged into the diffi- States by inducing them to form a separate culties and dangers of war; but they overlook confederacy in which they would themselves the fact that they will themselves suffer griev- occupy a principal position; and Mr. Seward ously from it
, even though they do not take may, in the same manner, consider a war part in it. By the conflict between the North- with England advantageous to himself, alern and Southern States their commerce has though he cannot but be aware that it is fallen off tremendously; and the coming ruinous to his country and his cause. To war between the Northern States and Eng. the last moment, the Secretary of State land will of course close the former to their protested against coercive measures; and productions,—and yet those States form one although he has, since the outbreak of hos. of the principal markets they possess--the tilities, judiciously modified his language, principal, in fact, seeing that a large portion he may possibly never have changed his of French exports which are despatched to opinions. It was perhaps necessary to England, and are therefore supposed to be promise the people an early and certain for English account, are in reality destined conquest of the South, but intelligent men for the said States. The war, too, will of at the centre of affairs must long since have course diminish the purchasing powers of known that success was hopeless. Once or England, Germany, and other markets. twice, Northern journals have inserted sig.
nificant hints of Mr. Seward's inclination to abandon the enterprise; but the minority which perceives that submission is inevitable is not yet strong enough to avow its con
victions. The President and his Cabinet ican ports to cover the sea with privateers. „cannot withdraw from the useless struggle Great suffering may be inflicted on the enwithout forfeiting their popularity, unless emy by blockades and isolated expeditions, some external compulsion furnishes them at but it will not be a war of great campaigns the same time with a sufficient excuse and or of brilliant victories. English adinirals with the means of diverting attention from and generals will have nothing to fight for the South. In all similar embarrassments, but an honorable peace, and before they obthe traditional resource of American politi- tain it their successes may too probably cians is a quarrel with England. A foreign sow the seeds of interminable animosity. war solves all political dilliculties in the There can be no peouliar sympathy between simplest manner. It breaks the blockade, England and the new Confederacy as long which cannot otherwise be decorously raised; as slavery is the basis of Southern instituit establishes the independence of the Con- tions, and while the revival of the slave federate States ; it provides the army of the trade is an open question at Charleston and Potomac with an unanswerable reason for New Orleans. The statesmen of the South, not advancing to Richmond; and, above while they remained in the Union, bid against all, it explains, for all future time, the failure the demagogues of the North for popularity of the prophecies which have for several by constant vituperation of England. Their months amused the population of the North. great superiority in council and in arms has Like the great fire at Ravenswood Castle, since conciliated a respect which has been under the judicious management of Caleh withheld from their windy adversaries. Balderstone, a rupture with England will Their commercial theories are less narrow forever save Mr. Seward's credit as a states and obnoxious than the corrupt selfishness man. ".. Where's the plate, the plenishing, of Pennsylvanian policy, nor is there any the family pictures ?' All lost in the great reason why, if they abstain from the African fire.' • How comea his lordship to be so slave trade, the Confederated States should poorly provided? What? haven't you not enjoy a profitable and friendly interheard of the fire?' All impertinent inquirers course with the country which first recogreceive the same answer— The fire, the fire, nised their belligerent rights. Yet the close the fire!'” So, when America and Europe alliance which must result from a joint warhereafter ask Mr. Seward for his boasted fare against the North would be in many Union, he will refer them to the fatal war ways embarrassing to the English Governwith England. The most splendid prospects ment:
It is inconvenient to incur even a of victory, the certainty of an early and tri- seeming responsibility for acts which cannot umphant peace—all was lost in the calami- be controlled, while they may frequently not tous war. That accounts for all evaporated be approved. England, if she is forced into Lluster and for all broken promises--the the war, will enter on the struggle without war, the war, the war! It is true Caleb passion, as without hesitation ; but the ConBalderstone only burnt a heap of straw in federates will simultaneously profit by the the castle-yard, while his imitator will have weakness of their enemies to exact' vento set the house itself on fire ; but eloquent geance for unpardonable wrongs. It would patriotism naturally leads to more serious be idle to enumerate all the additional proof's sacrifices of the property of others than which might be adduced that a war which is those which were prompted by the harmless unanimously deprecated is in itself undesirvanity of an old family retainer.
