towards maintaining that ancient alliance, | -My lords, I shall not trespass further on which, with scarcely any interruption, has your lordships' time or patience, but will subsisted for so many years between this conclude by moving an humble Address to country and the Ottoman Porte. During his Majesty, in answer to his most gracious the war which, unhappily for the interests Speech, which we have just heard read.of humanity, has been so long carried on the noble lord then moved an Address, between the Ottoman Porte and the in- which, as usual, was an echo of the Speech habitants of the Greek provinces and from the Throne [See Commons, p 41.] islands, the trade of this country to the Lord Strangford said :- My Lords, in Levant suffered in common with that of rising to second the motion of the noble France and other neutral powers-and, Ilord, that an humble Address be presented may add, suffered to no inconsiderable to his Majesty, thanking him for the extent from piracies directly occasioned Speech which he has been graciously by, or collaterally arising out of, the hos- pleased to direct to be delivered from the tilities subsisting between the two coun-Throne, I confess I feel peculiar satisfactries. It, therefore, became the policy of tion; the rather because I believe that the our government, as well for the protection main points urged in that Speech are such of our own trade, as to promote the gene- as must necessarily convey a feeling of ral peace and welfare of Europe, to en- hope and consolation to all his Majesty's deavour to bring this contest to a speedy subjects. One ground of satisfaction at termination. Accordingly, measures were the tenor of the royal Speech is discoveradopted for the amicable adjustment of able in the spirit of peace and amity that the differences which subsisted; and to pervades it. It contains what may be further this, a treaty was entered into with construed into his Majesty's gracious declaFrance and Russia, to which, as it is not ration, and may be understood to convey yet regularly before your lordships' House, an expression of the royal resolution, to Í shall not now more particularly refer. use every possible exertion to maintain the That the salutary object it possesses may repose of Europe on the firm foundation, be speedily carried into effect, is certainly the proud basis, on which the memorable most desirable, for our own interests, as efforts of English valour and conduct had well as for those of the rest of Europe. placed it at the battle of Waterloo, and But it is no less essential to our national subsequently by means of the treaty of credit, and to the maintenance of that Paris. My Lords, I am rejoiced at the excharacter for honour and good faith, which pression of such a sentiment; and connectis the glory of our country, that we should ing his Majesty's resolution with the peacenot attempt to enforce it, by unprovokedly ful assurances which our government condrawing our swords upon an ancient and tinues to receive from the leading powers faithful ally.—My lords, the object for of Europe, I consider the Speech from the which our troops were sent to Lisbon has, Throne well calculated to allay the anxiety it appears, been accomplished, and that which the present posture of public affairs they are about to return. I, therefore, in the east of Europe might otherwise hope that Portugal, for whose interest and excite. The maintenance of general protection we have formerly expended so tranquillity is an object well deserving the much blood and treasure, may now, in care of his Majesty's ministers, and, if security and independence, enjoy the be- steadily pursued, will confer more splennefit of that assistance which Great Bri- dor, and reflect greater credit, on the natain bas, at all times, so liberally afforded. tional character, than the achievement of --My lords, with respect to that part of the most signal victories. At the same his Majesty's Speech which relates to the time, the peaceful triumphs to which I increased export of some of our manufac- have alluded, not only possess the advanttures, and a proportionate improvement in age of greater and more lasting renown, the condition of those classes connected but are also more easily attained, than the with them, it cannot but be a source of hazardous, and sometimes ruinous, succonsiderable gratification to your lordships; cesses of war. My Lords, it is impossible and I trust that his majesty may not be to advert to a conflict, the occurrence of disappointed in his reliance on parliament, which we must all deplore, without admitto use its utmost endeavours to promote ting, that not even the glory connected and extend such improvement in those with the achievement can, for a single inand other classes of his Majesty's subjects. I stant, diminish the regret which our tri


