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ant voice, as the undoubted production of the Apostles, or inspired apostolic helpers, should be assigned the first rank. To others, regarding which & por. tion of the early church was in doubt, ha concedes only an inferior and limited authority: They are to a certain extent authentic testimonials of primitive Christianity, and yet they are at a partial remove from the purity of our Lord's teaching and that of his immediate Apostles.

The Epistle to the Hebrews he supposés not to have been written by Paul, but by one of his companions and fellow-laborers, a few years after his death, probably by Apollog. The Epistles of James and Jude, and the Revelation of John, were written by the persons whose names they severally hear. These, however, were not apostles, but other persons of pote in the church, whose position entitled them to speak and write with the authority they here assume. James and Jude were the brothers of our Lord, the sons of Mary, and are to be distinguished from James, the son of Alpheus, or James the Less, and Jude his brother. John, who wrote the Revelation, was not the son of Zebedee, the Evangelist, or the author of the Epistles, but another John, of whom mention is made in the apostolic period, and who was an auditor of the immediate disciples of our Lord. First Timothy and Second Peter were written in the names of the A postles Paul and Peter, but they belong to the second century of the Christian era, and are entitled to less consideration than any of these deutero-canonical writings, as he esteems them, though they tally essentially with the apostolic doctrines.

Much as we may regret these conclusions, and untenable as we regard them, we cannot but admit that the discussions are conducted with great apparent candor and a seemingly sincere love of truth. The arguments are frankly and fairly stated, and thus the materials for an independent judgment are afforded to the student even when the balance is struck the wrong way, and a weight con. ceded to objections to which they are not in reality entitled.

The Early Years of Christianity. By E. De Pressensé, D. D. Transits weapons in the strife, and all, when the smoke and dust of battle have cleared away, are found to have been driven from the field. The combatants, with whom it has had to contend, have always been the master-minds of the world, and its champions have been of the same calibre. Its believers have risen to the rank of the highest civilization, by force of the teaching and training it has given. It is the religion which prospers best the more thoroughly it is tested, and where intellect is strongest, most active and clear.

lated by Annie Harwood. “The Apostolic Era.” New York:

Charles Scribner & Co. No other religion has been subjected, through all its history, to such tests as Christianity has stood. Taking its rise among an educated people, in an age of uncommon intelligence, and preached, in the first instance, by men of no superior education, it vindicated itself, from the first, to the conviction of many of the best informed as superior to all previous teaching. It has been encoun. tered by enemies of great ability, in every age, and has always come off with the victory, when reliance has been put on spiritual arms. Platonic philosophers met it with their subtile inquiry, and found its teachings worthy of the gravest attention, and some of them became its converts; Stoics resisted it with all the force of their stubborn argument and inflexible moral system, and melted away before it. All the hostility of ancient learning failed to arrest its progress. Local authorities and the imperial government put forth their efforts to extin. guish it by violence; and the issue was their own overthrow, and the establish. ment of Christianity on the throne. Greek dialectics and Roman legislation alike failed in the conflict with it. All succeeding philosophers have, at one time or another, tried their strength against it, and every new science has tested

Inquiry into the origin of such a religion, and the character and labors of its first teachers cannot fail to be of intense interest at a time of profound and earnest thinking, when some of its effects are pervading the world to an unprecedented extent, while its enemies were never more insidious or better armed, Re-examination of the facts of early Christian history, and the sources of its power, is at present the great subject of serious thought. The Life of Christ and the lives of his Apostles are discussed from the separate points of view of all the different parties, as divided in relation to the subject.

In this controversy none have attained a more honorable distinction than Dr. Pressensé. His work on the religions before Christ, on the Life of Christ, and now on the Apostolic Era, cover the whole of that period of history. His treatment of the subject is animated and rapid, but packs much information and cogent argument into small space, and in a style clear and attractive. This volume, though not large, will be an important addition to the literature of the controversy.

Light-Ilouses and Light-Ships, a Descriptive and Historical Account of

their Construction and Organization. By W. H. Davenport Adams.

