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was more worthy of such tributes as were paid to her genius and solidity of character. Perplexed by long litigation with those who would deprive her of her rich estates, she sought relief in conversations with Valdés, and these conversations formed the basis of the "Alfabeto Christiano,” a treatise worthy of its recent translation and republication in England. Its preservation was due to Julia's procurator, Magno, who rendered it into Italian, for the Spanish original perished in manuscript. A few of its noble sentences are these: “We are all born and created to know God, believe God, love God, and after this present existence to enjoy God.

The happiness of man consists in his knowledge of God, and of Christ shown by the light of faith, and in the union of the soul with God through faith, hope, and love. To this none but the true Christian can attain.

The true physician of the soul is Christ crucified.

When you do what St. Paul tells you, respecting the restoring within you the image and likeness of God, you will find peace, quiet, and repose of spirit.

The Law wounds, the Gospel heals. The Law slays, the Gospel gives life. If you are not able wholly to subdue your feelings and inclinations, so as to be absolute master of yourself, at least so rule and moderate them that they be not your masters. The good Christian is not to seek to be passionless, but to rule his passions.

Vocal prayer frequently kindles and elevates the mind to mental prayer.

Love God, and you will know how to dispense your alms. Christian liberty is a thing which, however much reasoned about, can never be understood if it be not experienced.”

It is for the biographer to trace the effect of these counsels upon the noble disciple; to follow her into hospitals where she visits the sick; to portray her in select society free from its worldliness; to see her almost constantly reading the Scriptures which Valdés urged her to prefer to any of his writings; to watch her superintending the education of a nephew who was as a son to her, and who became a duke, and showed his love of literature by patronizing a Hebrew press from which were issued several editions of the Pentateuch and Psalter; to trace her influence upon most of the Italian

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reformers who appeared so unsuccessful; to cite her correspondence with Calvin, and see how this was one of the charges brought against her by the Inquisition; and to follow her until, with faith in her “long-suffering Father,” and in Jesus Christ her Redeemer, she expired in the year 1566, at the age of sixty-seven.

It was to her that Juan Valdés presented the manuscripts of his translations of Matthew from the Greek, the Psalms from the Hebrew, and the Epistle of Paul to the Romane, with a commentary upon it. To instruct her, he was stimulated to prepare these works. In his letter to her, when presenting them, he says, “In order to imitate Christ, draw your

, picture of him from the Gospels. By reading St. Paul, the wonderful effects of the cross of Christ are seen and felt; so in reading the histories of Christ is wonderfully seen and felt the very cross of Christ.' In his comment on Romans xii. 9-13, he has this idea, which probably no other commentator has ever appreciated so as to use it: “The Christian in his love to another Christian and to one who is not a Christian, should make the difference which one draws between a twinbrother, and another brother. Only he who has a twin-brother can understand this latter distinction; so none but a true Christian can feel real Christian love.” Julia Gonzaga took every care to preserve the writings of her friend, to whom she was so greatly indebted. Throngh years of personal danger she religiously kept them. So much had the manuscripts been used before they came to the press, that Juan Perez, when editing the commentary at Geneva, had no little difficulty in making good every word of the well-worn pages.

Other conversations at his country-house, or in his city residence, were worked up by Valdés into the volume most celebrated. At Chiaja he received, on Sunday, a select number of his most intimate friends. They breakfasted together,

. walked a little amid the delightful scenery, and returned to the house, when he read some well-studied portion of Scripture, and either commented upon it, or talked upon some “ Divine Consideration" which had occupied his mind during the week. He was accustomed to say that two of his books were prayer and consideration. The company discussed the VOL, XLII.-NO. III.


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subject, and he thus was able to relieve them of doubts, or gather new views from them. Thus his own themes were presented in the forenoon. In the afternoon they brought forward their topics for conversation. These meetings may have continued four or five years.

“ These Sabbaths of studious Christians, this exchange of subjects, this intercourse of thought between the proposers, the day, the pure elevation of mind they brought as it were with them, the situation, the beauty of the country, the transparent skies of a Southern climate, the low murmurs of the bay,” says Mr. Wiffen, “would all be favorable to the purpose of Valdés.” His notes expanded into short essays, upon distinct themes, until they formed “The CX. Considerations.” They present his most finished thoughts, and seem to have been his latest composition.

