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THE LIVING AGE.
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No. 918.-4 January, 1862.

CONTENTS.

PAGE. 1. A Snow Picnic,

Fraser's Magazine,

3 2. Oxford and Cambridge, .

Saturday Review,

14 3. Dr. Hayes' Arctic Exploration,

North American,

17 [With revisions and additions by Dr. Hayes, for this work.] 4. The English Pompeii,

Fraser's Magazine,

23 5. Poisonous Wells,

London Review,

27 6. Compliments,

Saturday Review,

30 7. Masks and Faces,

London Review,

35 8. Dogs in the Catacombs,

All the Year Round,

37 9. An Electrotype Wedding,

Once a Week,

41 10. Theories about Light,

The Press,

46 11. Condensing Gases,

London Review,

51 12. Joseph II., Emperor of Germany,

New Monthly Magazine,

53 [This is he whom Mr. Webster, in his letter to the Austrian minister, praised

as a "respectable person."]

POETRY.-Unknown, yet Well-known, 2. I know not When, 2. Mary Magdalen, 2. Only Nine Miles to the Junction, 34. Laura, don't Secede, 34. Song in Norfolk, 34. A Poet's Grave, 64. Qua Cursum Ventus, 64.

SHORT ARTICLES.–Palgrave's Golden Treasury, 13. Right of Secession, 13. Testament of Augustus, 26. Solar Photography, 29. Novel Musket for Successive Firing, 29. Leigh Hunt's Correspondence, 29. Skeleton Leaves, 33. Father Passaglia, 36. Photographing Silk, 36._Rain after Cannonade, 40. Excellent Agricultural Condition of Upper Austria, 50. Exploration of the Amazon District, 50. Sculptors in Florence, 52. New Tombstone to Flora Macdonald, 52. Shakspeare's Gardens, 63.

NEW BOOKS. Montrose and other Biographical Sketches. Boston: Soule & Williams., (Containing Latour, Brummell, Dr. Johnson, and Montrose. The first was originally published in The Living Age. From our knowledge of the Author, we venture to recommend this book to our readers, and promise much pleasure to ourself in its perusal.]

ERRATUM.
Page 18, 7th line from bottom, instead of 86° read 800.

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I.

II.

UNKNOWN, YET WELL-KNOWN. Some night, I know, the shades will gather,

The dusky shadows deeper grow, Badajos, April, 1812.-—"That desperate sol- The silent stars come out together, dier of the 95th, who in his resolution to win, The last that I shall see below; thrust himself beneath the chained sword-blades, No voice from out that distan: sky and there suffered the enemy to dash his head Will warn me that my end is nigh. in pieces with the butts of their muskets.". Napier's Peninsular War, vol. iv. book xvi. p. Some spring-time I shall mark the trees 432.

Grow daily greener o'er my head,

And in the autumn I shall feel We left the plunder of the town while yet the

The dead leaves rustle 'neath my tread, east was gray,

Nor know next autumn's winds shall come All in the dewy dreary dawn, we sought them

To strew the dry leaves on my tomb. where they lay

And there will be a darkened room, High-piled in that accursed breach, each as he

And they will catch my faintest breath, passed away;

And silence and a gathering gloom By nighit 'twas like the mouth of Hell, strewn like its floor by day.

Will fall from off the wings of Death;

I shall not hear the mufiled tone, But who was he, and what was he? We

The silent whisper, " He is gone." asked it all in vain. The bravest bravo, the foremost fallen, the But when this last great change shall come, flower of English slain ?

Is hidden from us—and 'tis best ;

If I be ready for my home, He was stricken down on the breach's crown,

It matters not how soon I rest; we found him there outspread ;

Death will be but the end of sorrowThrust underneath their pikes of steel, the first

Dawn of an endless, heavenly morrow. of all the dead; We buried him proudly where he fell, we

made right little moan, For no man know his shattered face, his

MARY MAGDALEN. mother had not known.

BY WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT.

| BLESSED, yet sinful one and broken-hearted ! And if you care for praise of men, why think The crowd are pointing at the thing forlorn upon his fall;

In wonder and in scorn ! He hath no fame on carth, he lies unknown be- Thou weepest days of innocence departing; neath the wall.