umph at Navarin must continue to excite been an interruption, I sincerely hope the in the minds of Britons, so long as national two countries will speedily return; and honour and gratitude shall continue to be that measures, the most active and decithe characteristics of Englishmen-or so sive, provided they are consistent with relong as the remembrance of what Turkey cent treaties, may be resorted to, in order has been to us, in the hour of peril, shall to renew a state of things, which every perremain. I feel strongly, my lords, and it son acquainted with the circumstances of may be that I express myself warmly on Turkey must wish to see established. this subject; and I ought to do so, for Every principle, my lords, calls upon us well I know the warmth of feeling which, to co-operate in accomplishing this object. in Turkey, prevails towards this country: Bound, as I admit we are, by the treaty of and well do I know, and sincerely do I ad- London, we are equally bound to carry its mire, the strict honour, the downright, un provisions into effect with the least possideviating fidelity, with which she has long ble disturbance to the interest and feelings fulfilled engagements and maintained re-of a government which, in the most trying lations of amity towards us. I will add, times, has enlisted itself in our favour, my lords, that theirs is a fidelity which has and which has been invariably anxious to not proved the weaker, because it happens preserve with us friendly relations. That to rest less upon the faith of treaties and such is his Majesty's intention, I think, written documents, than on the simple my lords, if any evidence were wanting, guarantee of oral promises, entered intothree the Speech from the Throne affords suffihundred years ago, and from that period, cient proof. That such is the intention of handed down, traditionally, from generation the other powers who are parties to the to generation. My lords, I look forward treaty in question, may be inferred from with a confidence considerably strength- circumstances which are, I hope, equally ened by the spirit that pervades his Ma- satisfactory, and, above all, from the spirit jesty's Speech, to the renewal and continu- and purport of the treaty itself. Those ance of that cordial feeling, which every powers, like ourselves, are at present on friend to both countries must desire to see terms of amity with Turkey-terms of subsisting between Turkey and England. amity which, I trust, no circumstances will I sincerely hope and trust—notwithstand- be permitted to derange. Looking at all ing the most unexpected and untoward these considerations, and confiding, as event, which has recently occurred in the circumstances have given me a right to port of Navarin—that a recurrence to our confide, from personal knowledge and exformer relations of amity and friendly in-perience, in the high honour and unsullied tercourse may not be impracticable. May character of one of the principal parties to I add, that I also hope that an end will be that compact; I think there are little speedily put to those unauthorised and grounds to fear a breach of its provisions. anomalous hostilities at present carried on I will add, that I am fully convinced that by the romance or cupidity of individual no prospect of political advantage will be adventurers, and which are but too well suffered to pollute or change the object of calculated, if permitted to continue, to a treaty, originating in the most humane embarrass the national councils, while and honourable motives. My lords, as they put in jeopardy the national honour. you well know, I have had the honour to I trust, my lords, the day is not far distant be employed as his Majesty's representawhen we shall again behold—that which I tive at the court of St. Petersburg, and I had the pride and pleasure for many years can affirm, from my own direct and immemyself of beholding—the influence of Eng- ! diate knowledge, that the views and sentiland paramount, I may say omnipotent, ments of his imperial majesty, the emperor at Constantinople. I trust events have of Russia, are decidedly pacific, and are recently taken place to accelerate an oc- directed towards no other object than the currence, of which all true friends of maintenance of tranquillity, and the fulfilTurkey and England must ardently desire ment of the treaty entered into by the to witness the completion. Whatever may courts of St. James's, the Tuileries, and be said of Turkish apathy and indifference, St. Petersburg. Towards the preservation there is one thing to which that people of tranquillity it was my duty to contrihave never been indifferent--a friendly bute, under the command of my gracious connexion with England. To those rela- master, when at the court of St. Peterstions, of which there never should have burg; and I invariably found his imperial

majesty ready to co-operate with my own which his majesty's late government had sovereign in the attainment of that desir- had in view was the preservation of peace, able end.—There is another topic in the and he made no doubt that those who had royal Speech to which I advert with feel- put the Speech into his majesty's mouth ings of unmingled pleasure—the conduct were actuated at present by similar wishes. of England towards Portugal; a country To the substance of the Speech-or he to which we are bound by every tie of would rather say, to the substantives, of friendship and interest. It is gratifying the Speech—he felt little inclined to obto see the friendly hand of England ex-ject; but there were epithets, there were tended, and her power again successfully adjectives added to those substantives, exerted, in behalf of that nation, and in which conveyed to his mind impressions defence of a country long united to us in which were by no means warranted by bonds of the strictest amity. To England, facts, and to which he could not give his and England alone, is the safety of Portu- consent, even for a moment. The first gal to be ascribed, and on our efforts must was the calling the Ottoman Porte“ our her peace depend. What we have effected ancient ally.” He knew not what meaning will bind her more closely than ever to the two noble lords who had just spoken our interests, and will entail upon her “a annexed to the terms “antiquity” and debt immense of endless gratitude.” I “alliance.” They must have other noshall trespass no further on your lordships' tions of “alliance” than he had ; they attention, than to express my sincere hope, must apply the term “ancient” in a sense that no difference of opinion upon matters which he could never allow it to have, which, at present, must necessarily be un- when applied to transactions between naaccompanied with explanation, will be tion and nation, when they presumed to permitted to disturb that unanimity which say that Turkey was the "ancient ally" is so desirable on the present occasion. of Great Britain. If he understood any

Lord Holland next rose. He began by thing of the meaning of words, the only assuring their lordships, that he had no in- alliance of Great Britain with Turkey was tention when heentered the House that'even- very short-lived in its duration, and very ing, to trouble their lordships with any ob- recent in its history; for he did not supservations on the Speech which had been pose that the noble lords would condelivered to them from the Throne-or to tend, that the existence of peace or comsay one word which might interrupt the mercial treaties between the two countries unanimity of their lordships on the present constituted alliance between them. The occasion. Many reasons, with which it address of that evening proved the conwas unnecessary to trouble their lordships, trary. In that address were mentioned some of a private and personal nature, treaties of amity and commerce concluded and some of a public and general charac- with a new republic of Mexico ? Was it ter, made him wish not to enter into de meant thereby that that republic, which bate for any unnecessary purpose.

