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now discussing this Homeric question. Prof. Arnold prefers the hexameter, and Prof. Newman the ballad measure, while Prof. Blackie by precept and example shows the power of the “fourteen-syllabled " rhymed verse. Pope's lliad, as his translation has been well styled, is not that of Homer; and the same remark may be made of the other versions. Mr. Smith's translation of the fifth book of the Iliad is in rhyming verse of ten syllables, easy and flowing, and possessing considerable merit. But it lacks the simplicity, the power, and the poetic fire of Homer. It is a paraphrase rather than a translation. Of all the recent translations, those of Prof. Blackie and Lord Derby are the best, the former containing some passages of greater power than the latter, and in the judgment of many manifesting higher poetical power; but the latter combines with great fidelity to the original a high degree of poetic merit, which, in our opinion, renders it the best production of the Iliad we have ever seen. We have put it to the severest iest by reading portions of it aloud to successive collegeclasses, and have never known an instance in which it did not completely absorb their attention, and meet with their warmest approbation.
The following, also late issues of the Presbyterian Board of Publication, are choice, readable, and even when largely fictitious, so far founded ou fact as to be instructive and profitable. They are fresh in style and topic, and out of the hackneyed line of stories. We will briefly describe them.
Margaret Gordon; or, Can I Forgire! By Mrs. S. A. Myers, anthor of • Poor Nicholas," “Gulf Stream,"
Railroad Boy, Margaret Ashton," etc. A narrative of the early life, the pleasures and trials, and especially the spiritual struggles and triumphs of Margaret Gordon. The book is founded upon facts drawn carefully from personal experience, and is full of important suggestions and instructions in regard to the Christian life.
The Manuscript Man. By the author of “Golden Hills."
A picture of life in the western part of Ireland. A few rays of gospel light are introduced by the agency of two or three pious persons into the midst of a community plunged into Papal darkness, superstition, and bigotry. Yet the truth gradually worked its way, and triumphed in many hearts and homes. It is a book to circulate among Romanists, but not them exclusively.
Rivers of Water in a Dry Place. An account of the Introduction of
Christianity into South Africa, and of Mr. Moffat's Missionary
Labors. Designed for the Young. An account of the missionary labors of Mr. Moffat and other Christian pioneer in Southern Africa, containing many incidents of a highly instructive, and some. times amusing character, with many hairbreadth escapes from wild beasts and wild men, presented in sprightly style. Alypius of Tagaste. By Mrs. Webb, author of “Naomi" and "Pom
ponia. This volume opens with a vivid picture of a terrible scene in the amphitheatre at Alexandria in Egypt, where several Christiaus were killed by wild beasts be
cause of their Christian faith. It presents to the reader, in a connected narrative, views of the persecutions and struggles of the Christians in an early age of the church, and exhibits the power of Christian faith to triumph over all opposition. Pomponia; or, the Gospel in Cæsar's Household. By Mrs. Webb, author
of “Naomi,” “ Alypius of Tagaste," etc. This graphic narrative describes the way in which the leaven of Christianity worked and spread among the people in the days of its early purity and power. The scene is laid partly in Britain, and partly in the city of Rome, while the Apostle Paul was still living. Many of the personages mentioned are historical; some of them are mentioned in Scripture. The author depicts in vivid colors the dificulties and the triumphs of early Christianity in the courts of Tiberius Cæsar and Nero.
The following contributions to juvenile and Sunday-school literature have also been received from the Presbyterian Board of Publication:Love's Labor; or, the Seed and its Blossom. By Abby Eldredge, author
of “Lucy Clifton,' Hattie Powers," etc. Grace Harland ; or, Christ's Path to Happiness. By the author of " The
Little Watchman." True Riches, and Other Stories. Compiled for the Presbyterian Board of
Publication. The Child of the Rocks : a Tale for Youth. Translated from the German
of Dr. Chr. G. Barth. Kardoo, the Hindoo Girl ; and Other Stories. Compiled for the Presby
terian Board of Publication. The Brave Heart. By Fleeta. The Straro-bonnet Maker; or, Ways of Usefulness. Mabel Clarke ; or, Looking unto Jesus. Tim, the Collier Boy. I hare, and Oh, had I; or, Lessons in Contentment. Cornelia': Visit to Roseville. By the author of " Harry and his Dog,”
* Kitty Dennison," etc.
