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(Ellenborough) describe him as “ a dan- | tives and principles which had guided gerous minister.” If he was dangerous, it and regulated his public conduct. was a danger which the people who sup The Earl of Morley said, that reference ported and encouraged him, the sovereign having been made, by his noble friend who who selected and protected him, wilfully had just sat down, to the principles and and deliberately incurred; if he was a dan- ministry of the great statesman whose loss gerous minister it was a danger not felt by was so generally lamented, he was desirthose states of Europe that enjoyed the ous of offering a few observations to the benefits of free institutions: it was a dan- House. He was the more anxious to do ger not felt by a great power that did not so, as he was in that House certainly the possess that advantage, but whose esteem first adherent of that right hon. gentlehe had conciliated, in a most important man; and further, because it had apand useful degree.
peared, from a former debate, that some But he had been led away, by the men- difference of opinion existed amongst tion of the right hon. gentleman, from the those who had been connected with Mr. explanation of his own conduct. The ex- Canning, as to the line of conduct which istence of the friendship to which he had it was, under existing circumstances, most just referred rendered him, at the time of accordant with their honour and consistthe formation of the late government, a ency to adopt. Various theories had, at proper channel of communication between different times, been maintained, as to the his right hon. friend and his noble friend support which those selected by the Crown (lord Lansdowne). The result of that ne- to conduct its affairs were, upon general gotiation was, as is well known, the acces- grounds, entitled to claim from their lordsion of his noble friend to the late cabinet. ships, and the other branch of the legisUpon the dissolution of the late govern- lature. Some appeared to think, that the ment, and the formation of the present, measures of the executive government under the auspices of the noble duke, the ought to be received with confidence, existence of that friendship placed him in whilst others contended that watchfulness rather a different position from that occu- and distrust should mark the conduct of pied by the noble marquis. He would not Parliament. Without entering into such enter into the detail of transactions con- disquisitions, he felt confident that he exnected with the formation of the govern- pressed the general sentiment of the counment in which he was at all personally try when he said, that at no time were concerned ; but he must say, that consi- the wants of a fixed and settled governdering that he had been instrumental in ment more urgent—at no time were the promoting the accession of the noble mar- dangers and inconveniences likely to arise quis to the late government-considering from further changes more imminent. his upright and manly conduct-consi The state of our external relations--the dering how much he approved of his po- position of our domestic affairs-the halitical principle and the tenour of his poli-rassed state of the public mind, consequent tical life-he could not reconcile to his upon the events of the last twelve months ; private feeling, or his sense of public duty, and (if it was permitted to make such a rethe separation of his political fate from ference) the protracted anxieties which had that of the noble marquis. He had re- been endured—the moral courage and the tired, therefore, but with no feelings of singleness of heart and purpose which had disappointment, or mortification. He re- been manifested in the highest quarter of tired, on the contrary, impressed with a the realm—all pointed to this conclusion. deep sense of the gracious condescend. He had, therefore, no difficulty in saying, ance of his sovereign, and to the noble that having advertence to the general situaduke, now at the head of the govern- tion of affairs, he had, à priori, a wish to afment, he had to offer his grateful ac- ford his humble support to his majesty's preknowledgments, for the conduct he had sent servants; and he had therefore only held with regard to him. He apologized had to ask himself, whether there was any to the House for having obtruded upon thing arising out of his unvarying conthem any detail of a matter personal to nexion, political and personal, with the himself; but he thought that any one late Mr. Canning, which ought to lead him who had occupied a public station, if to withhold such support; and it was upon the occasion justified or required it, should the maturest reflection that she had come not hesitate to lay before them, the mo- I to the decision; that there was nothiøg,
either of a public or private nature con-y at which the recognition was made was nected with his late right hon. friend, equally well chosen.—Having reference to which ought to lead him to resist the bias the votes of the other House of parliament which he had described, or to do other- now upon their lordships' table, and to the wise than express his cordial concurrence appointment of a Finance Committee by with those, who, under the present circum- that asseinbly, no doubt could be enter-, stances of the country, had not thought it tained of the intentions of government as to their duty to relinquish the service of the the institution of a full, free, and most imking. What, he would ask, were the prin- partial, inquiry into the state of the national cipal political topics of the present time? | finances, with a view to all practical re-: What the measures on which the friends trenchment.-With regard to the Cornand adherents of Mr. Canning would bill and the Catholic question, the noble be justified in expressing their mistrust duke had also spoken. With respect to of the noble duke and his colleagues ? the last he had intimated that in future the