He was at war with Spain, was to be conhad expected, that the address which sidered henceforward as an ally of Great would be proposed that night in reply to Britain ? He knew not what the precise his majesty's Speech would be one which meaning of the term “ally" was in diplowould not cause any great difference of matic language, but he conceived that, in opinion. He had been willing to over common parlance, it meant a party who look its faults of omission, many and griev- had a common interest in the existence ous as they were: and he had been willing, and prosperity of another party. Now, moreover, to verlook any inconsiderate with respect to Turkey, it was not true to expressions, with which he might not be say, that she was the ancient ally of Great inelined to agree : and he would even Britain, in this sense of the word. The now say, that with the general substance alliance between the two countries had not of the Speech he for one, was pretty existed at any time for more than seven well satisfied. He fully agreed with the years. “ I can say, unfortunately for mynoble lord, that the expressions which his self,” continued his lordship, “that I am majesty had used upon one great point-- rather an old man in this House. I am he meant his desire for peace-were such long known to most of your lordships.” I as became the Throne, and ought to be trust, however, that I am not yet become expected from it; and he felt as strongly a piece of antiquity among you; and yet as the Speech itself, that the great objeet l I recollect the Årst treaty of alliance that

was ēver formed by this country with your lordships suppose those reasons were ? Turkey. It was thought extraordinary at The first was, because the messages which the time, that one of the stipulations of Charles the 2nd had sent to the Sultan that treaty should be, that it should only were of an agreeable nature; the second last seven years; and yet it may appear because Charles 2nd was considered to be more extraordinary to your lordships to a very powerful monarch among the Nalearn, that before those seven years had zarene nations; and the last and most luexpired, every article in that treaty had dicrous was, because the Sultan had heard been violated over and over again by Tur- that Charles was the arbiter of the difkey. Our ancient ally! I should like to ferences among them. For those reasons know what was the nature of the alliance. the Sultan granted to our countrymen The noble lord who spoke last admits that what was called, by a sort of diplomatic the alliatice is not recognized by ancient euphonism, certain capitulations, but what treaty, but that it depends upon oral tradi- I believe to have been called, in the Turkish tions, which had been handed down by language, boons or concessions. Those one Turkish minister to another for the concessions or capitulations -- call them last three hundred years. We have heard, by which name you please--were merely in various publications, of the antiquity of commerciat; they gave to the subjects of our commercial relations with Turkey; Great Britain the same immunities which I am therefore anxious to say a word or nad been granted, onthe same terms, to the two upon that part of the subject. I be subjects of France. We had, however, no lieve that they commenced in the reign of political relations with Turkey, in any sense James 1st; that they were formally recog- of the word, until the year 1699. In 1692, nized by the Porte to the time of Charles we offered our services to mediate between 2nd and william 3rd; and that they were the emperor of Germany and the Turkish at last brought into the shape of a treaty by power who were then at war; and we did an individual to whose exertions his coun- so, in order to leave our ancient ally, the try is highly indebted

I mean my

house of Austria,-for Austria was our honourable friend Mr. Adair. To go ancient ally, and Russia, too, was our through the whole of the negative proof ancient ally--in a situation to direct her which I could produce to convince your arms, along with us, against the then culoslordships that Turkey is not the ancient sal power of France. And what was the ally of England would be tedious. I result of that negotiation? We were accused, shall content myself with observing, that by French writers, I shall not stop to exthe anti-social race which now enjoys the amine whether rightly or wrongly,--of empire of the Constantines, considers it-having exercised our mediation with