New York: Charles Scribner & Co. Mr. Scribner's Illustrated Library of Wonders has already established for itself a standing of high scientific importance. It has already presented some of the most valuable discoveries in nature, in antiquities, in the structure of the human frame, and many of the achievements of art, in forms not only accessible, but highly attractive to the common reader. In the style of effort, now so generally made by scientific men themselves, to bring truth and recondite facts before the general public, this series of books is a happy success. Guided by the practical sagacity and Christian spirit of the publisher, whose conception it is, it will no doubt continue to be, as it has so far been, a means of making useful knowledge exceedingly entertaining. A Manual of the Ancient History of the East to the Commencement of the

Median Wars. By Francois Lenormant, Sub-Librarian of the Imperial Institute of France; and E. Chevalier, member of the Royal Asiatic Society, London. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co.

London: Asher & Co. In continuation of their history of the pre-Hellenic world, Lenormant and Chevalier have presented, in this volume, the first great Aryan empire, and the latest of the Semitic; following the latter down to the extinction of their independence, and the former up to the summit of Persian success. Under the head of Aryan it may be thought that the Greeks and Hindoos should have been included; but the Greeks, inasmuch as they created a new style of culture, which had not yet been generally recognized, belong, not to the earlier, but to the later antiquity; and India, for the present, has been omitted on account of the utter lack of definite information touching all that part of her existence prior to the Greek invasion.

Over the whole of the ancient Oriental period, where not included in the Hebrew narrative, there is a very generally extended veil of doubt. The testimony of monuments is positive as to isolated facts: but in many cases hopelessly disconnected, leaving the very foundations of history matter of conjecture. In their former volume these authors granted too much credence to such conjectures ; in the present there is not so large a proportion of that tantalizing material, and a great part of its field comes within the orbit of Herodotus, where the results of antiquarian research give and receive confirmation from connected history.

The subjects of the volume are the Medes and Persians; the construction of the Medo-Persian empire, until the reign of Darius Hystaspis, the Phænicians until their subjugation to Persia; Carthage until after the first treaty with Rome, and the opening of the first Sicilian war; and the Arabians under the three heads of Yemen, Hejaz, and Arabia Petræa.

The narrative is compact, and yet spirited; the arrangement well designed for instruction; and the style concise but easy and clear. For the purpose of giving a connected view of ancient Oriental history, according to the utmost of the resources which scholarship and the work of the antiquarian have amassed, and giving it unburdened by discussions, there is nothing else equal to this work of Lenormant and Chevalier. Thoughts on Religious Experience. By the Rev. Archibald Alexander,

D. D. Presbyterian Board of Publication. Dr. Alexander was eminent for his learning, sagacity, and wisdom; for his theological insight, and more still for his devoutness and experimental piety. But the gift in which he was most unrivalled was that of guiding and quickening the religious experience of others; of awakening devout feeling, probing the heart, and exposing morbid and pseudo-religious exercises. This, not less than his great abilities and acquirements, gave him an influence for many years scarcely equalled by any divine in the American church. This volume contains the aroma of his spiritual wisdom and experience. We recollect the great benefit we derived from its heavenly instructions when they first appeared. And among all recent issues of the press we hardly know of any more precious reading for Christians whether young or old. The True Unity of Christ's Church; being a Renewed Appeal to the

Friends of the Redeemer, on Primitive Christian Union and the History of its Corruption. To which is now added a Modified Plan for the Reunion of all Evangelical Christians; Embracing as Integral Parts the World's Evangelical Alliance, with all its National Branches. By S. S. Schmucker, D. D. New York: Anson D, T.

Randolph & Co. 1870. The substance of this volume was published more than thirty years ago. It now appears with modifications in its third edition. The plan of union advocated by the venerable author is a sort of federative union among the various Evangelical churches, having a creed substantially like that of the Evangelical Alliance, but without any regular or formal ecclesiastical jurisdiction, this being left to the several bodies composing the federation and represented in it by their delegates. This scheme has been indorsed by many names eminent in various communions. It seems the only practicable way of bringing Evangelical Christians to show a united front against Romanism and Rationalism, -a consummation for which so many long and pray. It escapes the difficulties involved in any attempt at formal ecclesiastical union of all Protestants in their present condition, while it insures most of the advantages to be hoped for from such a union.

