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the Miseries of War. The Rage of War, however mitigated, will always fill the World with Calamity and Horror: Let it not then be unneceffarily extended; let Animofity and Hoftility ceafe together; and no Man be longer deemed an Enemy, than while his Sword is drawn against us.
The Effects of these Contributions may, perhaps, reach still further. Truth is beft fupported by Virtue: We may hope from thofe who feel or who fee our Charity, that they fhall no longer deteft as Herefy that Religion, which makes its Profeffors the Followers of Him, who has commanded us to do good " to them that hate us.'
THOUGHTS On AGRICULTURE;
ANCIENT AND MODERN:
With an Account of the Honour that is due to an ENGLISH FARMER.
GRICULTURE, in the primeval Ages, was the common Parent of Traffick; for the Opulence of Mankind then confifted in Cattle, and the Product of Tillage; which are now very effential for the Promotion of Trade in general, but more particularly fo to fuch Nations as are most abundant in Cattle, Corn, and Fruits. The Labour of the Farmer gives Employment to the Manufacturer, and yields a Support for the other Parts of a Community: It is now the Spring which fets the whole grand Machine of Commerce in Motion; and the Sail could not be fpread without the Affiftance of the Plough. But, though the Farmers are of fuch Utility in a State, we find them in general too much difregarded among the politer Kind of People in the prefent Age: While we cannot help obferving the Honour that Antiquity has always paid to the Profeffion of the Hufbandman: Which naVOL. II. turally
turally leads us into fome Reflections upon that Occafion.
Though Mines of Gold and Silver should be exhaufted, and the Species made of them loft; though Diamonds and Pearls should remain concealed in the Bowels of the Earth, and the Womb of the Sea; though Commerce with Strangers be prohibited; though all Arts, which have no other Object than Splendor and Embellishment, fhould be abolished; yet, the Fertility of the Earth alone would afford an abundant Supply for the Occafions of an industrious People, by furnishing Subfiftence for them, and fuch Armies as fhould be mustered in their Defence. We, therefore, ought not to be furprized, that Agriculture was in fo much Honour among the Ancients : For it ought rather to feem wonderful that it should ever cease to be so, and that the most neceffary and moft indifpenfible of all Profeffions fhould have fallen into any Contempt.
Agriculture was in no Part of the World in higher Confideration than Egypt, where it was the particular Object of Government and Policy: Nor was any Country ever better peopled, richer, or more powerful. The Satrapa, among the Affyrians and Perfians, were rewarded, if the Lands in their Governments were well cultivated; but were punished, if that Part of their Duty was neglected. Africa abounded in Corn; but the most famous Countries. were Thrace, Sardinia, and Sicily.
Cato, the Cenfor, has juftly called Sicily the Magazine and nurfing Mother of the Roman People, who were fupplied from thence with almost all their Corn, both for the Ufe of the City, and the Subfiftence of her Armies: Though we alfo find in Livy, that the Romans received no inconfiderable Quantities of Corn from Sardinia. But, when Rome had made herfelf Miftrefs of Carthage and Alexandria, Africa and Egypt became her Store-houses: For
thofe Cities fent fuch numerous Fleets every Year, freighted with Corn to Rome, that Alexandria alone annually fupplied twenty Millions of Bufhels: And, when the Harveft happened to fail in one of thefe Provinces, the other came in to its Aid, and fupported the Metropolis of the World; which, without this Supply, would have been in Danger of perifhing by Famine. Rome actually faw herfelf reduced to this Condition under Auguftus; for there remained only three Days Provifion of Corn in the City: And that Prince was fo full of Tenderness for the People, that he had refolved to poifon himfelf, if the expected Fleets did not arrive before the Expiration of that Time; but they came; and the Prefervation of the Romans was attributed to the good Fortune of their Emperor: But wife Precautions were taken to avoid the like Danger for the future.
When the Seat of Empire was tranfplanted to Conftantinople, that City was fupplied in the fame Manner: And when the Emperor Septimus Severus died, there was Corn in the publick Magazines for feven Years, expending daily 75,000 Bushels in Bread, for 600,000 Men.
The Ancients were no less industrious in the Cultivation of the Vine than in that of Corn, though they applied themselves to it later: For Noah planted it by Order, and difcovered the Ufe that might be made of the Fruit, by preffing out, and preferving the Juice. The Vine was carried by the Offspring of Noah into the feveral Countries of the World: But Afia was the first to experience the Sweets of this Gift; from whence it was imparted to Europe and Africa. Greece and Italy, which were diftinguished in fo many other Respects, were particularly fo by the Excellency of their Wines. Greece was most celebrated for the Wines of Cyprus, Lesbos, and Chio; the former of which is in great Esteem at prefent: Though the Cultivation of the Vine has
been generally fuppreffed in the Turkish Dominions. As the Romans were indebted to the Grecians for the Arts and Sciences, fo were they likewife for the Improvement of their Wines; the best of which were produced in the Country of Capua, and were called the Maffic, Calenian, Formian, Cæcuban, and Falernian, fo much celebrated by Horace. Domitian passed an Edict for deftroying all the Vines, and that no more should be planted throughout the greatest Part of the Weft; which continued almoft two hundred Years afterwards, when the Emperor Probus employed his Soldiers in planting Vines in Europe, in the fame Manner as Hannibal had formerly employed his Troops in planting Olive-trees in Africa. Some of the Ancients have endeavoured to prove, that the Cultivation of Vines is more beneficial than any other Kind of Hufbandry: But, if this was thought fo in the Time of Columella, it is very different at prefent; nor were all the Ancients of his Opinion, for feveral gave the Preference to pafture Lands.
The Breeding of Cattle has always been confidered as an important Part of Agriculture. The Riches of Abraham, Laban, and Job, confifted in their Flocks and Herds. We alfo find from Latinus in Virgil, and Ulyffes in Homer, that the Wealth of thofe Princes confifted in Cattle. It was likewife the fame among the Romans, till the Introduction of Money, which put a Value upon Commodities, and ellablished a new Kind of Barter. Varro has not difdained to give an extenfive Account of all the Beafts that are of any Ufe to the Country, either for Tillage, Breed, Carriage, or other Conveniencies of Man. And Cato, the Cenfor, was of Opinion, that the Feeding of Cattle was the most certain and fpeedy Method of enriching a Country.
Luxury, Avarice, Injustice, Violence, and Ambition, take up their ordinary Refidence in populous. Cities: While the hard and laborious Life of the Hufbandman