gross sell naturally at war with every nation partiality, and with having inflicted by it with which it has not entered into a formal a severe injury on the Ottoman power. treaty of peace. I do not deny that it has one of the articles in the treaty, into entered into a treaty of peace with us; which the Turks entered under our mediabut, can a treaty of peace be fairly con tions, was to this effect,—that they should sidered as a treaty of alliance? The first surrender the whole of the Morea and of treaty made between this country and Greece, into the hands of the Venetians. Turkey, I have no doubt, was considered so that the result of our first political by the Turks, as an act of grace and con- negotiation with Turkey was, to wrest cession, yielded by them, in the plenitude Greece from its dominion ; though, una of their power to those dogs of christians, fortunately, not for ever.-In the year 1718, the Nazarene nations. The privileges which we again entered into a political negotiawere granted to our commerce, were ob- tion with Turkey; but under circumstances tained from the Porte about 1699, by lord which, I contend, still preclude us from Winchilsea and sir John Finch, and other denominating her our "ancient ally.” It able members of that family. But how, is right, however, to state that, by that I would ask, were they granted ? Were treaty, we recognized Turkey as the sovethe names of lord Winchilsea or sir John reign of Greece, which a fatal war had Finch subscribed to any treaty which enabled her to recover from the Venetians. secured them? No such thing. The There were some circumstances, which privileges were granted as we would throw occurred about that time, which are so a bone to a dog: they were given, too, very remarkable, that, if your lordships for very special reasons. And what do I should not consider them quite irrelevant


to the matter in debate, I must be permitted Mediterranean. When sir George Byng to mention. In the year 1718, the arrived off Cape St. Vincent, he sent his governments of England and France were, secretary to Madrid, to communicate to as now, by the course of events, closely the king of Spain, to his prime minister allied together. A dispute arose between the cardinal Alberoni, and to the Spanish the emperor of Germany and the king of government generally, first of all the Spain, in which they both refused to take : amount of his force, and its arrival in any share. On the contrary, they con- those parts; and next, the exact nature of cluded with each other a treaty, of which his instructions. He likewise insisted that the object was, to obtain the general paci- the Spanish governinent should give him fication of Europe, upon terms to which an in eight and forty hours. they thought it reasonable that both the Cardinal Alberoni, who was then strenuemperor of Germany and the king of Spain ously exerting himself to restore the vigour should agree. With this view they agreed of a dispirited nation, at first took a high with each other, to propose an armistice tone, and told him, that his master was to the two parties, until the question be determined to run all risks, rather than tween them should be settled by the media- recal his armaments, or consent to a sustion of the great powers of Europe; and pension of arms. The cardinal, however, they determined to compel by force, if subsequently laid lord Torrington's letter need were, the party who refused such before the king of Spain, and contrived to armistice to accede to it. One of the dis- lengthen the negotiation from two to nine putants, Germany, acquiesced at once in days. In the mean time, the Spanish the proposals of the mediating parties. troops landed in Sicily. Lord Torrington Spain, however, dissented. She refused on his arrival at Messina, found, to his to comply with the conditions proposed to great vexation, as sir Edward Codrington her, and went on equipping fleets, raising found when he arrived off Greece, that the armies, and executing all those projects land forces of the king of Spain had which the allied governments of Great arrived at their destination, and that their Britain and France so much disapproved. naval force was anchored close by. What Both of them bestirred themselves to did he do? He immediately sent his own dissuade the King of Spain_from the captain with a polite message to the course which he was pursuing. The British Spanish general the marquis de Lede,-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs of as sir Edward Codrington sent his captain that day, lord Stanhope, travelled in to Ibrahim Pacha,-proposing a cessation person to Madrid ; pointed out to the of arms for two months in Sicily, in order Spanish government the consequences of that the powers of Europe might have the absurd scheme of conquest which it time to concert measures for restoring a was meditating upon the emperor's domi- lasting peace. He told him that the nions in Italy; stated the mischief which English and French governments were would result to humanity from the devasta- allied together to establish a general pacition of that beautiful country; and said, fication. He therefore proposed to the that it was the intention of England to Spanish general, either to agree to an send a powerful squadron into the Mediter- armistice for two months, or to withdraw ranean, to prevent the landing of Spanish his troops altogether from Sicily, in which troops in any part of Italy. This did not case he would undertake to convey them do. A powerful squadron was subsequently in safety to Spain. The Spanish general's sent out by the British government, and answer to this proposition was, that he was the command of it was intrusted to as an officer, not an ambassador,—that he great and distinguished an officer as the had authority to fight, but no powers to British navy ever possessed; he meant sir treat,—that he was aware of the great George Byng, afterwards lord Torrington. power of England and France united; but And not the least part of that gallant that he should obey the orders which he officer's glory was, that upon that occasion had received, and which directed him to he had dared to do that which sir Edward reduce Sicily for his master the king of Codrington had recently done at Navarino; Spain. The Spanish fleet had sailed from namely, to consider his orders as authoriz- the harbour of Messina on the day before ing him to carry into execution, by the the English fleet appeared there; but in force of the British navy, the great object consequence of an accident, it was subsefor which he had been sent into the l quently descried on the coast of Calabria.

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