The transactions in the East of Europe patronage of government should be im-the affairs of Portugal—the new States of partially distributed, and that recantations South America—the Corn-bill—the Finan- of sentiments favourable to the Catholics ces, and the Catholic question. These were would no longer be expected, as has herethe principal matters now pending, and on tofore been conceived to be the case, from none of them, he contended, was there those who wish to advance themselves in any just ground of mistrust of the conduct the two learned professions. Should this and intentions of the new ministry. He line of policy be adhered to, the friends of conceived the Protocol signed at St. Pe- the Catholic question need be under no tersburg, and the Greek treaty of the 6th apprehension as to its ultimate result. July last, had one and the same object He would now consider how far there the pacification of Greece. There were was any thing connected with matters some shades of difference between them; | purely personal which ought to lead the the principle, however, was the same.-The friends of Mr. Canning to oppose the exnoble duke at the head of the administra- isting government. He would not enter tion had negociated and signed the former, into the question, whether private feelings and a few days ago distinetly intimated to ought to regulate public conduct; allowing, their lordships his intentions of giving full however, that the keeping alive deep-rooted. execution to the latter, both in its letter and ancient animosities was a duty impeand spirit.- Where, therefore, could there rative upon friends and adherents-admitbe any ground of apprehension as to the ting that inveterate and irreconcilable conduct of the government on this import- feuds were to be considered as a sacred ant subject. The affairs of Portugal were inheritance-yet still he maintained, that in train of execution, and drawing to their it was open to the friends of Mr. Canning, consummation. Had the noble duke with- without impugning such anti-social docheld from parliament his sentiments as to trines, to support the present government. the 'system adopted towards Portugal by In truth, to this case no such doctrines aphis right hon. friend, still there could have plied ; no such ancient and inveterate hosbeen no just grounds of uneasiness as to tility existed between his right hon, friend the conduct which would now be pursued. and his majesty's present servants—was It will, however, be in the recollection of it necessary that he should refer to the the House that, in the autumn of 1826, ardent zeal, to the indefatigable courage, when our troops were embarking for the with which his right hơn. friend had both Tagus, the noble duke had in his place in in and out of office so long co-operated that House, expressed in the most distinct with the noble duke in the great peninand explicit manner, his approbation of sular cause, where the noble duke had obthat measure and of the principles on which tained such immortal glory?- Need he refer it was founded.
to the identity of counsel which led to the Under present circumstances, the re- signature of the Greek Protocol at St. Petracing the steps taken towards the New tersburg.-To the many years in which States of South America would be impossi- they sat amicably in the same cabinet, and ble. The noble duke, however, had lately
, to the earnestness with which up to the told the House, that the mode in which latest period of his life, Mr. Canning had those States had been recognized was, in been desirous of seeing the command of his opinion, most judicious; and the period | the army resumed by the noble duke.
Again, the right hon. gentleman, holding The presentation of petitions was a proper the seals of the Home Department, had and constitutional one for expressing the publicly declared last year, that with the opinions of members on the subjects to single exception of the Catholic question, which they referred. If the House was there was a complete unity of opinion be- not reminded of the evils complained of, tween himself and Mr. Canning. With they might forget them. The mere laying respect to his noble friend below him (lord of petitions on the table could answer no Bathurst), he was confident that he must beneficial purpose. know that, up to a late period, any thing but animosity had been felt by Mr. Can STAMP DUTY ON RECEIPTS.) Mr. ning towards him.-He concurred in what Hume presented a petition from Brechin, had just fallen from his noble friend complaining of the Two-penny Stamp Duty, who spoke last, as to the opinion ex- which brought an inconsiderable revenue, pressed the other night by one member of was unequal in its operation, and attended his majesty's government (lord Ellenbo- with vexatious litigation. The petitioners rough). That noble lord had further de- also complained of the legacy duty, which clared, that he could not understand was attended in its operation with great what the principles of Mr. Canning were; inequality and hardship. When a poor but he thought that the friends of that person died—a person, for instance, who right hon. gentleman would not, by sup- might not have more than 201.-it was porting the ministry, in any way com- necessary that all the articles about him, promise those principles, merely on the even to the night-cap and old shoes of the ground of the noble lord's not being able deceased, should be taxed by this act, for to understand them.