able. Even the blatant journalists of New The choice of peace or war mainly rests York will perhaps discover, when it is too with the Government of Washington, but late, that the previous forbearance of Engsomething may possibly depend on English land was not suggested by fear of the irreopinion, and it is desirable that the little in- sistible strength of the North, and that the fluence which can be exerted on this side of war has been commenced, not from a desire the Atlantic should not be employed in en- to profit by the weakness of the Union, but venoming the dispute. A war with the Fed- in calm and unavoidable compliance with eral Union will only be undertaken because the laws of duty and honor. it has been rendered unavoidable. No con- The professed partisans of peace, as usual, test can be more repugnant to English feel- form an exception to the really pacific tenings, and even material interests enormously dency of general opinion. At a time when preponderate in favor of peace. The mere all classes are willing to abide by the strict increase in maritime insurance will almost rule of law, and to be contented with the barbalance the doubtful advantage of a sudden est technical satisfaction for an insulting outand enormous influx of Sea Island and New rage, the party which once derived its name Orleans cotton. There were never so few from Manchester exaggerates the rights of laden American vessels to capture, nor so belligerents, and protests against any atmany unemployed hulls and sailors in Amer- tempt to vindicate the national honor. The New York Tserald, which only caricatures from the States. It is true that the colony the folly of its equally malignant rivals, dis- contains more than one race, and several poses of the difficulty by requesting the political parties, who may feel different dePresident to call out five hundred thousand grees of attachment to the English connecmore soldiers, and to build several hundred tion. The Roman Catholics of the Lower men-of-war. Any wavering on the part of Province stood aloof from the reception of the English Government would have been the Prince of Wales, and the Orangemeri attributed to fear of the American Bobadil ; of the West resented his discouragement of and yet the London advocate of the North- factious demonstrations; but the French ern States asserts that any attempt to resent Canadians have little sympathy with the the outrage on the British flag would be a grasping New Englanders; and the zealots cowardly attack on an opponent who is who have transplanted into a distant contitemporarily disabled. It is unwise to pro- nent the traditions of the Boyne will scarcely vide fresh fuel for the deep but restrained range themselves side by side with the patriindignation of Englishmen; but it is far otic Meagher. If the whole population is more dangerous to encourage American pre- ' not of one mind, it is nevertheless suffisumption. The writers who argue that am- ciently unanimous for practical purposes. bassadors may be taken from neutral ships The first American regiment which violates because Mr. Laurens was captured on his the frontier will remove all shades and disway to the Hague, in 1781, on board an tinctions of feeling by uniting all the North American packet, although they may not be American colonies against the insolent incapable of understanding a legal argument, vader. will be misled by the blundering apologies The Federal Government has found it of their English supporters. The blessing hitherto impossible to gain any serious adwhich is promised to peacemakers will vantage over five or six millions of enemies scarcely attend the mischievous busybodies who are politically embarrassed by the poswho foment quarrels by unseasonable exhor- session of slaves. The Confederates are tations to peace, when extremities can only subject to the danger of forcible emancipabe avoided by reparation and justice. tion, they are destitute of money and of
allies, and they are excluded from maritime intercourse with the outer world. Canada,
on the other hand, with three millions of inFrom The Saturday Review, 7 Dec.
habitants, and with no weak point in her
social institutions, will be supported by all CANADA.
the resources of a power which will in turn It is asserted on competent authority that blockade the Northern ports, and drive the Canada is loyal, and there is at least no rea- Federal fleets from the sea. As long as the son to suppose that the Canadians are mad. Southern war lasts, it will be almost imposIf they were anxious to be annexed by the sible for the Federal Government to mainNorthern Federation, they might almost cer- tain even a defensive force on the Northern tainly attain the object of their wishes ; and frontier. Mr. Seward probably hopes to as long as they desire to retain their present make peace with the Confederate States by allegiance, they are perfectly capable of de- recognizing their independence under cover fending the position which must form the of the popular irritation against England; basis of their future independence. It is but even if he succeeds in his object, the not probable that they will wish to enclose negotiations must be long, and the Border themselves within the meshes of the Morrill States will require a military force to keep Tariff for the purpose of sharing the glory them in subjection until the innumerable and responsibility of conquering the insur- points of dispute are finally settled. Even gent South. When the founders of the if all the five hundred thousand men in the American Union were themselves engaged field were available for a still more wanton in an “ unnatural rebellion,” they failed in war, they could make little impression on their attempt to force Canada into a similar such a country as Canada. North America, revolt; and in the war of 1812, American with its vast spaces, and its population of