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“ Life of Lord Fairfax;" a new edition of G. H. Lewes's “Life of Goethe;" Lord Stanhope's “History of England (from 1701 to 1713);" Vols. 3 and 4 of the translation of Von Sybel's “ History of the French Revolution;" Ellis's "Asiatic Affinities of the Old Italians ;" Cox's "Mythology of the Aryan Nations ;" Lacroix's “ Arts in the Middle Ages ;" Part 2 of Stirling's translation of Bastiat's “Harmonies of Political Economy;" Prof. Montague Bernard's "Neutrality of Great Britain in the American War;" Quain's “Defects in General Education;" and a new volume of Hugh Miller's “ Miscellanies," complete our present survey.
Prof. Tischendorf has replied to the strictures of the Civiltà Cattolica, in a pamphlet entitled “Responsa ad Calumnias Romanas," adding some corrections of his edition of the Codex Sinaiticus, especially in its references to the Cod. Vat.
Exegetical literature has been enriched by few important additions. In Keil and Delitzsch's Commentary, a new number contains "Leviticus Numbers, and Deuteronomy.” We add only Vol. I., Part 2, of Bachmann on "Judges;" Thiersch's "Genesis in its moral and prophetic import;" L. Harms on “I. Peter;" and a pamphlet of Hitzig's on "Paul's Epistles.”
In theology and ethics there is more to arrest attention. Part 1 of Vol. II. of Rothe's “Dogmatic;" Part 2 of Schultz's "Theology of the Old Testament;" H. Steinthal's “Myth and Religion;" Bade's “Christotheology;" au anonymous work entitled “Christ—the suffering and risen Christ exhibited according to the four Gospels;" Koopmann's “Justification through Christ alone, presented in the light of modern theology;" Part 1 of F. Nitzsch's "Outline of the His. tory of Christian Doctrine" (to be completed in three parts); Vol. I. of Paria's edition of "Toletus on the Summa Theologiæ of Thomas Aquinas;" J. Delitzsch on the “System of Divinity of Thomas Aquinas;" a revised edition of Christlieb's " Modern Doubt as to the Christian Faith ;" Schöberlein on the "Holy Sacrament, in doctrine and practice;" Book 2 of Vol. II. of Otto's “Evangelical Practical Theology ;" Vol. VIII. of Calvin's “Works in the Corpus Reforma. torum ;" Sepp's “ Propositions for Ecclesiastical Reform, beginning with the revision of the Biblical Canon;" Luthardt's “ Ethics of Aristotle contrasted with the Morality of Christianity;" a Prize Essay on War, by Wiskemann (under the auspices of the “Hague Society for the Defence of the Christian Religion "); and Wünsche's "Sufferings of the Messiah in their agreement with the doctrine of the Old Testament, and the sayings of the Rabbis," make up a list of very considerable variety and value.
In philosophy the system and influence of Leibnitz are the subject of much discussion. To the works named in our last number we add Pleiderer's "Leibnitz as Patriot, Statesman, and Educator," Von Benoit's “Comparison of Locke's Theory of Knowledge, with Leibnitz's criticisms," and Vol. II. of Pichler's “Theology of Leibnitz.” Ueberweg's edition and annotated translation of the “ Ars Poetica of Aristotle ;" Part 1 of Oncken's “Politics of Aristotle;" Zimmermanu's “Studies and Criticisms in Philosophy and Æsthetics;" Reichlin Meldegg's "System of Logic;" Hebler's "Philosophical Propositions ;'' Werner's "Speculative Anthropology;" Brasch's “Spinoza's System of Philosophy;" C. H. Weisse's "Psychology, and the Doctrine of Immortality, etc. ;" the new edition of Madvig's “Cicero de Finibus;" with Vol. III. of Wirth's “Outlines of Na. tional Economy," are the chief contributions of the quarter to this department.
In history, ecclesiastical and secular, we chronicle Riezler's “Crusade of the the Emperor Frederic I;" Hartmann's “Erhart Schnepff, the Reformer in Swabia, Nassau, Hesse, and Thuringia;" Sickel's "Contributions to the History of the Council of Trent;" Gröne's "Compendium of Church History;" Busch's "Outline of Early Oriental History" (three vols.); Huyssen's “Discourses and Studies on the Relation of Christian Archæology to Heathen;" Von Maurer's “History of Municipal Constitutions in Germany,” Vol. I.; Pallmann's “Cimbri and Teutones;" Freytag's "Tiberius and Tacitus;" Part 1 of Vol. III. of Rossbach's “ History of Society;" and Dederich’s “Campaigns of Drusus and Tiberius into Northwestern Germany."
