shows itself in nothing more plainly than in the corruption of language; this appears not only in words of an immoral meaning, but in imperfect words, in words whose original form has been changed, in ungrammatical expressions, and in wrong pronunciation. Many Armenians, for example, have not only no knowledge of the Armenian language, but a very imperfect knowledge of the Turkish, which they use. The wrong grammatical forms and the wrong pronunciation, which they learn in childhood, cling to them in after years. What we urge is, that all students of theology should be taught to read, write, and speak correctly the language which they are to use as preachers of the Gospel.

They should study mathematics as a mental discipline. The main question here is, that of the extent to which mathematical studies should be carried. Much will depend on the mental capacity of the students. Algebra and geometry at least should forın part of a four years' course.

The importance of natural science, mental and moral philosophy, cannot be disputed; the question of the amount of time that should be given to such studies is the only one on which there can be a great difference of opinion. Students should certainly acquire a knowledge of the general principles of these sciences, yet such studies should not be allowed to exclude the more important study of the Bible and systematic theology. Natural science and mental and moral philosophy should be studied with special reference to their relations to Christianity. Shall the students study English? We answer, yes; at least they should learn English well enough to use English text-books in preparing to preach. The study itself is a good mental discipline, while the knowledge acquired, to the extent mentioned, opens to a native preacher a treasurehouse filled with the ripe results of sanctified scholarship. A high authority in such matters has well said: “In the providence of God the English race occupy much the same place now in history which the Romans did in the time of Christ. They are the standard-bearers of the thought of all ages; their flag is in every sea; their influence brought in immediate contact with the life of every people. The English language is the store house of all the best thought of the

world. This thought is a divinely appointed instrumentality of culture, of intellectual growth and power for the race, steadily accumulating as the fruit of study, prayer, experience, observation. Whether we will or not, this influence will be exerted, in its baser elements or in its better; it cannot be hindered.” We may add, that whether the missionaries favor the study of English or not, the most active and intelligent of the native pastors and preachers will learn it; they will surmount every obstacle in order to avail themselves of the commentaries and theological treatises found in the English language. And they are right; every young man who has brains enough to go through a course of theological study is able to learn enough English to use English commentaries, and he should not only be permitted but required to do it. The evidences of Christianity, natural, doctrinal, and pastoral theology, are, of course, essential. The impression prevails, that young men in the theological seminaries in our foreign missions cannot grasp these subjects very thoroughly; this impression is probably not correct; from all we can learn on this point, we are inclined to think that such young men compare favorably with the same class in our own country. True they have never studied systems of logic, but they can see the force or weakness of an argument, and can appreciate a systematic and thorough presentation of a subject. Biblical and church history, homiletics and church polity must receive their proper share of attention. Much practical instruction in regard to public speaking, the composition and delivery of sermons, is necessary in order to make good preachers of the ordinary students in the mission theological seminaries. Throughout the whole course, the Bible should be made the most important of all text-books. All other discipline and all other acquisitions should be made to centre, as in a focus, on the Word of God. A sustained interest in the study of the Scriptures can only be secured by earnest and persevering efforts. Oriental minds are fond of speculation; the East is the hot-bed of wild fancies and dreams. Special care, therefore, should be taken to bind the attention of students to the revealed Word. To master thoronghly the divine revelation is the essential thing in preparing for the ministry. Just in proportion as native preachers attain this end, will they be able ministers of the New Testament; if they come short here, all their other attainments will be of little value.

Thus much in regard to the course of study; in putting this course to a practical application, of course mental discipline should be made of primary importance rather than the imparting of information.

4. We come now to another important question, viz.: What training shall candidates for a native ministry have, apart from that which they receive throngh the medium of books ?

We reply, they should be trained to regular habits of study. Such habits are worth more than volumes of information imparted to a student, yet few things are more difficult to secure in dealing with Orientals; they like to spend their time in idle talk; they need to be taught the value of time in reference to mental growth, and the importance of devoting a portion of each day, sacredly, to hard study.