ambition was again baffled by the loyalty of English descent, may be traversed, from time the colonists, although, as General McClellan to time, by hostile armies, but it is not lately observed, General Scott had the good made to be conquered. The inhabitants will fortune of " consecrating the soil of Canada everywhere, in the long run, be stronger than with his blood." war should unhappily the invaders ; and in the supposed struggle break out, the imperial garrison will be the Canadians would have the aid of the largely strengthened, and the local militia only regular army on the continent, as well and volunteers will be at least a match for as of an irresistible navy. All the chances any equal number of extemporized soldiers of success would be reversed if England were insanely meditating the conquest of a new territorial dismemberment of the American territory. In the struggle which Northern Federation. In the South-West, has, for eighty 'years, supplied the United Upper Canada joins the great States beyond States with inexhaustible materials of va- the Alleghanies, which will almost certainly poring, the English Government was en- throw off the yoke of the Protectionist mandeavoring to retain possession of its ancient ufacturers of Pennsylvania and Massachudominions. Notwithstanding its misman- setts. It is impossible and unnecessary to agement, the royal armies generally main- look forward to distant revolutions, dependtained their superiority in the field; but ent on causes which will probably have when they were gradually compelled to been unanticipated. It is enough for the withdraw from the positions which they present purpose to see that in all reasonable held, the independence of the colonies was probability, Canada is not destined to sapractically complete. In future wars, Eng- tiate or stimulate the vanity of aggressive lish commanders will have no motive for Americans. In former ages, the limits of engaging their troops deeply within a hos- States were regulated by dynastic combinatile territory. If the war proceeds, it may tions, or modified by the fortune of war. perhaps become expedient to set right the Prussia and Austria are the estates which errors or frauds of diplomacy by rectifying certain families amassed in the course of the boundary lines in Maine and in Oregon, generations. The Italy of the present day, and a superiority in arms will also be prof- on the other hand, unites from a sense of itably employed in closing the vexatious national unity. The Confederate States of dispute about San Juan; but, in general America derive their origin from social and England enters into the contest without a economical causes. Canada may either hold selfish impulse, for the purpose of coercing a together by historical tradition, or split asunrude and arrogant Government into the ob- der for political reasons. A war between servance of national justice and courtesy. England and the Northern Union is more There will be little difficulty in applying the likely to postpone the change than to preforce which may be necessary for this pur- cipitate a separation. pose through the exclusive instrumentality of the fleet. No army will be required, except to assist in the defence of Canada ; and the home garrisons can easily spare troops
From The London Review, 7 Dec. for this purpose without any serious aug
THE SITUATION. mentation of the
peace establishment. It would be an idle and unprofitable ocAs far as it is possible to judge at a dis- cupation to speculate on an event which will tance, there seems reason to believe that be so soon removed 'from the domain of Canada is determined to form a separate na-conjecture. The next mail from America tion, instead of merging itself in the Ameri-(which we are likely to receive on Monday can chaos. The party disputes of the prov- next), will probably decide the question, the ince are conducted with an energy which is issue of which is so anxiously expected. more impressive than intelligible to ordinary It is not probable that the determination of readers of the colonial journals. The Min- the course of the Washington Cabinet will isterialists and the Clear Grits have always await or depend upon the arrival of the Engforcible arguments to urge against one an- lish despatch. The matter will, before the other, but neither party appears to complain departure of the next mail, have been under of any grievance proceeding from the Impe- the full discussion of the American press rial Government. The only indication of and statesmen for nearly a fortnight, and the American sympathies is furnished by the die will no doubt be cast for good or for evil, frequency with which, in party polemics, in a manner which will admit neither of modthey are attributed to adversaries whom it is ification nor recall. The sentence of the expedient to damage. The French Canadi. English Government has been pronounced ans and their allies in the Upper Province with deliberation, and the mind of the Engare opposed to the Orangemen, as the Dem-lish people has been made up with calmness, ocrats of the North and South were lately and now we can afford to await the result allied against the Black Republicans. Their with fortitude and composure. antagonism is, however, less strongly based While the matter was still under discus. on social differences or on material interests, sion we thought it right to oppose all possiand for the most part their controversies ble obstacles to a hasty and inconsiderate appear to be managed without the introduc- conclusion. In entering upon a quarrel tion of any foreign element.
nothing is so necessary or su just as to enIf Canada should, at' some future time, deavor to place the case of your adversary form any union with neighboring States, in the strongest light. The passionate and the change will probably be coincident with unrighteous man will always exaggerate his