In biography we have Vol. I. of Dilthey's "Life of Schleiermacher;" Vol. I. of Springer's "Life of Dahlmann;" Janssen's “Life and Views of J. F. Böhmer;" and Schultz's “Life and Work of Luther."
We group more miscellaneously Braun's “Pictures of the Mohammedan World;" Part 1 of Vol. II. of Böcking's “Ulrich von Hutten;" Maltzahn's "Travels in the Regencies of Tunis and Tripoli;" Vol. II. of the new edition of Overbeck's "Greek Plastic Art;" Zahn's edition of Burkhardt's “ Cicerone;" Vol. I. of Berg's edition of Jonkbluet's “ History of the Literature of the Netherlands;" Nissen's monograph on the Ancient Temple; Merguet's Development of Latin Inflection;" T. Bergk's “Contributions to Latin Grammar;" Vol. 1. of 0. Müller's “Statius ;" Keil's "Letters of Pliny the Younger;" and Geiger's "Hebrew Studies in Germany, from the end of the 15th to the middle of the 16th Century."
In addition to the numerous discussions called out by the Council of the Vati. can, there are a few theological treatises worthy of record. Among these are Bishop Landriot's “Symbolism;" Thomas's “Resurrection of Jesus Christ;" Waddington's "God and Conscience ;" De la Bouillerie's “Eucharist and the Christian Life;" Kruger's "True Orthodoxy;" the Abbé Michaud's “Spirit and Letter in Religious Morality;" Vacherot's "Science and Conscience;" Veuillot's “Life of Christ;" Saisset's "Origin of Worships and Mysteries;" Laneyrie's “Systematic Exhibition of Christian Doctrine;" Lorgueilleux' “Studies on Revelation, from the Stand-point of 1789;" Emmanuel on "The Psalms, considered from the Threefold Stand-point of the Letter, the Spirit, and the Liturgical Use ;” and Vallotton's "True Saint Paul."
In ethics and philosophy we notice Desjardins' " French Moralist of the 16th Century;" Barthélemy Saint Hilaire's annotated translation of "Aristotle's Rhetoric;" H. Taine on “Intelligence ;” E. Charles's new edition of the “Port Royal Logic;" Chevreuil on the “Experimental a posteriori Method, and its Applications ; " Pellissier's " Complete Course of Elementary Philosophy;" Pommier’s “Monologues of a Recluse (Philosophical and Ethical Studies);” Ribot's “Con. temporary English Psychology;" Rognon's “ Miscellanies,-Philosophical, Religious, and Literary;" Bunot's “Elements of Christian Philosophy;" Joly's "Instinct, its Relations to Life and Intelligence ;" and Pérès' Philosophy of Human Society."
The contributions of the quarter to general and special history, are as usual quite numerous. Some of the more noteworthy are Louis Blanc's “ History of the Revolution of 1818;"' Vol. IV. of Lanfrey's “ History of Napoleon I. ;" Mabille's “ Kingdom of Aquitania and its Marches under the Carlovingians." Français' “Studies on the Byzantine Historians ;" Garat's “ Origin of the Basques in France and Spain;" Hamel's “Outline of the History of the French Revolution;" Juste's “Uprising of Holland in 1813, and the Foundation of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1806-'17;" Schaeffer's " Huguenots of the 16th Century;" Baschet's edition of the "Journal of the Council of Trent;" Weil's "* Judaism, its Doctrines and Mission;" Des Mousseaux' "The Jew, Judaism, and the Judaism of Christian Nations ;" Mestral's "Tableau of the Christian Church in the 19th Century;" Bernard's "Origin of the Church of Paris;" Vols. I. and II. of Gillon's "Outline of the History of France;" Part 1 of Ollivier's "Pope Alexander VI., and the Borgias;" Part 1 of Peyrat's “ History of the Albigepses;" Part 2 of Hubbard's “ Contemporary History of Spain;" Vol. IV. of Schnitzler's “Empire of the Czars;" Loyson's " Assembly of the Clergy of France in 1682;" Part 2 of Léon Pagès' "History of the Christian Religion in Japan;" Vol. I. of Hennebert's " History of Hannibal;" Winterer's “ History of Saint Odile, Alsace in the 7th and 8th Centuries;" Mickiewicz' "Politics of the 19th Century;" Part 1 of Vol. I. of Theiner's “History of the Two Concordats of the French Republic, and the Cisalpine Republic;" Vol. II. of Schmidt's "Tableaux of the French Revolution;" Beule's “Titus and his Dynasty;" a new edition of Duruy's “Roman History;" Vol. II. of Langlois' "Collection of the Ancient and Modern Historians of Armenia;" the commencement of a new edition of Michaud's “Universal Biography" (to comprise 45 volumes); and Parts 1 and 2 of an "Archæological Dictionary of Gaul, in the Celtic Epoch." Baron Hubner's "Sixtus V.;" Foisset's "Life of Lacordaire;" Delaborde's “Life, Works, etc., of Ingres;" and Favre's “Pasquier, Chancellor of France," belong to the department of individual biography.
