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lected a vast mass of materials which can be usefully employed in the elucidation or vindication of the sacred narrative.

And finally this book has been subjected to the minute and searching criticism of modern times. Men of great learning and acuteness have been employed in its investigation with the view of ascertaining all that can be known or legitimately inferred of the circumstances of its origin, the design with which it was written, its plan and the relations of its several parts. They have worked each from his own stand-point as believers or as unbelievers, with a just or a perverted view of the work which they were thus carefully examining. And this laborious scrutiny, even when undertaken with mistaken conceptions or prosecuted with pernicious designs, has resulted either in directly developing what is of real value or in inciting others to investigations of lasting importance. So that whether it has been from onvy and strife or with good will, we may nevertheless rejoice that the issue has been to promote the cause of truth.

Of Dr. Gloag's commentary we cannot speak otherwise than in terms of high .commendation. His previous labors as translator of the Commentary on the Acts in the Edinburgh (not the American) edition of Lange's Bibelwerk, formed an excellent preparation for the independent task which he has now undertaken, and which he has executed with distinguished ability. There is little perhaps that is positively new or original in these volumes. But what is of vastly greater consequence than any novelties of interpretation, the author has brought together in a brief and manageable compass, lucidly arranged and clearly stated, whatever has been developed in the various lines of investigation above recited, that is of consequence for the understanding of this book. He has furnished, however, not a congeries of other men's opinions, but the matured results of extended study, a well-balanced judgmont and a devout spirit full of reverence and love for the holy oracles. There is throughout these volumes a delightful combination of candor, good sense, and evangelical sentiment. We might not acquiesce in every opinion expressed. Statements are occasionally made that require modification or qualitication. We may instance the remark, Vol. I., p. 140, respecting the Sadducees: “They rejected the traditions of the Fathers: the written word, according to them, was the only rule of faith and doctrine; and all the supposed traditions derived from Moses were spurious.” This allegation, though so frequently made and apparently sanctioned by the words of Josephus, is yet shown by the latest researches into native Jewish authorities, to be not entirely correct. Geiger (Urschrift und Uebersetzungen der Bibel, p. 133) and Derenbourg (L'Histoire de la Palestine d'après les Thalmuds, ch. viii.) have shown that while the Sadducees rejected the traditions current among the Pharisees, they had others of their own to which they adhered with equal rev.

While retaining, however, the liberty of occasional dissent, we see no cause to retract or modify the favorable judgment already given respecting these instructive and excellent volumes.

erence.

The Elements of the Hebrew Language. By Rev. A. D. Jones, A. M. 8vo,

pp. 163. Andover. 1870. This grammar professes to be one for beginners, to whom in spite of some defects it may prove useful. It contains a brief statement of grammatical principles, and is accompanied by exercises for translation, and a vocabulary. Its exercises

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for pronunciation are borrowed without acknowledgment from Willard's gram-. mar of 1817, from which the classification of irregular verbs and the antiquated declension of nouns and pronouns by the Latin cases are likewise taken, this last being as appropriate as the same thing would be in English grammar, only aggravated by the fact that what is given as the genitive is not so used in the Biblical Hebrew at all. An innovation is made in the verbal paradigms, which can scarcely be other than confusing to beginners, the persons of the preterite being arranged in a different order from those of the future, and those of the preterite of the substantive verb, p. 74, differently from the preterites of other verbs. Terms are also employed in strange and novel senses, and this without definitions or even self-consistency. Thus on p. 14: “All the letters can be quiescent; but only the four 110 x can be imperceptible; hence they are called mutes." Here "mutes" has a meaning which is certainly different from that to which learners are accustomed; “quiescent" a meaning which is neither explained in this connection, nor could it be divined from pp. 22, 78, where the same word recurs, but in totally different senses; and “imperceptible” is incorrectly applied. Crowned and Disorowned ; or, the Rebel King and the Prophet of Ramah.

By Rev. S. W. Culver, A. M. 16mo., pp. 149. Boston : Gould &

Lincoln. For sale by Smith, English & Co. A series of brief paragraphs on striking passages from the life of Saul, tersely written and with much vivacity and force, and showing no little vigor and freshdess of thought. Where the writer stands on the platform of our common Christianity, he says much that is just and impressive. When he retreats to the narrow corner of sectarian exclusiveness, and rails against infant baptism, and charges those who profess to baptize, yet do not immerse, with “uttering an untruth,” with “renouncing the authority of God, impeaching the wisdom of the Saviour, mocking God, deceiving their fellow-men, and perverting the ordi. nances of the church and the truth of the gospel,” we can scarcely be expected to accord to him our approbation.