Den; The Golden Rule; Stray Lambs ; The Watchful Eye ; Carrie's
ket of Gems. The Two Little Cousins. By Zell. A Little More, and Other Stories. Compiled for the Presbyterian
Board of Publication.
An Address at the Centennial Celebration of the American Whig Society
of the College of New Jersey, June 29, 1869. By Richard S. Field, LL. D. Princeton : Stelle & Smith. 1869.
The subject of this able and scholarly address is the “ Obligations of Christianity to Learning." Judge Field insists with great force that knowledge is a good in itself, and that, as all truth is harmonious, so its parts are mutually supporting, and truth in science and literature must, if understood aright, harmonize with and corroborate the truths of religion. He also maintains that the culture of the intellect as one, and that the guiding element in our higher nature, must be propitious to religion. He traces historically the services which learning and science have rendered to Christianity, and combats the arguments offered by superficial religionists against them, to prove them inimical or injurious thereto. We are glad to see eminent jurists, like Judge Field, showing the taste for let. ters, and the interest in the great questions related to religion in its connections with literature and science, evinced in this address. We think that all the professions gain strength, as well as refinement, from the literæ humaniores.
The American Colleges and the American Public. By Prof. Noah Por
ter, Yale College. From the New Englander for October, 1869. This is the last of a series of articles in the New Englander, on the same topic, by the same author, which, with other articles from other writers, relative to the same subject in general, or Yale College in special, have occupied a large portion of that Quarterly during the past year. These discussions are valuable, nor can those who have any responsibility in guiding or shaping American colleges be wisely ignorant of them. This is especially true of Dr. Porter's papers on the subject, which, though of various merit, and a little intense on some points, nevertheless show the true characteristics, functions, and needs of these institutions, as developed from their origin, genesis, traditions, surroundings, and the ideal at which they should aim. They are full of sensible, judicious statements and suggestions, evident enough to all who have had much experimental knowledge of these institutions, but greatly in danger of being lost sight of, or disregarded, by those who have not.
The pamphlet before us defends the religious organization which prevails in most American colleges, and secures religious instruction on the basis of Catholic Christianity, but under the control of some one Christian denomination ; indicates aversion to the system of choosing trustees by meetings of alumni lately inaugurated at Harvard; insists on the necessity of a good understanding between the trustees and faculty; and the impossibility, for a long time to come, of developing an American University which shall be able to attract to itself the great body of American students that now repair to European universities. " That material is something more than a few millions of money, and a score of brilliant occasional lectures. A great community of highly cultured scholars and literary men must first exist before the representatives of knowledge can appear who are competent to teach the choicest youth of the world, and before a large body of American pupils will be satisfied that they will find no advantage in going abroad." Besides, other things being equal, they prefer going abroad, if they
have the means. They love foreign travel, and the Yankee is a great costopolitan.
The Liturgical Morement in the Presbyterian and Reformed Churches. By
Charles P. Krauth, D. D., Norton Professor of Theology in the E. L. Theological Seminary, in Philadelphin, and Professor of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy in the University of Pennsylvania. Lutheran Book Store, 807 Vine Street ; Reform Publication Rooms, 54 N.
Sisth Street, Philadelphia. This is an able, critical, and historical survey of the liturgical question, beginning with some notice of the books issued by Dr. Shields and Rev. Charles W. Baird relative to this subject. It is more prominently, however, a review of the controversy between Drs. Nevin and Bomberger in regard to the liturgy of the German Reformed Church. Dr. Krauth strongly sides with Dr. Nevin, on whom, along with some minor criticisms, he bestows the highest praise. Ile evidently favors that view of public service and of liturgical forms, which exalts the altar, and maintains a real presence of the substance of our Lord's body and blood in the eucharist, i. e., conformed to the Lutheran doctrine of con-substantiation. The tendency to exalt the pulpit he opposes as Puritanical. We cannot assent to his main idea, whatever we might think of the propriety of a brief authorized liturgy, to be tolerated, but not enforced. But while we thus differ from Dr. Krauth, we think his pamphlet of high historical and critical value.