Thou weepest, and thy tears have power to He gave his lifo most willingly, where willing men were all;

The Lord to pity and love. It may be that before the Lord his meed shall not be small.

The greatest of thy follies is forgiven, Perhaps the noise of human pride were idlo

Even for the least of all the tears that shine
all and vain,

On that pale check of thinc.
For himthe foremost and the best of all the Thou didst kneel down to him who came from
English slain.

heaven -Fraser's Magazine. Ch. Ch., Oxford.

Evil and ignorant, and thou shalt rise

Holy and pure and wise.

It is not much that to the fragrant blossom
I KNOW NOT WHEN.

The ragged brier should change; the bitter fir

Distil Arabian myrrh ; I KNOW not when; but this I know,

Nor that, upon the wintry desert's bosom, That it will surely come to me

The harvest should rise plenteous, and the The day which comes to all below,

swain Which every child of earth must see ;

Bear home abundant grain.
For o'er his spirit nine hath power
To keep it, in that last dread hour.

But come and see the bleak and barren moun

tains I know that I shall watch the sun,

Thick to their tops with roses ; come and see As I have watched him many a day,

Leaves on the dry, dead trec: In gold behind the hills go down,

The perished plant set out by living fountains, Gilding with splendor all the way;

Grows fruitful, and its beauteous branches rise, I shall not see him set again

Forever, toward “the skies." Yet this I shall not know e'en then.

- Christian Register.

III.

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From Fraser's Magazine. move in Canadian society depends more or A SNOW PICNIC.

less upon the military ; but this picnic was Is it in the experience of any one living peculiarly ours, being our first attempt at a that a picnic has ever passed off as it ought return for months of dinners and balls and

has not before its termination hearty hospitalities, such as are dispensed caused some one or more present to state, nowhere but in a colony ;-the only sort of imply, or think, that had they only known return which it lay in our power to make, what was going to happen, they would never for the architect of Alfredsburg Barracks, have come ? If haply such there be, let him among other severe privations with which come forward and advertise me and the public he saw fit to distress the garrison, had omitof the remarkable instance, authenticating ted to supply the very obvious and vital rehis information with the names and opinions quirement of a ball-room, without which, of two unimpeachable eye-witnesses, and he either his own or another's, what officer in shall receive, by the very next post, the cur- her majesty's service can possibly achieve rent number of Fraser's Magazine as a the amount of exercise necessary for preguerdon. I frankly confess that I have no serving the physique of a soldier? This such experience. Of all the hundred and gross dereliction of duty on the part of a one contretemps, physical or moral, atmos- government official compelled our entertainpheric or geological, culinary or bacchana- ment to be of an al fresco nature. So a lian, equine, bovine, human, or entomologi- picnic was resolved upon, invitations were cal, to which picnics are liable, always one, issued for that day week, and an hour mengenerally many, have intervened whenever tioned at which the party was to assemble I have been present. Sometimes I may in sleighs at a given point in the middle of have been personally in fault : often I can- the river St. Alfred. not have been. I take it rather to be an in- Does any reader start at our choosing the herent vice of the picnic, that so many being middle of a broad and mighty river as a the well-regulated families necessary to its rendezvous for horses and sleighs, and find composition, the possibility of accidents pred- involuntary images of Pharaoh and his host icated of such households singly, becomes (with their chariot wheels already taken off) by mere multiplication a certainty. And un- crowding into his mind? To such be it told til we can go a gypsying by special train to that during many months of the year the Utopia, this state of things will assuredly frozen Canadian rivers are as highways to last.

the countries through which they pass, as Yet have I known one such excursion boulevards to the towns upon their banks ; which approached as near perfection as any- ay, and boulevards with avenues on them thing out of Utopia well could approach, and too, for no invention being yet perfected for that, owing not to the paucity but the fre- supplying them with gas-lamps, the bequency of its casualties, and not to any free- nighted traveller is guided along their shortdom from alarm and inconvenience, but to a est or most frequented routes by rows of spirit which looked upon alarm and incon-pines of decent growth, cut from the neighvenience as the great objects of the day, boring forest and planted bodily in the ice, and came determined to derive only increased where, embalmed by frost and snow, they enjoyment from all the known difficulties perform the role of most respectable live and dangers of the proceeding.