In archæology and philology a few items should be noticed, such as Vol. I. of a revised and enlarged edition of Garcin de Tassy': “ History of Hindoo and Hindostani Literature;" Agnel's " Influence of Popular Language on the Form of Certain French Words ;" Halévy's “Letter to M. d'Abbadie on the Asiatic Origin of the Languages of North Africa ;" Chabas' “ Calendar of the Egyptian Year;" and Boutmy's “ Philosophy of Architecture in Greece."
We add only Edgar Quinet's “Creation;" Merlet's “Saint Evremond;" Parieu's “Principles of Political Science;" Renan’s “Constitutional Monarchy in France;" Esquiros' “ Emile of the 19th Century;" Lavergne's "French Economists of the 18th Century;" and Robert's “Popular Education."
This is the third instalment of the work which M. Rénan seems to regard as his special calling, and for which he would seem to have the necessary leisure, since his public duties as Membre de l'Institut have ceased. It followed the sec ad division, “ The Apostles,” nearly after the same interval as this had followed the first, “The Life of Jesus." The book before us breathes exactly the same spirit as its two predecessors, and no one that has read with some care the first two productions of this fertile mind, could be at a loss as to the paternity of “St. Paul,” even if it did not bear on its titlepage the name of its author. This spirit is rather unique, and it is, accordingly, difficult, if not impossible, to rank Rénan with any school that pursues or has pursued the same end. This spirit is not that of the English Deist of the last century, nor that of the Wolfenbüttel Fragınentist, both of whom saw in the Gospels and the other writings of the New Testament nothing but a tissue of lies ; nor is it that of the Rationalismus Vulgaris of Germany, which saw in the writers of the New Testament honest, but mistaken and ignorant men, who suffered themselves to be carried away by the lofty appearance of Jesus, and converted natural phenomena or uncommon acts of their Master into miracles; nor is it identical with mythicism, since Rénan assumes too short a time between the occurrence of the events narrated and the composition of the narratives, to admit of the formation of myths, all the books of the New Testament, most of which he recognizes as genuine, having been written, according to him, within the first century of the Christian era. Rénan's writings differ in still another respect from most other works of a destructive tendency; while reading some of these, the reader is compelled to task his mental powers to the utmost in order to be able to form an independent judgment on what he reads; he has to read again and again certain passages, and to compare them with previous ones, in order to understand the writer's position; he has to read the passages criticised in the original in order properly to estimate the criticism offered,-in short, he finds the reading of these works one of the hardest tasks imaginable. Not so with the writings of M. Rénan; here every thing is plain and easy; the reader understands his author without having to put forth any great mental effort, and the account of the subject treated is such that it leaves no doubt whatever as to the author's conviction that he is right, and he alone,—that all other interpretations of the documents extant are false or imperfect. M. Renan approves the avtos špa of the Pythagoreans. Hence he does not stop to discuss, much less to controvert or disprove, a position of an opponent, and regards it as a great defect in “St. Paul's” character that that he did not act in accordance with Rénanian principles. And now, what is the lofty position of this man that distinguishes him so much from all other writers, and enables him to look calmly from his height down upon the jarring opinions, strifes, and contentions of other mortals? This is the first question which the reader must answer for himself, and that correctly, in order to understand and to appreciate his author. Whoever would judge M. Renan by individual passages, apostrophes, etc., would find it absolutely impossible to come
* Saint Paul. By ERNEST RENAN, Membre de l'Institut. Translated from the original French. New York: G. W. Carleton. 1869.
VOL. XLII.--NO. IV. 33