Third or Walnut Street Presbyterian Church, Louisville, Ky.-Jurisdic
tion of Federal and State Courts - Cicil v. Ecclesiustical Courts-
The Great Presbyterian Case. The Declaration and Testimony v. The
Cereral Assembly. Decision of the Supreme Court of Missouri in he Linienwood Female College Controversy in favor of the General .18sembly. Opinion of Judge Wagner. Published in the Missouri Democrat of Nov. 23, 1869.
These are the decisions of the courts thus far reached in the litigation arising upon the claim of the declaration and testimony secession to the rights, franchises, and possessions of the Presbyterian Church in Kentucky and Missouri. lu the latter State the case has gone through the court of last resort, and been decided in favor of the adherents of the Assembly. The case arose upon the claim of the Presbytery of St. Louis, composed of seceders, to the Lindenwood Female College, which, according to its charter, is to be beld and controlled by trustees appointed by the Presbytery of St. Louis "connected with the General Assembly of the United States of America, usually styled the Old School.” This claim was met by the counter-claim of that Presbytery of St. Louis which adheres to the Assembly, to the custody and control of the college. The court unanimously came to the following result, which they sustain by incontestible argument:
" That under proper construction of the charter, it was indispensable to a valid election that it should be held by the Presbytery of St. Louis, being at the time in connection with the Old School Presbyterian General Assembly VOL, XLII.-NO. I.
"That the decision of the General Assembly as to the status and ecclesiastical rights of the two bodies in question, each claiming to be the Presbytery of St. Louis, being a matter solely of ecclesiastical right and organization, is conclusive on the civil tribunals, and must be adopted by them.
" That even if this court had felt authorized to review or control the action of the General Assembly in respect to such questions, its action in thesn matters would have been sustained as lawful, and in entire conformity with the coustitution of the Presbyterian Church."
The great and conclusive feature of this opinion is, that the judgments of eeclesiastical courts are conclusive in their own sphere, and not to be interfered with by civil tribunals, and that the determination of the highest court of a church, as to courts and members below, and who are and are not sueli, is conclusive. It is the prerogative of the General Assembly to decide who are in connection with it. It is not the province of the State to review, or hear appeals from such decisions. If it were, the church has lost its spiritual independence, and is bound, hand and foot, to the State.
The Walnut Street Church case of Louisville appears at first to have been decided in the same way, in favor of the body adhering to the Assembly. Here the question was, who were true elders of that church? those adhering to the Assembly, or those disobeying its orders, and withdrawing from its jurisdiction? On appeal, the higher court reversed the judgment of the lower, and decided in favor of the Declaration and Testimony appellants. Meanwhile the case was tronght before the United States Court which, like the Supreme Court of Missouri, decided in favor of the adherents of the Assembly. At this stage, the seceders invoked the interposition of the Louisville Chancery Court, which gave the decision referred to at the head of this article, denied the jurisdiction of the Federal court, and awarded the property to the seceders. If this is persisted in, we doubt not the United States Supreme Court will set all right. The ground taken in this decision is, that “a claim of eldership asserted, involves a claim to the right of control, use, and management of the church property, and that far and no farther have the civil tribunals, etc. If not elders, they had do such right, and in determining whether they were or were not elders, the civil court was forced to look into the form of church government to see if the rules gov. erning its action had been complied with ... to adjudge who are, and who are not elders.” That is, when the General Assembly representing the whole church, and its supreme authority, has decided which of the two sets of claimauts are true elders, the courts of Kentucky are to review their proceedings and judg. ments, and if they can find any thing therein, which seems to them contrary to the Presbyterian standards, they are to set aside the ecclesiastical judgment, and declare them no elders. Such a doctrine would render every ecclesiastical decision-Congregational, Episcopal, Papal, Presbyterian, Baptist, Methodista nullity. An appealunder pretext of litigating civil rights, would lie from all their decisions to the civil tribunals. True, the court must find who are elders. But how? Plainly by finding who have been constituted or decided to be such by the proper ecclesiastical body. And if they are adjudged ellers by the body having jurisdiction in the premises, there is an end of the matter. Otherwise, religious independence and church authority are at an end.
This is not altered by the decision in the great Presbyterian Church cise