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The Words appropriated to Poetry will be distimis guished by some Mark prefixed, or will be known by having no Authorities but those of Poets.

Of antiquated, or obsolete Words, none will be inserted but such as are to be found in Authors who wrote since the Accession of Elizabeth, from which we date the golden Age of our Language ; and of these many might be omitted, but that the Reader may require, with an Appearance of Reason, that no Difficulty should be left unresolved in Books which he finds himself invited to read, as confessed and established Models of Stile. These will be likewise pointed out by fome Note of Exclusion, but not of Disgrace.

The Words which are found only in particular Books, will be known by the single Name of him that has used them; but such will be omitted, unless either their Propriety, Elegance, or Force, or the Reputation of their Authours affords some extraordinary Reason for their Reception.

Words used in burlesque and familiar Compofitions, will be likewise mentioned with their proper Authorities; such as dudgeon, from Butler, and leafing, from Prior ; and will be diligently characterised by Marks of Distincion.

Barbarous, or impure Words and Expressions, may be branded with some Note of Infamy, as they are carefully to be eradicated wherever they are found; and they occur too frequently even in the best Writers: As in Pope :

in endless Error hurl'd,
'Tis these that early taint the female Soul.

In Addison :

Attend to what a lesser Muse indites.

And

And in Dryden

A dreadful Quiet felt; and worfer far

Than Arms-If this part of the Work can be well performed it will be equivalent to the Proposal made by Boileau to the Academicians, that they should review all their polite Writers, and correct such Impurities as might be found in them, that their Authority might not contribute, at any distant Time, to the Depravation of the Language.

With Regard to Questions of Purity, or Propriety, I was once in doubt whether I should not attribute too much to myself, in attempting to decide them, and whether my Province was to extend

beyond the Proposition of the Question, and the Dirplay of the Suffrages on each Side ; but I have been since determined, by.your Lordship’s Opinion, to interpose my own Judgment, and shall therefore endeavour to support what appears to me most consonant to Grammar and Reason. Aufonius thought that Modesty forbad him to plead Inability for a Talk to which Cæfar had judged him equal.

Cur me polje negem pore quod ille putat ? And I may hope, my Lord, that since you, whose Authority in our Language is so generally acknowledged, have commissioned me to declare my own Opinion, I shall be considered as exercising a Kind of vicarious Jurisdiction, and that the Power which might have been denied to my own Claim, will be readily allowed me as the Delegate of your Lordfhip.

In citing Authorities, on which the Credit of every Part of this work must depend, it will be proper to observe fome obvious Rules; such as of preferring Writers of the first Reputation to those of an inferior Rank; of noting the Quotations with Accu

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racy; and of felceling, when it can be conveniently done, such Sentences, as, besides their immediate Use, may give Pleasure or Instruction, by conveying fome Elegance of Language, or fome Precept of Prudence, or Piety.

It has been asked, on some Occasions, who shall judge the Judges? And fince, with regard to this Dulign, a Question may arise by what Authority the Authorities are felected, it is necessary to obviate it, by declaring that many of the Writers whose Testimonies will

be alleuged, were felected by Mr. Pope ; of whom, I may be justified in affirming, that were he still alive, follicitous as he was for the Success of this Work, he would not be difpleafed that I have undertaken it.

It will be proper that the Quotations be ranged according to the Ages of their Authours ;, and it will afford an agreeable Amufement, if, to the Words and Phrases which are not of our own Growth, the Name of the Writer who firft introduced them can be affixed ; and if, to Words which are now antiquated, the Authority be fubjoined of him who last admitted them. Thus, for fathe and buxom, now obsolete, Milton may be cited.

-Thee Mountain Oak
Stands fiath'd to Heaven--

-He with broad Sails
Winnow'd the buxom Air-

By this Method every Word will have its History, and the Reader will be informed of the gradual Changes of the Language, and have before his Eyes the Rise of some Words, and the Fall of others. But Observations so minute and accurate are to be desired rather than expected : And if Use be carefully supplied, Curiosity must fometimes bear its Disappointments.

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Thisy This, my Lord, is my Idea of an English Dictionary; a Dictionary by which the Pronunciation of our Language may be fixed, and its Attainment facilitated; by which its Purity may be preserved, its Use ascertained, and its Duration lengthened. And though, perhaps, to correct the Language of Nations by Books of Grammar, and amend their Manners by Discourses of Morality, may be Talks equally difficult ; yet, as it is unavoidable to wish, it is natural likewise to hope, that your Lordship's Patronage may not be wholly loft; that it may contribute to the Preservation of ancient, and the Improvement of modern Writers; that it may promote the Reformation of those Tranllators, who, for Want of understanding the characteristical Difference of Tongues, have formed a chaotic Dialect of heterogeneous Phrafes ; and awaken to the Care of purer Diction fome Men of Genius, whose Attention to Argument makes them negligent of Stile, or when it brings Gold, mingles it with

, , When I furvey the Plan which I have laid before you, I cannot, my Lord, but confess, that I am frighted at its Extent, and, like the Soldiers of far, look on Britain as a new World, which it is almoft Madness to invade. But I hope, that though I should not complete the Conquest, I shall at least discover the Coast, civilize Part of the Inbabitants, and make it easy for some other Adventurer to proceed farther, to reduce them wholly to Subjection, and settle them under Laws.

We are taught by the great Roman orator, that every Man fhould propose to himself the highest Degree of Excellence, but that he may stop with Honour at the Second or the Third : Though therefore my Performance should fall below the Excellence of other Dictionaries, I may obtain, at least, the Praise of having endeavoured well ; nor shall I think it any

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Reproach Reproach to my Diligence, that I have retired with out a Triumph, from a Contest with united Acae demies, and long Successions of learned Compilers. I cannot hope, in the warmest Moments, to preserve so much Caution through so long a Work, as not often to fink into Negligence, or to obtain fo much Knowledge of all its Parts, as not frequently to fail by Ignorance. I expect that sometimes the Defire of Accuracy will urge me to Superfluities, and sometimes the Fear of Prolixity betray me to Omissions ; that in the Extent of such Variety, I shall be often bewildered ; and in the Mazes of such Intricacy, be frequently entangled ; that in one Part Refinement will be subtilised beyond Exactness, and Evidence dilated in another beyond Perspicuity. Yet I do not despair of Approbation from those who, knowing the Uncertainty of Conjecture, the Scantinefs of Knowledge, the Fallibility of Memory, and the Unsteadiness of Attention, can compare the Causes of Error with the Means of avoiding it, and the Extent of Art with the Capacity of Man ; and whatever be the Event of my Endeavours, I shall pot easily regret an Attempt which has procured me the Honour of appearing thus publickly,

My Lord,

Your Lordship's most obedient,

And most humble Servant,

SAM, JOHNSON,

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