trees till the thaws of April or May involve It was not in England : both the dangers them and their soil in a common ruin. and the spirit which enjoyed them would be Among these trees, and upon the magnificent impossible here. Nor was it in summer, or open roadway which they garnished, was it eren colonial good temper might have arranged that our party should assemble, melted under colonial heat. This most suc- there to await further orders, like an out. cessful réunion was achieved in the month of ward-bound fleet, to which the admiral canDecember and the neighborhood of the good not divulge the contents of his papers till town of Alfredsburg, which, as everybody after twenty-four hours' sail from harbor. knows, is one of the principal cities of Up- The next object was to fix on a spot in per Canada.

the forest for the bivouac; and to this end We got it up at the barracks. Every a messenger was despatched to the Indian camp for the mighty Moween, or " the nation on the globe, has regularly avoided Great Bear." He came, the descendent of America, fearing doubtless that from a more a long line of princes, the chief by heritage, general intimacy with the transatlantic the mightiest in prowess, of the great tribe bush, his loving but fickle subjects might of Micmacs, whose dominions have included gain for the next barricades in the Rue St. the whole of the St. Alfred country, even Denis or Faubourg St. Antoine “ ideas from the sea until thou comest unto the which would be by no means “ Napolesecond and third cataracts ; he came, the onian.” To these revolutionary accommoslayer of the moose and cariboo, the leader dations snow is, however, another revoluof the feast and dance, tall and dignified in tion,-a “great leveller” to the chaotic stature, handsome and swarthy in counte- masses,-high on the superstratum of which nance, and withal as dirty and ragged and it is in many places possible, with the occadisreputable a scoundrel as the Savoyard sional assistance of an axe, to ply the luxuof the most excruciating organ in the quiet- rious sleigh, or the more fatiguing snowest street in London. Ragged, however, as shoe, with a calm indifference to the tangled he appears ordinarily, he can array himself nature of the ground underneath. It is this with some taste when he thinks the occasion ability to penetrate deeper than usual into is sufficient; and dirty or clean, he was the forest which gives one peculiar charm most important to the present arrangement to the Canadian Snow Picnic. and future management of the picnic. But the Muse shall relate who were the

His heart being opened by brandy, Mo- invited guests, and what sleighs assembled ween undertook the whole affair directly. at the trysting-place. Last in arrival, but “Oh! I guess me and Saul and Gabe, and first in mention, came the great generaltwo tree more, we make tracks in morning commandant himself, the veteran of Hydewith one treboggin, and make camp up Po- park and Aldershot, the victor in many a kioctikook ; then you see tracks and find us, hotly contested engagement of blank carts'pose about five miles up Pokioctikook.” ridge. With that taste for procession and He paused, took three puffs of smoke, and display which so conduces to military authorthen added, “ You bring plenty brandy, of ity Sir Martin Etty dashed into the throng course;" which proposition being greeted with a brilliant staff of three sleighs, the with assent, considering business now over, vanguard of his force being composed of he finished his present instalment of that himself, Lady Etty, and their two younger liquor at a draught, gave a "who-oop" which daughters, while Fox, his military secretary, was nigh to breaking the windows, executed in command of his eldest daughter, formed an extemporary dance which was nigher still the centre, and his two boys led-yea, bearto breaking the floor, seized the last cheroot led—by their tutor, brought up the rear. from Spencer's open cigar-case, and stag- The éclat of the arrival was, however, somegered away.

what marred by this rear-guard, whose Now the Pokioctikook is a smaller river learned driver seemed scarcely sufficiently which joins the St. Alfred nearly opposite conversant with the properties of the modern Alfredsburg, flowing down thereinto through biga, and turning his sleigh at too sharp an some of the wildest and finest forest scenery angle upon "glare” ice, allowed it to slew in Upper Canada. Save on the rough at- round till it got before the horses, and tempt at a road made by distant settlers whirled on automotously (as is the manner along, and often in the course of the stream, of a sleigh) dragging them helplessly and this country is in summer impassable, the ignominiously behind, and drifting well fallen timber and broken underwood forming down upon the rest of the party assembled everywhere that one vast network of barri- with an irregular rotatory motion, like a cade of which those only who have pene- comet with a very unwieldy tail. Fortutrated into the “forest primaval" can form nately, a casual breastwork of snow brought any conception. There is no fortifier like up the impending engine of destruction just nature ; and I cannot but admire the far. when it threatened an instant collision, and sighted sagacity of his majesty the present the only result was a great laugh at the exEmperor of the French, who, while interfer- pense of the tutor, who may, however, have ing in the internal affairs of every other designed it to impress upon his pupils the

a

grammatical paradox that though “slew” word in Canada. Were our great lexicogis the perfect of " slaying," it is something rapher happily pow alive, we might expect very imperfect in “sleighing."