They should also be trained to self-denial, while they are pursuing their studies. How this can be accomplished always may be a difficult question, but it is a matter of the first importance, and should be carefully weighed by those who have the immediate charge of our mission theological schools. Students in such schools are too apt to look upon missionary boards as their nursing mothers, mothers who are only too happy to supply their every want. If the young men in such schools are to become hardy soldiers of the cross, they must begin when in the theological schools. Such students should also be trained to aggressive work for Christ. By this we mean more than the preparation of good sermons, more than the care of a single flock. In the present state of God's work in the Turkish Empire, the evangelical churches should be emphatically aggressive, should be ready to send out their members everywhere preaching the Gospel and compelling men to come to the marriage, feast; but the churches will not have this character unless the pastors have it, and if the students do not catch something of this spirit while in the seminaries, the probability is that they will never catch it at all. Christ not only taught his disciples by word of mouth,

but he sent thein ont, and led them out, and showed them how to go about their great work. How did Paul deal with the young men whom he wished to make leaders in Christ's cause? Ile taught them, by example as well as by precept, that they should not always act on the defensive, that they should attack the enemy on his own ground, and attack him without fear and asking no favors. The pastors, who are to guide the churches now springing up where Paul labored, should be men of the same spirit.

Students should also be trained to intelligent self-reliance. In Eastern countries, where might too often makes right, men of really independent judgment are not often found ; people look up to their superiors. The first question is not, what do truth and duty require, but what is the opinion of those in authority. It is hard to bring even Christian men to think intelligently and act deliberately for themselves. The right kind of self-reliance is an important part of the education of a native ministry, especially among subject races like the nominal Christian races in Turkey.

Candidates for a native ministry should be taught also to regard the preaching of God's Word as the great business of their lives. They are very liable to get mixed up with secular and political affairs. In the infancy of the churches, such a result is almost inevitable, and, to a certain degree, is not to be deplored. Native pastors are the real moulders of opinion on almost all subjects, and they ought to be wide awake to all public questions. The danger is, that the political and secular interests of their flocks will so crowd upon their time and thoughts as to throw the preaching of the Word into the background. This result is almost sure to be fatal to the ultimate and highest usefulness of a pastor. Shallow sermons, thinly attended prayer-meetings, a decline in spirituality in the church, coldness, divisions, backbitings, these and similar things are quite sure to follow when a native pastor declines in devotion to preaching as his one great work.

Such students should be trained also to look to the churches, over which they are to be pastors, for their support. This is now so generally acknowledged that it seems unnecessary to

dwell upon it. We may remark, however, that the seminary is the place to lay right foundations on this subject. Students should be made familiar with the idea that their relations, after leaving the seminary, are to be with the churches rather than with missionaries from a distant land, or with the treasury of a foreign Board. Failure here has led to sorrows innumerable.

5. On what scale shall students be supported while pursuing their studies?

Practically, this is an important question. Strict economy should be the general principle for the guidance of the missionaries. Nothing more quickly demoralizes native Christians than a free use of money ;' nothing makes the work of a native pastor more irksome than constant anxiety about his salary; and nothing is more sure to create and keep up that anxiety than a liberal support while in the seminary. It seems plain that students in our mission theological schools should not be supported in a style above that which they will have to adopt when they become preachers and pastors. The poverty of the native Christians, and the weakness of the native churches should ever be kept in mind by those in charge of such schools. So far as possible, the students should be required to earn the money they receive; the best good of the students themselves requires this. To accomplish this end they may, in many cases, be furnished with work during term time, and in other cases be employed as colporteurs, teachers, and preachers during vacations. Such students are generally accustomed to hard labor before entering the seminaries; health, alone, requires that their active habits be kept up. If this is not done, they may become good scholars 3 but with weak, dyspeptic, diseased bodies they can never be active, robust preachers and pastors. Habits of industry, a proper appreciation of the value of money, their future happi. ness, all require that students have no more aid than is actually necessary for real wants.

6. How shall native pastors be supported after they have entered on their work? We have already touched upon

this point; a full examination of it properly belongs to the more general question of the self-support of mission churches, yet a few additional words will not be out of place here. The only

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