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A Manual of Church History. Mediæral Church History. A. D. 590

A. D. 1073. By Henry E. F. Guericke, Doctor and Professor of
Theology in Halle ; translated froin the German by William G. T.
Shedd, Baldwin Professor iu Union Theological Seminary. Ando-

ver: Warren F. Draper. Church bistory owes much to the Lutherans, perhaps more than to any other body of Christians. Rationalists and orthodox alike have labored, for the most part with a singleness of purpose, which is eminently German, to ascertain and present correctly the facts of the church's progress. In English, things take a controversial turn, and when a man writes history, it is with a view to defend some party interest in religion or politics; a German, usually, goes into his work with little concern what conclusion may come out of it, provided only he gets what seems to himself coherent and truthful. At the same time it is not possible that he should not be biased, more or less, hy his own habitual way of think. ing. Guericke is an orthodox Lutheran of the most uncompromising type, and can see nothing at variance with the faith and practice of his own denomination. A worthy representative of the piety of Halle, he is an opponent of all rational. VOL. XLII.-NO, III.

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• jgm, "is in hearty sympatlıy with the truths of revelation, as they have been enunciated in the symbols, and wrought into the experience of the Christian church from the beginning. Belonging to the High Lutheran branch of the German church, and also sharing, to some extent, in its recent Darrowness, whenever he approaches the points at issue between the Lutherans and Calvin. ists, he cordially adopts all the cardinal doctrines of the Reformation," and "standa upon the high ground of supernaturalism in reference to the origin, establishment, and perpetuity of the Christian religion."

Thirteen years ago, Prof. Shedd translated the first volume of Guericke's work, bringing the history down to the end of the sixth century. The volume now published continues it to the accession of Pope Gregory VII. in 1073.

Following the footsteps of Neander, Guericke labors to compress his Darrative into the smallest possible space, the present volume contains only 160 octavo pages, His sentences are packed full of information, but often awkward and harsh. His style is touch improved by passing into the English of Professor Shedd.

The Typology of Scripture, viewed in connection with the whole Series

of the Divine Dispensations. By Patrick Fairbairn, D. D., Principal and Professor of Divinity, Free Church College, Glasgow. Fifth edi. tion. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. New York: Scribner, Welford & Co, 1870.

These two large and well-printed octavo volumes show the great value and enduring vitality of a work which, after a lapse of some twenty years since its first publication, reappears in a fifth edition, besides having been republished, we believe, in other editions in this, if not in other countries. We find in this a confirmation of the impression made on our mind, as we perused and examined it when first made accessible to us years ago. We have read few books which have helped us more to a true insight into the most significant and germinant portions of Scripture, and some most important aspects of exegetical, doctrinal, and practical theology. It is full of the "seeds of things," and eminently suggestive, quickening, and informing to the student of divinity and the preacher.

The view of the Scriptural types with which the Old Testament a bounds, is rescued from the extravagance of the extreme typical school on the one hand, and from rationalistic destructiveness on the other. They are treated in their living relations to the Great Antitype, and to the whole of revealed truth which centres and culminates in the Alpha and Omega of all divine revelations and dispensations.

The author avails himself of all the light of modern research and German learning in the construction of his work: refuting them when destructive or ground less, but incorporating them when they elucidate his great theme. This was done in the original edition not only, but more fully in this, so far as new contributions to the discussion have been since made. He has given it a general revision, carefully making any emendations and improvements, suggested by the experience and the criticisms of the period that has elapsed since its first publication, thus furnishing us a worthy illustration of the maxim of Augustine quoted in the title-page : In vetere Testamento novum latet, et in novo vetus patet.

The Dogmatic Faith: An Inquiry into the Relation subsisting between

Revelation and Dogma, in Eight Lectures preached before the Unitersity of Oxford in the year 1867, on the Foundation of the late Reo. John Bampton, M. A., Canon of Salisbury. By Edward Gar. bett, M. A., Incumbent of Christ Church, Surbiton. Introductory Note by William G. T. Shedd, D, D., Baldwin Professor in Union Theological Seminary, New York City. New York: Anson D. F. Randolph & Co. 1870.

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No book could appear at the present time more urgenlly needed, or better fitted to accomplish the end at which it aims. Christendom is flooded with all kinds of assaults against Christian doctrine, or the idea that Christianity involves any system or body of truths, any series of definite propositions, the belief of which is essential to the Christian faith, the denial of which is a negation of Christianity. We are told that Christianity is not a doctrine but a life, as if a Christian life were a negation of Christian truth, or could exist in ignorance, hatred, or rejection of, or non-conformity to, that truth. Others, like Colenso, per verting and overstraining the contrast between letter and spirit, represent Christianity as some ethereal and impalpable spirit diffusing itself somehow through the language of the Bible, but not definitely articulated or determinately expressed by it. Dogma is the great scandal of all who do not like the distinctive doctrines of Christianity, and try to rationalize them away. We have even known one of the most popular but erratic of preachers in orthodox ecclesiastical con. Dections, ridiculing dogma by such small punning as writing it dog-ma.

