parents, and for the promotion of great public measures in which all Christians are agreed. It has exerted its influence to combine Christians in great religious efforts, as in opposing rationalism and infidelity on the one hand, and popery and ritualism on the other. It has been particularly active in sheltering the persecuted for conscience' sake all over the world and to gain this end it has used its influence with the British, and with other governments. The Madiai in Florence, Matamoros, Alhama, Trigo and their fellow-Protestants in Spain, the missionaries and Turkish converts in Constantinople and other parts of the East, the Baptists in Germany, and many others, have been protected from severe persecutions by the influence which it has exerted. We have heard American missionaries from Turkey declare that they owe more to the Evangelical Alliance in protecting them from eminent danger than to all other instruments whatever.

The Evangelical Alliance has branches in nearly every country in which there are Christians. But by far the most important organization has hitherto been the British-we hope the American is henceforth to rival it. Down to this year, the history of the Evangelical Alliance is the history of the British Branch. For many years the ruling spirit in it was Sir Culling Eardley, a country gentleman of high status, nominally attached to the Episcopal Church, but in fact a member of the church universal. "Since his decease there has been a felt want of one commanding mind to give life to the institution. It has had to meet, if not with opposition, yet with coldness, lukewarmness, and contempt. It never expected to meet with any favor from High Churchmen, or from Ritualists, or from Rationalists, or from Broad Churchmen (seeking to make the doctrines as few and undistinctive as possible), for it always opposed these parties; but it has met with no support from many persons who might have been expected to stand by it. Church leaders have been afraid heartily to identify themselves with it lest they should thereby lose their influence with their denomination; and hence the management of it has in many places devolved on weaklings, who have had no name or power in their locality. Ministers of the established churches of England and Scotland have de

clined to join it, as in doing so they might seem to be making all churches alike, and bringing down their own favored church to the level of the dissenting churches. In Scotland, especially of late years since the death of Mr. Henderson of Park, the Alliance has called forth little zeal and enthusiasm, which have all been expended instead in defending denominationalism, and at the best in promoting denominational unions. We believe that Scotland has been a loser thereby, and the grand barrier to the union of the Presbyterian churches in Scotland is to be traced to the non-recognition of the unity of the Church of Christ. Then in England many Episcopalians, even of the evangelical type, have stood afar off, lest they should lose the prestige their church derives from their supposed apostolic succession. Yet in spite of all this callousness and indifference the Evangelical Alliance has kept its place in Great Britain and Ireland, and if rightly guided will come to have a more extended influence in these times, when state endowments are being broken up and all churches are put by the government on the same footing.

The Alliance has had five General or Ecumenical Conferences : in London in 1851; in Paris in 1855; in Berlin in 1857; in Geneva in 1861, and in Amsterdam in 1867. All of these, and especially the three last have been eminently successful, and have left a blessed influence behind them, more particularly in the way of strengthening the struggling Protestant evangelical churches situated in the midst of Romanism and infidelity. Take the conference held three years ago at Amsterdam. The Alliance went to that city at the earnest request of a few devoted Evangelical Christians who felt themselves powerless to resist the tide of rationalism in the state church. In that church there are about 1500 or 1600 ministers, and of these we could not hear when present at the conference, of more thau 300 or 400 who preach the doctrines of the cross ; a far larger number are avowed rationalists, and a considerable proportion of these are naturalists or humanists, who do not believe that a miracle has ever been perforined; and the rest utter no certain sound of any kind. A merchant in the city, bred in Scotland, but now living in Amsterdam, said to the writer of this article, “This is a very difficult place in which to bring up a family. My daughter not long ago was not able to go to the Scotch church as the day was wet, and she went to the nearest parish church, and returned from it in deep anxiety, crying out, 'What am I to believe, the minister told us to-day that Jesus never rose from the dead.'” It was into this city that the Alliance went in August, 1867. It sat for ten days, and discussed the profoundest topics on which the mind of man can meditate,-theological, missionary, moral, and social. The truth was defended, and errors exposed by the most erudite scholars and profoundest thinkers of Germany, France, Holland, and Great Britain ; and plans for extending the Gospel and removing the evils that abound in our world were unfolded with great eloquence and power by some of the greatest philanthropists now living. The result was most beneficent. A twelvemonth after we met in London an excellent minister, perfectly competent to report the effect, and he assured us that more good had been done to Evangelical religion in those ten days by the Evangelical Alliance than by all other agencies during his twenty years' residence in that city.

