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studied them out alone. Printing, gunpowder, the mariner's
compass, porcelain, the making of paper, india-ink to stamp
it—such discoveries would make any nation proud, and im-
mortalize any people. Printing on wooden blocks she invented
in the year 177 of the Christian era; we invented printing in
1450. In the eighth century she had fifty-three thousand old,
and twenty-eight thousand new works in her public library.
The mariner's compass, without which America could not
have been discovered, or our nation have any existence, we
owe to China. A people making such great and useful dis-
coveries so early must be a great and interesting people.

She is also great in her manufactories. Her silk fabrics she
invented as original, and in beauty, durability, and excellence
they cannot be equalled or surpassed. Hundreds of years later
they were made in France and Italy, but these cannot compare
with those of China. The Queen's diamond must be cut in
Holland, and yet the art was well known in China for centu-
ries. Their tissue paper, out of rice, cannot be made by ns,
and no substitute for india-ink has been discovered. Untaught
and alone they studied these out. Except the steam-engine
and electric telegraph, there is no great invention they did not
originate. Then they can compare favorably with the pol-
ished nations of the world in manufactures.

China is likewise great in her system of internal improvements, and in this (steam excepted) excels most nations. They have easy and free intercourse through all the empire, and have had for hundreds of years. Napoleon's road over the Alps is the wonder of modern engineering, and yet they have roads over the Himalaya Mountains equalling the Simplon road over the Alps. They have two thousand canals, the great highways of travel, which serve also for irrigating and draining. Their agriculture is the best in the world. For hundreds of years they have been using the same land, supporting an immense population, and yet the soil is richer than ever. We boast much of our virgin soil, but it cannot surpass theirs. They have a bridge of granite at Fouchow, eight hundred years old. Here many of our bridges break down. If such a thing happens in China they bastinado the bụilder. All these works were built and in complete operation while the dark ages

lowered over Europe, and the civilized nations of France, Germany, and England bowed to priest and Pope, and monkish processions and worshipping old bones and relics were the earnest occupation of multitudes in polished Christian Europe. Certainly the contrast in civilization is in inany points in favor of China.

Great in her system of laws and languages. The great Roman empire in her palmiest days numbered 250,000,000; China exceeds 400,000,000. The Pandects of Justinian, the great law code of the Romans, so highly eulogized by Gibbon, was made late in the empire. The laws of China were codified 2,000 years ago. These laws, examined by the ablest British jurists, and commented on by the Ellinburgh Review, are pronounced the wisest and best of Asia, and will compare most favorably with the laws of the most civilized nations. These laws are revised every five years. This fact proves the Chinese not to be the stereotyped nation they are so often represented to be. In China they all read the same language. As the Roman empire was consolidated by the use of the Latin tongue and ours by the use of the English language, so China has preserved her empire and nationality by similar means. In these respects the comparison is not unfavorable for China

Great, too, in her literary systein; and in this they excel other nations. Popular education is more general, and the social structure, tested and tried through centuries, is more firmly established than in any other nation. All public offices are opened to graduates alone, without distinction of birth, nationality, or creed, and intelligence is the only legalized passport to office. The emperor is supreme, and yet the law binds him so that only literary graduates can be appointed to office. Compare this with England, France, or favored democratic America, and the palm must be awarded to China.

Great is she in her commercial advantages—an unrivalled system of internal communication—an immense, ingenious, active, and laborious people--a healthy climate—a sea-coast of several hundred miles in extent-a tonnage equal to that of England, France, or America. IIer merchants-shrewd business men--coming in contact with English, French, and Americans, fully equal them. The rich men scattered up and

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down through Asia are largely Chinese. As diplomats, as merchants, the universal testimony is--they are active, shrewd, sagacious men.

What is the present state of China ? As we in America, in our late war, extinguished many abuses and abolished slavery, so these Chinese, by their last European war, have done the same thing, freed themselves in a measure from the exclusive domination of an idolatrous religion. Now all religious are free, and Christianity is tolerated throughout the empire. The Radicals are in power. The uncle of the emperor and the leading viceroys side with and favor the foreigners. The cabinet of the emperor will compare favorably with the cabinets of France, England, or America. They have established a national college at Pekin ; a naval school like our Newport; and a military school like West Point. All these institutions are under the control of foreigners, principally British and Americans. In China they have no tolls upon their canals and bridges. Let Americans think of this, overridden by so many and mighty monopolies. They have no banks, no paper money. They have an income of three hundred and nineteen millions; in this being fourth on the globe. They have no public debt, though they have had many wars and internal commotions. Would that our civilized financiers could discover the secret. Taxes are very light. With our vast debt and enormous taxes, let us ponder this. There is a land with no debt and light taxes, and that land is China. IIere is a study for financiers of England, France, and America.*