God Sovereign and Man free ; or, the Doctrine of Divine Foreordination

and Man's Free Agency stated, illustrated, and proved from the

Scriptures. By N. L. Rice, D. D. Presbyterian Board of Publication. This compact and lucid treatise proves beyond a peradventure man's freedom and God's sovereignty, even in respect to man's free acts, and that such sovereignty and freedom are mutually consistent, whether men are able to see how and why they are so or not. A feather will rise and a stone fall whether men can comprehend these facts or not. These trutlıs, in their nature, proofs, grounds, and consequences are ably unfolded and vindicated by Dr. Rice; and such explanation and vindication were never more important than now. The Lord's Inquiries answered in the words of Scripture ; a Year-Book

of Scripture Texts. Arranged by G. Washington Moon, Member of the Council of the Royal Society of Literature. London: Hatchards, 187 Piccadilly. New York: Pott & Amery, 5 Cooper Union.

1870. A very neat little volume, in which the aim iudicated in the title-page is well executed. The Juno Stories. Volume I. “Juno and Georgie," By Jacob Abbott,

author of the “Franconia Stories,” “The Rolio Books," " The

Young Christian Series," etc., etc. New York: Dodd & Mead. The Wise Men: who they were ; and how they came to Jerusalem. By

Francis W. Upham, LL. D., Professor of Mental Philosophy in Rut

gers Female College, City of New York. New York: Sheldon & Co. White as Snow. By Edward Garrett, author of “Occupation of a Re

tired Life,” “ Crust and Cake," and "Ruth Garrett.” New York:

Anson D. F. Randolph & Co. Summer Drift-wood for the Winter Fire. By Rose Porter. New York:

Anson D. F. Randolph & Co. The following books have been received from the Presbyterian Board of Publication :Tales of the Family, or Home Life. Illustrated. The Two Voyages, or Midnight and Daylight. Aspenridge. By Julia Carrie Thompson. Tales of the Persecuted. Chronicles of an Old Manor-House. By G. E. Sargent. Ivan and Vasilesa, or Modern Life in Russia. Sweet Herbs. San-Poh, or North of the Hills. A Narrative of Missionary Work in an

Out-Station in China. By Rev. John L. Nevius,

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PAMPHLETS AND PERIODICALS.

The United States Internal Revenue and Tariff Law (Passed July 13,

1870), together with the Act Imposing Taxes on Distilled Spirits and Tobacco, and for other purposes (approved July 20, 1868), and such other Acts or Parts of Acts relating to Internal Revenue as are nou in effect ; with Tables of Taxes, a copious Analytical Index, and full Sectional Notes. Compiled by Horace E. Dresser. New York:

Harper & Brothers, Publishers. It is only necessary to say that this pamphlet is true to its title, to evince its great value to vast multitudes of people. Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of the Uni

ted States of America, with an Appendix. By the Stated Clerk. New Series. Vol. I., A. D. 1870. New York: Presbyterian Board

of Publication. 1870. This first volume of the Minutes of the Re-united Church is of special importance. It evinces the magnitude of the Presbyterian body by its own size, extending as it does, to nearly 500 closely printed octavo pages. None who wish to be conversant with the condition of the Presbyterian Church can do without it. So far as we can judge, the prodigious labor required to edit it has been well performed, and the result is creditable to the stated clerk of the Assembly. Religion in the State and in the School. A Refutation of certain Reason

ing and Statements. By Rufus W. Clark, D. D. New York:

American and Foreign Christian Union, 47 Bible House. 1870. A vigorous refutation of the articles of' Dr. Spear in the Independent, which aim to prove the godless or non-religious character of our government in its relations to education. The Disciples of our Lord during the Personal Ministry. A Lecture De

livered in Queen Street Hall, Edinburgh, on the 24th August, 1869, before the Students

' Theological Society of the United Presbyterian Church. By William Lee, D. D., Minister of Roxburgh. Edinburgh

and London: William Blackwood & Sons, 1869. A well-considered tract, developing important truths on a subject quite worthy of attention. Christianity the Ultimate and Universal Religim of Man. A Sermon

preached in the Brick Church, New York, May 1, 1870, for the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church. By the Rev. Leroy J. Halsey, D. D., Chicago, Ill. Published at the reqnest of the Executive Committee. New York: Board of Foreign Mis

sions, 23 Centre Street. 1870. An able presentation of a glorious theme. Modern Spiritualism: What are we to think of it! By the Rev. Nathan

L. Rice, D. D., Presidont of Westminster College, Missouri. Pres.

byterian Board of Publication. An exposure of that monstrosity which is as properly called spiritualism as a bastard is called a legitimate child, alike compact and clear, searching and anni

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