On the other hand, our author shows, against all those who would thus evapo. rate Christianity into nihilism, that, however the word "dogmatism " may sometimes mean a disposition in men to force assent to their own doctrines by the groundless assumption of divine authority for them, yet "dogma ” means a truth declared and attested by the word of God; that there is a body of such truths capable of definite statement which constitutes Christianity; that these have been held in the church continuously downward from apostolic times; that the rationalists and papists are alike at fault in setting up a standard and arbiter of faith outside of and above the written word: that the natural conscience, although the guidiug moral faculty in man, yet shares the corruption of his whole nature, and requires itself to be guided by the light of revelation. These and cognate truths are set forth and vindicated with a light and power, a judi. cial insight, a dialectic skill, a fulness of learning and ripeness of culture which the task requires, and which have given such value to many courses of the Bampton lectures. We quote the following as a fair sample of the whole book-pp. 32-4:

“ But the error reaches beyond this. For the claims of the church, deprived of their historical basis in the Word, become a mere form of human speculation, instead of a divine ordinance. They are thus regarded by the disciples of rational. ism, as standing on precisely the same footing as other modes of thought, with the authority of the understanding, and nothing else, for their ultimate basis. In the supposed absence of a divine revelation, the rationalist, it appears to me, is unquestionably right. The Church of Rome, for instance, has been accustomed in times past, to accept the true inspiration of the Scriptures, and only sinco sho has been pressed by the arguments of the Reformers bas she found it her policy to depreciate their authority. But she teaches that the rule of faith is in horself

, and that she gives authority to the Scriptures, pot derives authority from them. When, therefore, she is asked for her credentials, she has none to give beyond herself. She alirms herself to be the depository of the authority of Christ upon earth, but she has no evidence to offer beyond her own affirmation. The old argument of antiquity and universality she has practically given up, and taken the theory of development in exchange. The breach between her and all Chris. lian antiquity consequently becomes wider day by day. Hence she possesses no evidence for her asserted authority save her own affirmation of its existence. But this is exactly the ground of the theist, the pantheist, and even the atheist. The instruments of discovery used by these several schools of thought are different. With one it may be a natural sentiment, with another a mystical intui. tion, with a third the speculative intellect; but in each case the process is equally internal and subjective. They have no historical basis, and if the existence of the inspired records of the faith be denied or forgotten, the church sinks into exactly the same position. In such a case the most dogmatic creed, philo. sophically considered, becomes a form of human speculation and nothing more.”

American Political Economy: including Strictures on the Management

of the Currency and the Finances since 1861, with a Chart showing the Fluctuations in the Price of Gold. By Francis Bowen, Alford Professor of Natural Religion, Moral Philosophy, and Civil Polity in Harvard College. New York: Charles Scribner & Co. 1870.

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This is partly a recast of a treatise on Political Economy, published years ago by the author, and partly a searching review and criticism of the financial meas. ures of the government during and since the late war. We have been accustomed to read with high interest and appreciation the publications of Prof. Bowen in the department of mental and kindred sciences. Whether we agree with them or not, they are always able, thorough, and scholarly. We quite agree with Dr. McCosh, that his work on Logic, is the most perfect unfolding of the Kantian and Hamiltonian Formal Logic that has yet been produced.

In this volume the author presents the elementary principles of Political Economy, with his wonted clearness and force. He, however, appears, in his Preface, to set small value on these generalities or the universal and ultimate laws of the science. He rather magnifies the importance of its concrete applications and phenomena in particular nations, “ Here in America as it seems to me, we need an American Political Economy, the principles of the science being adapted to what is special in our physical condition, social institutions, and pursuits.”—P. 5. His illustrations, however, are, in about the usual proportion found in American authors, derived from foreign countries, especially Britain, till he comes to the subject of money, more particularly as connected with the financial measures of our government since the outbreak of the war. This is the feature of the book, makes up about half of it, constitutes the principal addition to his former work, and specially earns for it the title of " American Political Economy." We detect here, as elsewhere in the author's writings, vigor, keenness, clearness, and many valuable suggestions new and old. But we are sorry to say that we meet with much that, with all respect, we must regard as betraying too much of the narrowness of special pleading, and less of judicial breadth and impartiality than we had looked for.

What most surprises us is the chapter on the National Banking system. It would require an extended article to point out all the fallacies of this chapter. One is that it was initiated in a state of war, and that this is no time for insti. tuting new systems. This is only a half truth. It is not the time for innovations that can and will be better made in quiet times. But it is the very time

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