to read in his next edition : Brilliant, too, was the crowd already gath- MUFFIN, v. n. To monopolize continered, and thus miraculously saved from ually the exclusive society of the same indecimation, for winter is," the season” at dividual member of the opposite sex, with Alfredsburg when all the rank and fashion a view more to immediate amusement than come into town from their less civilized to eventual matrimony. settlements up the country. Senators with “MUFFIN, N. S., com. gen., but mostly fem. unexpected handles to their names, and One so monopolizing, or whose society is so their wives who wished the handles would monopolized.” Followed doubtless by quocarry double, and very rough sons, and very tations from these very pages (for where inblooming daughters. Though absent was deed could he find higher authority ?) as exthe bishop himself, were not his lordship's amples of the word's use. Its derivation is wife, daughter, and coachman waiting in his rather a moot point, but I incline to look for lordship's own sleigh, -blue, with red "run- it in the fact of the small tea-party element ners," as an episcopal sleigh ought to be ? somewhat predominating in Canadian enterand was not the clerical interest amply tainments, at which the nice young men represented by the further presence of the present might with some sentiment apply archdeacon, and his son the curate, both this simile to the refreshment which they outside, and their numerous household all liked best to take with their tea. It would inside the capacious family ark ? which ark, thus be a cognate compliment to that which being rested on a small snowy Ararat formed gave to the beauties of a former generation by a capricious drift on the ice, gave to the the name of “toasts ;” and though in the two reverend gentlemen the appearance of latter case the mere mention of the adored being in a pulpit and about to address the object's name in her absence was supposed assemblage. And Winbush was there, to add that relish to the cup for which the whom men style Dick, with his wife and former required her presence, and the palm boys, the most successful agriculturist, and for subtlety of compliment thus rests unwithal the heartiest and best fellow, in the doubtedly with our forefathers, I think that Alfredsburg neighborhood. And little Judge in sobriety and delicacy at least, the modern McPie was there, under the care and orders phrase will be admitted to have a great adof his shrill, noisy wife; but the fair Miss vantage over its Bacchanalian predecessor. Baby, their daughter, where was she? Had However originally derived, it is now the she not the whole season “ muffined" with name of, I repeat, a great and noble instituWarwick of ours, and where should she be tion, differing from any cis-atlantic process but by his side in his own hired sleigh, her of the kind in the thorough recognition and pert little nose and large blue eyes alone countenance accorded to it by all parties. A visible from beneath a mountain of robes primitive society, if wanting in refinement, and furs, which the gallant and anxious is certainly the more conspicuous in common Warwick had supplied to keep his “muffin " sense; and when young John Alden of the hot? And other muflining was apparent, new Burntwood settlement, and pretty little adding greatly to the general effect and in- Priscilla Mayflower of Alfredsburg, take cviterest of the cortege ; greatly, also, to the dent delight in each other's companionship, general amusement, when, for some unex- what can be more natural or sensible than plained causo, each sleigh so occupied en- to permit them to enjoy it on all reasonable deavored on starting for the woods to keep occasions ? They are tacitly recognized as in the rear of all the rest, and could with muffining, and it is thenceforth spoken of difficulty be persuaded to advance at all. with as little surprise and curiosity as if they

It is a great institution is muffining. The were engaged or married. Anent it no pryword “muffin,” in the sense in which it is ing and tattling old maid sits whispering in thus used, is not, that I am aware, to be the ear in a corner : it is treated as a maifound in Johnson's or any other dictionary ter of course, and is known upon the house of our tongue, English or American; but tops of society. No fidgety mamma whisks is nevertheless an authentic and received off Priscilla under her ruthless wing, to lecture

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