That the book is free from any sort of erroneous opinion, none will claim. Yet it will not suffer in comparison with the writings of almost any other reformer, even the chief. The absurd charge that he was an Anti-trinitarian was started by Saudius through ignorance, or a desire to swell a list, or the mere suspicion that Bernardino Ochino received his later views from his teacher in the Gospel. Bayle and most of the biographical dictionaries have repeated the charge. It will suffice to quote Valdés—not even a tithe of what he declares; “I rejoice in what I know at present, that this Word of God is the Son of God, with whom and by whom God has created and restored all things; that he is of the same substance with the Father; that he is one and the same in essence with him, and that like him he is eternal." He constantly speaks of “the Holy and Divine Spirit” as an eternal person.

Beza was offended a little at Valdés chiefly. because his readers might be led to forsake the Scriptures and look for some higher revelations of the Holy Spirit. When trying to show, in his Sixty-third Consideration, “that the Holy Scripture is like a candle in a dark place, and the Holy Spirit is like the sun," Valdés evidently means that the Holy Spirit is the source of Holy Scripture and higher than it; that He alone leads to its truly spiritual comprehension, and, as he says, “the man who seeks to be pious, having no other light than the Holy Scriptures, is like a man in a dark place with only

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a candle," while "the man who seeks to be pious, having the Spirit of God to guide and bring him forward in it, is like one who stands in a place where the rays of the sun enter and make it bright.” Scarcely a reformer more stoutly insisted upon the light of Scripture and the life of the Spirit, as necessary to salvation.

The first edition of the “Divine Considerations” was in Italian, edited by the refugee Celio Curione, and issued from Basle, in 1550, ten years after the author's death. It soon was published in French at Lyons and Paris, and also in Spanish and Dutch. Two English versions appeared in the seventeenth century. After that time it became a rare book, until very recently. It is now re-published in various languages. Morhot, near the close of the seventeenth century, said of the author and his work: “Those Considerations of his are full of piety, and evidently written with the taste of a purer theology than the common, so that there is no pontifical leaven to be found in them. And it is altogether wonderful that, even in that

age, there were men concealed under papal darkness who profoundly fathomed the depths of religious mysteries. The book was one truly worthy of being turned into Latin or German; it occasionally breathes so sympathetically with Arndt (author of True Christianity'), that it would seem as though they spoke but with one mouth. It ever scrutinizes our actions very closely; it evinces in its great discre tion a true acquaintance with Christianity, and on that account is singularly to be commended.”

The impression which Juan Valdés made upon his age and adopted country was not measured by the circulation of his writings. He was a prime mover of other minds. His personal power was felt in the entire circle of choice spirits who heard him talk in his villa, and they carried it with them into their homes, their neighborhoods, their palaces, or their pulpits, their prisons, and their places of exile. Few of them left the Roman Church, while they threw off most of its grosser errors; they had not the privilege of an organized Protestantism in their own land. The known names among them would make a long list. Julia Gonzaga was but one of the many noble ladies who were disciples of Valdés. Isabella Manrique, a


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Spanish lady of high rank, and the sister of a cardinal, received his doctrine, zealously promoted the evangelical faith, and, when persecution drove her from Naples, she fled to Zurich, and finally settled in the Valtelline in order to maintain the liberty of conscience. The gifted Vittoria Colonna, an admired poetess, was no unaffected listener. Folengo, the prior of Monte Cassino, noted the effects of the revival of the Gospel, and said: “We behold a most extraordinary spectacle; we see women, who seem naturally more prone to vanity than to serious reflection, men untutored, and soldiers, so moved by the truth that, if any thing is heard about a holy life, it generally comes from them. Indeed, this is the golden age! Throughout my native Campania there is no preacher so learned but that he would become wiser and holier from converse with euch women.”

Julio de Milano, a professor of theology, carried the truth with him through various persecutions, printed a volume of sermons, and fled to the Grisons, where he founded a church, preached to it thirty years, and laid the foundation of several other churches in that region. Marc Antonio Flaminio, the poet, exercised a pious influence among literary men. Caserta and Carnesecchi were among the noble martyrs; among

the charges against such men was their having read and circulated the writings of Valdés, and that kindred spirit, Aonio Paleano. The heroic Marquis of Vico, Galeazzo Caraccioli, forsook his honors, estates, and family (who refused to accompany him), and went into exile for the love and liberty of the Gospel. He was received at Geneva with the warm affection of Calvin, who did so much to make Geneva the refuge for troops of exiles driven out of Italy and France on account of their faith.

Valdés had no more eminent disciple than Peter Martyr Vermiglio, who was still preaching at Naples when his instructor died. With him was Cusano, formerly his fellow-student at Padua, where they had spent whole nights in mastering the Greek language and reading the Greek Testament. This Peter Martyr is intimately connected with the history of the Reformation in Italy, France, Switzerland, and especially England. His influence at Oxford and with the several English Lishops who Jabored for reform-Ridley, Latimer, Cranmer,

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