The missionary! Who gave us true knowledge of this wonderful land? The missionary of the cross. Need we speak of the labors, the talents, the sacrifices of as noble a body of men as earth ever saw in modern times, rivalling and equalling the labors, talents, and sacrifices of Apostolic days? We cannot mention all: Morrison was the first apostle. He arrived in 1807,--for several long years he studied, toiled,

* The secret, as we believe, of there being no national debt is explained by the fact that when any debt is contracted by the government it is immediately paid, often by exorbitant levies on the people. Instead of a system of regular taxes, there is in vogue a system which sanctions much extortion at irregular times.-EDITOR.

translated, but in 1814 he brought out the first printed Chinese copy of the Holy Bible. He was assisted by an old manuscript copy found in the British Museum, and by an enlightened Chinese scholar, his first convert. A shrewd energetic, money-making company of East Indian merchants, who never paid out money except for valne received, recognized Morrison's services. They helped him publish his Chinese grammar, paid £15,000 to publish his dictionary, and made him Secretary of the Company. These books are the foundation of the chief commercial intercourse of France, England, and America with China—the recognized dialect or version of the China trade. All honor then throughout Christendom to Morrison the pioneer of the Christian world to the commerce, the Christianity, and civilization of China. What do we know about China? We take down the

? Chinese Repository from 1833 to 1851, edited by Dr. Bridg. man, and ably followed by G. Wells Williams, author of the “ Middle Kingdom," a name long favorably connected with the Chinese Empire. A practical printer, he made great improvements and simplified the process; a ripe and a thorough scholar, his services as interpreter of our various embassies in Japan and in China were invaluable to us.* Without war or bloodshed we obtained equal rights with France and England in 1859 and, as a reward, our government honored themselves by appointing Mr. Williams Secretary of Legation to China. America made a deep and lasting impression, and China has intrusted her fortunes to, and asked to be introduced to the family of Christian nations by our American Burlingame. Williams sowed the seed. Burlingame is the ripened fruit. The American Missionary brought about that treaty. Mr. Burlingame said he owed more to Williams than to any oth

The 22d of February Washington was born. The 22d of February witnessed the death of Anson Burlingame, the statesman and diplomatist of America. His career was unique and honorable. A true American, and yet his mind comprehended the genius of that wonderful empire. In him

er man.

* We have good evidence that Dr. Martin was also interpreter for the English and American embassies.--EDITOR.

was centred a rare combination of talents. Who can take his place and complete his unfinished work?

Again the missionary looms up before us. A new imperial college at Pekin must be established. Emancipated from Confucius, the best teachers must be given them. Dr. Martin, the missionary, is the man selected. A converted Chinaman has charge of the foundry and West Point school at Shanghai, and another convert directs the naval school at Fouchow. Euclid translated into Chinese by another missionary, Dr. Wylie, is the text-book of the school.

Rev. Dr. Hepburn, the missionary, and a thorough Japanese scholar, after several years of hard work, has just completed his dictionary of Japanese and English words. The first edition of 1,200 copies was soon exhausted, 300 copies being specially ordered by the Japanese government for the use of their scholars and officials. This work is printed at the mission press at Shanghai, brought there by Williams. On this work is founded our commercial intercourse with Japan. To Dr. Morrison, in China, Dr. Hepburn, in Japan, both Christian missionaries, the commercial world owes the foundation of our commerce with these important countries.* Do we not, however, in honesty owe a great debt to the missionary, and shall we be backward in acknowledging it?

Again, the Japanese government has established a national school at Jeddo, the capital, for their youth to be instructed in Japanese and English. Mr. Verbeck, another missionary, is at the head of that department, and has a class of 250 pupils. The Japanese government pay his salary, give him a house in which he resides, and furnish him a guard of honor. Martin in China, Verbeck in Japan, both missionaries, both at the head of the national schools in their respective capitals. The American missionary is giving into the hands of our merchants the prized commerce of the continent of Asia. The Christian missionary is the pioneer of the com


* We do not, indeed, forget that long before the time of Morrison or Hepburn the Dutch and Portuguese had a considerable trade with China and Japan. The medium of communication between the merchants and the natives is not exclugively the Chinese or Japanese as learned from Morrison or Hepburn, but likewise a corrupt form of the English.—EDITOR.

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