the repeal of which, the petitioners now The House then adjourned.
prayed. Again; a man who might have assets to the amount of 1,5001., though
he owed that sum, and even more, yet, HOUSE OF COMMONS.
before those assets could be touched, they Tuesday, February 19.
were subjected to the duty of 601. The CATHOLIC EMANCIPATION.) Mr. petitioners also complained of a practice Hume, in presenting three petitions from that prevailed in Scotland, that no person the county of Cavan, praying for Catholic could institute a suit for the recovery of Emancipation, took occasion to enlarge any sum above two guineas, without being upon the folly of continuing the distinc- subjected to a duty of 4s. 6d. All these tions which arise from religious opinions. duties were levied with great hardship,
Sir John Brydges condemned the prac- and the amount which they brought in to tice indulged in by hon. gentlemen, of the revenue, would be more than comharanguing upon the subject of every pe- pensated by the reduction of one useless tition they presented to the House. regiment of cavalry, or of infantry.
Mr. Calcraft said, he had seen many Mr. Bright concurred in opinion, that useful measures carried, and many in these small duties on stamps were unprojurious acts got rid of, by means of the ductive to the revenue, and extremely harangues of which the hon, member com- vexatious on the poorer classes. He conplained.
sidered them more vexatious in their operaMr. Wallace addressed the House for tion than the Salt-tax. One of the hardthe first time. He said it was desirable ships was, that the Stamp-office hired inthat the fullest information should be formers, to discover those who infringed given on every subject connected with the the Statute. distresses of Ireland, and the manifold Mr. Sykes said, that the law upon this evils which grew out of those distresses. subject was extremely oppressive to the Things could not go on in the way in population of the town which he reprewhich they now were in Ireland ; and sented. He thought it a severe hardship every occasion should be taken both " in that the Stamp-office should advertize for season and out of season,” of expatiating informers in the manner which they noon the wrongs of that country, and the toriously did. He hoped the legislature urgent necessity of redressing them. He would direct its attention to the subject, could not, therefore, concur in the obser- in reference to which he had some petivation of the hon. bar that these pe- tions to present. titions should be presented in silence. Mr. Baring said, that informers were
the only means which the legislature had abundant population of Ireland without of enforcing the observance of the laws employment was the great evil of Ireland. which it enacted. But for these informers Mr. Wallace was of opinion, that the law would be evaded, and their ser several provisions of the act were very vices were required in order to prevent objectionable. It seemed to him that it the more harsh and oppressive course must have been passed without the leof intruding on private families. However gislature having given' due consideration severely the penalties might sometimes to the state of that country. He would be felt, those penalties protected the not set up the opinion of any man, how honest trader from the one who violated ever well informed, against a proof of practhe law.
tical inconvenience; and it seemed to himi Ordered to lie on the table.
that the practical inconveniences resulting
from this act were numerous. IRISH SUB-LETTING Act.] Mr. Vil Mr. L. Foster said, he differed from the liers Stuart presented a petition from learned gentleman respecting the inconWaterford against the Sub-letting Act. veniences to be suffered from this act, and He thought it might be amended although must put a different construction upon its it was grounded on a right principle. clauses.
Mr. Brownlow panegyrized the Land Mr. W. Lamb said, there never was an lord and Tenant bill, which, he contended, act for which there had been so unanimous was calculated to produce great benefit to and long-continued a call as for some Ireland. One great benefit which would measure of this nature. Let hon. gentlearise from it was, that it would prevent men read all the volumes written on the that under-letting of small portions of condition of Ireland, statistical and poliland, which had been found so injurious. tical ; let them read all the various, able,
Sir H. Parnell also defended the Land- and elaborate, speeches delivered on the lord and Tenant bill, and was ready to condition of that country; let them read avow the share he had taken in its form- all the ample minutes of inquiry made ation. He hoped the House would at before committees of both Houses, and length take the real state of Ireland into they would find that the attention of parits consideration, and by getting rid of liament had been most peculiarly directed nostrums, adopt some sound principle of to the consideration of this practice of internal management, by which the indus- sub-letting, and of minutely sub-dividing, try of the country would be fairly stimu- land. There could be no doubt it had lated.