At the meeting in Amsterdam, a requisition was handed in, through Dr. Prime, from the American Branch, praying that the next General Conference should be held in the city of New York; when it was moved by the Rev. Dr. Steane, the active Honorary Secretary of the Society, and seconded by the Rev. Dr. McCosh, a member of the Council of the Alliance, that this prayer should be granted. This leads us to speak for a little of the history of the Alliance in America. At the first Conferences in Liverpool and in London, American Christians felt as deep an interest and took as active a part as British Christians in the forination of the Society. But the unhappy question which so long distracted the churches in America, cast up in the Alliance, and American Christians feeling their situation unpleasant, withdrew from the association. It was not till the year 1866, that is till after slavery was abolished in the providence of God, that an understanding could be brought about and a harmony effected between the American and European churches. It was one of the highest privileges which the writer of this article has enjoyed


in this life, that he had a small share in helping to form a Branch of the Alliance in this country. Before his arrival in America, arrangements were being made to form an American organization ; but it was on his paying a visit to this country with full powers from the British side, that the American Branch was actually instituted. On his return to Great Britain he proclaimed the fact to the Annual Conference of the British Branch, held that year at Bath; and the intelligence was hailed with boundless enthusiasm. For the last year and a half, the American Branch has been busily employed in making preparations for the great Ecumenical meeting in New York. Last year, Dr. Schaff was sent to Europe to bring about a thorough unity of action between Europe and Ainerica, and he succeeded in inducing a great many eminent men from Great Britain and the European continent to agree to visit this country, and to read papers on important subjects, theological and philanthropic. Some expect that the meeting to be opened on Sept. 22d will be the most important and influential General Conference which has yet been held, and that it will exercise a mighty influence for good on the Protestant churches throughout the world. When the British and American Branches unite their energies, the Alliance may be expected to enter on a new career, far more brilliant and important than it has had in the past. Happy effects may be expected to arise from the very meeting of Christians from the East, and from the West; of the profoundest theologians from Germany, France, Britain, and America; of the most devoted philanthropists and successful missionaries, each giving reports of the state of religion in his own land, or of the methods of usefulness employed in his own field of operations. Americans will learn much from what is being done in the old countries, in Europe and Asia ; and we venture to predict that foreigners may learn something from the forms which Christian zeal takes in this new country, and that they will go home, more favorably impressed than when they come here, with the practical energy of the American people..

We lay before our readers the programme of the proceedings of the New York Conference in the latest form which it has assumed. It should be borne in mind that this plan may

be slightly modified from time to time, as it is intimated that persons who have engaged to read papers are prevented from doing so by events of Providence, or that other distinguished individuals can be present and take part in the proceedings. We have reason to believe that a number of eminent states. men, lawyers, and physicians of this country, not named in this schedule will be asked to preside at the Conferences, and give addresses at the day and evening meetings.

EVANGELICAL ALLIANCE, 24 BIBLE HOUSE, NEW YORK. Programme for the General Conference of Christians from all nations convened by the Evangelical Alliance, to be held in the city of New York, September 22 to October 3, 1870. Printed for revision.

[The list of English delegates will be completed as soon as a final report is received from the British Alliance. The Continental Delegates have all accepted, and will be present in person, or send papers on the topics assigned them. In addition to the reading of Essays and the discussion of their topics during the day, popular and devotional meetings will be held in the evening.]

Thursday Evening.—Preliminary Session. Social re-union of members and delegates in a public hall. Address of welcome by the Rev. William Adams, D.D., LL. D., New York; and replies by officers and delegates of Foreign Alliances.

Friday.-I. Organization of the Conference, Election of Officers, etc.
II. Address by the President of the Conference.

III. Reports on the present state of Protestant Christendom.—Rev. Eugene Bersier: State of Religion in France. Professor A. Tholuck, D. D., Halle: Evangelical Theology in Germany. Rev. H. Krummacher, Brandenburg: Practical Religion in Germany. Rev. Cohen Stuart, Rotterdam: Holland and Belgium. Professor Revel, Florence: Italy. Rev. Antonio Carrasco, Madrid: Spain. Dean Kind, of the Grisons: Switzerland. Bishop Martensen, or Dr. Kalker, Copenhagen: Scandinavia. Rev. Dr. Koenig, Hungary : Austria. Rev. Robert Murray, D. D., Halifax : British Provinces of America. Rev. Abel Stevens, D. D., Brooklyn, N. Y.: United States.

Saturday.-Christian Union. I. Vital Union by Faith with Christ, the basis of Christian Union: Dean H. Alford, D.D., of Canterbury. Professor Charles Hodge, D. D., Princeton, N. J.

II. The Communion of Saints-Modes of its Promotion and Manifestation. Christian Union consistent with Denominational Distinctions: Bishop McIlvaine, D.D., D.C.L., Cincinnati, Ohio. Rov. C. D. Marston, Rector of Kersal, Manchester.

III. The Evangelical Alliance—its Objects and Influence in promoting Christian Union and Religious Liberty: Rev. James Davis, Secretary of the British Organization. Bishop George D. Cummins, D. D., of Kentucky.

IV. Relations, Spiritual and Ecclesiastical, between the United States of America and the British Empire: Rev. John Stoughton, D.D., London.

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