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many ministers of the Established Church are men of piety and worth.* Dr. Raffles soon formed a strong attachment to his co-laborers, members of the Lancashire Congregational Union. Their untiring exertions in many of the wild and scarcely civilized districts of Lancashire County, resulted in a degree of success altogether remarkable. He himself was a constant visitor throughout the length and breadth of the county. His office as secretary of the Union and his faine as a preacher laid him open also to numberless calls for services at the opening of chapels in the different stations, and the ordination of ministers. “Few can imagine,” says one who worked with him in the same field, “what large demands upon his time and strength all this involved."
A considerable space is devoted in this volume to an account of the efforts of Dr. Raffles, in connection with other leading ministers, to found the Lancashire Independent Col. lege, near Manchester, an institution for the education of young men for the ministry among Congregational Dissenters. In bringing about the result be appears to have been especially active and influential; and before his death it was his happiness to see it fully established and flourishing. At first, no small amount of time was devoted to collecting funds for the college. No doubt there is a large class who feel no particular interest in knowing either the trials or encouragements which attend employinents of this kind, but for some of our readers the following anecdote may have its relish :—“On one occasion, in company with Mr. Hadfield, he went to call on an old and wealthy, but somewhat eccentric gentleman, the late Mr. Samuel Lees, of Oldham. They found him at home, smoking his pipe, and after a while opened fire upon him in reference to the college. Dr. Raffles and Mr. Hadfield successively enlarged upon the prospective benefits of the projected institution, but apparently to little purpose, for all they could extract from Mr. Lees was, “Weel, I mun gie ye a litt, I mun gie ye a lift ;' but what was the extent of the lift was wholly left in the dark. Mr. Hadfield enlarged upon the
* The Rev. Baptist Noel's book, “Essay on the Union of Church and State," was published more than twenty years ago. It is still instructive and valuable. See the chapters on the “Effects of the Union.”
mode of payment by instalments as very desirable, but Mr. Lees only said, “Weel, I mun gie ye a lift;' adding, “I've two causes at the assizes, I mun see how they turn out.' At length, the talking being somewhat exhaustive, tea was asked for, and brought; and after some more conversation the two visitors departed, Mr. Lees saying, “Haply I might call some day at Mr. Hadfield's office in Manchester.' On leaving, Mr. Hadfield expressed an opinion not very favorable as to the probable result of the visit ; while Dr. Raffles, on the other hand, said he would give £100 for it. Weeks or months rolled by, when, upon a certain morning, Mr. Lees walked into Mr. Iladfield's office, and, on being shown into the presence of that gentleman, he said, “Weel, Mr. Hadfield, I've come abont th’ college;' and pulling ont a large pocket-book, apparently well lined with notes, he said, “You said you'd take it in 'stalments,' and inserting his finger among the notes, speedily pulled out one for £100, and presented it to Mr. Hadfield, saying, ‘Here's th' first ’stalment;' then, taking another dip, he drew out a second note for the same amount: 'Here's th' second 'stalment;' and so with two other notes, till he counted out £400 down on Mr. Hadfield's desk in 'stalments;' and, having done so, he added, 'An' if ye want more, ye mun have it.'”
The biographer adds, “ The story can be only very imperfectly told on paper.' As Dr. Raffles related the incident, and threw into it his own rich vein of humor, it was inimitable." Dr. Vaughan was the first President and Theological Professor of the new college, and for several years Dr. Samuel Davidson, a biblical scholar and critic not unknown in this country, was the professor of Biblical Criticism and Oriental Literature. In 1855 Dr. Davidson was charged with holding views which disqualified him for his position in the college, and the controversy which arose in reference to the matter resulted in his resigning his Professorship.
Dr. Raffles entered into the benevolent enterprises of the Bible and Missionary Societies with all his heart, and, to promote the objects for which they were founded, he engaged with alacrity in any work which in the Providence of God he was called to perform, however arduous it might be. In order
to lend a helping hand, he was willing to travel and preach to the limits of his strength, and even beyond his strength. He was one of the directors of the London Missionary Society and it was at his suggestion that it sent out three missionaries, Messrs. Supper, Kam, and Brückner, to Java, with the view of establishing a mission on the island. They had been educated in Holland and Berlin, but had been consigned to that society. In the success of this mission he took a deep interest, and he furnished the missionaries with a letter of introduction to Sir Stamford Raffles, his cousin, who was at that time the governor of the island, and with whom he had already been in correspondence in relation to missionary enterprise in that portion of the globe.
The island of Java was in the possession of the Dutch up to 1811, when it was taken from them by the English ; but the English Government's tenure of it was very brief, for it was restored by them to the Dutch, in 1815, by whom it is still held. It was by the advice of Sir Stamford Raffles that the expedition was fitted out against Batavia in 1811. He was, as bas been seen, a relative of Dr. Raffles, and his name is frequently mention in the volume under review. He was a remarkable man. He was appointed an assistant clerk in the India House at fifteen. He afterward became chief secretary to the new government formed by the East India Company, at Penang. In 1809 he published an essay on the Malay nation. When Batavia was capturedfrom the Dutch, he was appointed lieutenantgovernor of Java and its dependencies, and while he held the ottice slavery was abolished in the island. He published a history of Java, in two quarto volumes, with one volume of splendid plates, evincing much scientific knowledge and exquisite taste. He was afterward made lieutenant-governor of Fort Marlborough, the seat of the English government at Bencoolen, Sumatra, and remained six years in this position, emancipating the slaves here also. He established the British settlement at Singapore, and founded a college there for the encouragement of Anglo-Chinese and Malay literature.
It was to labor among the Chinese emigrants in Java that the three Dutch missionaries were sent to that island by the London Society, for these compose a large part of the population. Supper died in Batavia in 1816. Brückner joined the Baptist Society and continued his exertions, amidst many difficulties, on the island for some years. Since these missionaries first went to Java, a number of devoted servants of Christ -English, Dutch, and German, as well as American-have toiled on the ground.
Large portions of several chapters of this volume are occupied with Dr. Raffles' graphic descriptions, in letters to his friends, of his visits to interesting spots in his own country, as well as on the Continent and in the East. IIis love of nature was intense, and he could not help writing about all he saw. There can be no doubt that his periodical absences from his public services, for the purpose of change of scene and relaxation, were the means of prolonging his useful life, and preserv. ing the freshness and elasticity of his powers. But even when he journeyed, he engaged, whenever it was possible, in his work of preaching.
He published an account of one of his tours on the Continent, which went through five editions, and which for many years was even used as a guide-book. He need to tell the following story in reference to it:
“On one occasion, as I was travelling out of Lincolnshire into Lancashire, I was put down at the Tontine Inn, Sheffield, at the close of a long summer's day. I went, as my custom was, into the traveller's room, and, having secured my bed, sat down in the midst of a large company, and began to ponder the questiontea or supper? In the midst of my musing, a gentleman entered the room, and looking round, said, “Will any gentleman take supper?' That settled the matter; I accepted his challenge, and supper being speedily on the table, we sat down vis-à-vis to enjoy it. I found my companion very intelligent and communicative, and we talked freely on various topics; when at length he said, 'I had a very delightful tour lately on the Continent-my wife, my wife's sister, and myself were the party. We went to Paris, Geneva, Chamouni, down the Rhine, and by the Netherlands, etc. We had all the tours with us; but somehow I like Raffles' tour best of all. I think he only describes what he actually saw, but I believe there are many who describe what they did not themselves see. And there is something so like in Raffles' descriptions, they bring it all to my memory as though I had seen it only yesterday. Did you ever see the book ? But, by the bye, were you ever on the Continent ?' 'Yes,' said I, 'I have been on the Continent.' • Were you in his direction at all ?' he added. * Yes,' I answered, the very tour he took, I took.' 'Oh, then,' said he, 'you are a judge; what do you think of it?' Why,' I said, I agree with you; I don't think he does describe any thing but what he saw.' "Ind then,' he continued, it is so cheap! There's he has spun it out into two volumes: he mighit very well have put it all into one. I
have Raffles' book in my trunk: it is a nice travelling companion, and every now and then I take it out and read a bit, and then I travel over the ground again, and it is all fresh and vivid in my mind. That Raffles, I believe, is a Dissenting min. ister, at Liverpool.' It may be supposed that I was not a little amused as well as gratified with all this, and much more passed between us, but I preserved my incognito till we parted for the night, when I said, “Will you allow me, before I say good-night, to tell you how much pleasure you have afforded me by the testimony you have borne to the correctness of Raffles' tour ? What!' said he, 'is he a friend of yours?' 'Perhaps,' said I, 'the closest friend he has, for I wrote the book.' * You wrote the book !' he said with considerable vehemence. Do you mean, sir, to tell me that Dr. Raffles did not write the book himself ?' 'No,' I replied, “I don't mean to tell you any such thing, for I know that he did write it himself; nevertheless I say again, I wrote the book.' “You don't mean that you are Dr. Raffles ?' “Yes,' I said laughing, "I do, and I'll stick to that.' "What, have I been all this time talking to Dr. Raffles ?' 'Yes,' I replied, “you have., • Well,' he exclaimed, 'I do hope, Dr. Rames, that I have said nothing that could give you pain.' 'No, sir,' I said, ' quite the reverse; I have had many testimonies to the correctness of that book, but they have been from persons who knew that they were addressing the author, but your testimony is, in my esteem, of greater value than that of all the rest put together, for it is perfectly impartial.' . Well, Dr. Raffles,' he said, “it is kind of you thus quickly to relieve me of the dilemma in which I have placed myself. The fact is we were all really much indebted to you for the information and pleasure we derived from the perusal of
Not a few illustrious names are brought before us in these pages. Near the close of his life, Dr. Raffles, at the request of intimate friends, committed to writing a few autobiographical recollections, and these include an account of interviews with some of these celebrities. Our readers will no doubt be entertained with the following relation of his intercourse with Rammuhun Roy, the Hindoo scholar, whose arrival in England, in 1831, caused such a sensation in certain circles :
“I had the good fortune to be twice in company with that remarkable man, the Rajah Rammohun Roy. A benevolent errand in behalf of his countrymen brought him to this country in the year 1831;* and though it is more than thirty years ago, I have a perfect recollection of the man, and of his conversation. What astonished me most was the wonderful acquaintance which he had so accurate and so minute--with all our institutions, and habits, and history. One of the occasions on which I met him was at dinner at Mr. Cropper's she was a Quaker friend of Dr. Raffles), at the Dingle. I sat next to him at tablo. Nothing very remarkable occurred in the conversation during dinner, but, immedi
* He was accredited to the British court by the king of Delhi, to make a representation of grievances, and, though not recognized officially, he was successful.