originated chiefly in the circumstances of Mr. J. Grattan was not opposed to the the country; and its abuses had been principle of the Landlord and Tenant bill, greatly aggravated, by the causes which but he thought time ought to be given had been adverted to. Nor could it be to the people of Ireland to become ac- doubted that it was one of the great quainted with the nature of its operation. sources of the miseries of the unemployed With respect to emigration, he for one population of that country. Still, it must should oppose himself to the raising of a be admitted, that great and sudden changes loan of a million, as had been recommended, could not be safely made in matters deepfor the purpose of sending eighty thou- ly affecting the mass of the people. It sand of the Irish people to Canada. Re- was impossible to bring them over sudmedies of a different nature ought to be denly to changes in their laws, bowever provided for the evils existing in that un- pernicious in their principle or results. happy country.
Any attempt to interfere with those feelMr. G. Moore thought it would be too ings and habits, would necessarily be atmuch to say that the misery to which Ire- tended with considerable murmuring and land was reduced by the existence of her discontent. He should be most happy in large unemployed population, was to be taking an opportunity of fully considering traced to this act. The House ought to the subject. If it was possible to make take into their consideration the best any modification of the provisions of this means of redressing the evils under which act perfectly consistent with its main that population suffered for want of em- principle and object, it would be the duty ployment: and they would then be con- of parliament to do so. ferring a real benefit on Ireland.
Ordered to lie on the table. General Hart thought that the super
LUNATIC ASYLUMS.) Mr. Robert any risk of persons being improperly conGordon rose, in pursuance of the in- fined, and all the witnesses had agreed, structions of the Committee, to move that some new enactment was necessary for leave to bring in a Bill to Amend to regulate the mode of granting certifithe Law for the Regulation of Lu-cates. natic Asylums. At the latter end of He next begged to call the attention the last session, he had obtained a com- of the House to the manner in which those mittee to inquire into the state of the Lu- who were the proper objects of this system natic Asylums in the neighbourhood of of coercion were treated in Lunatic Asylums, the metropolis. That committee had been with the view to their recovery. He would attended very diligently by the members, state a case. He would suppose that of and the result of the evidence was such any individual belonging to some parish as fully justified him in every assertion be about twenty miles from the metropolis ; had made in moving for it. He would so that the distance would necessarily yenture to repeat what he had before said render very rare the visits of the clergyon this subject; namely, that in the pre- man and of his own friends or relatives. sent state of the law, an individual pos- He would place him at the White House sessing a great income might, with much in Bethnal-Green. He took that house, more ease than the House could suppose, because it was kept by Mr. Warburton, be imprisoned on the false pretence of who had under his care half the lunatic insanity, at the instance of some person paupers within the bills of mortality, ine; acting from malicious or interested mo- cluding those of the parishes of St. Marytives. Whoever had read the report of la-bonne and St. George, Hanover-square, the committee would see it perfectly es- of which latter he (Mr. Gordon) was a tablished in evidence, that there was a vestryman. He would place this supposed great deal too much facility in granting lunatic, then, in Mr. Warburton's estacertificates to the keepers of Lunatic blishment at Bethnal-Green. What proAsylums. The only provision of the law bability, he would ask, was there that his against the false imprisonment of any in- malady would be removed by the curative dividual, under the plea of insanity, was, process followed in that place? He would that the keeper of a lunatic hospital could appeal to the returns to the inquiries made not receive any person as a lunatic into by lord Robert Seymour, from the clergyhis establishment, without an accompany- men of the different parishes in the county ing certificate, signed by a physician, sur- of Middlesex. He would appeal to the geon, or apothecary; and he begged the evidence of the committee, to prove that House to observe, that the term apothe- no attempt was made of any
procary was, in this act, interpreted to mean cess for the mental malady. He would merely a seller of drugs; so that any then ask, what chance there was of imdealer in drugs had the right of signing proving the bodily health of the patient? a certificate, consigning any person to im- From the defective skill of the medical prisonment whom he deemed to be insane. attendants, it was evident that no care Nay, the very apprentice of this man, as was taken of his bodily health. The . soon as his indentures had expired, might, House would be surprised to learn, that by his signature to a certificate, consign in a hospital comprising four hundred any person, under the pretence of insan- patients, they only received the attendance ity, to all the miseries of the mad-house. of one medical person. This was a Mr. This certificate was granted previously to Dunstan, who, however, attended but the
person being received into this shock- every other day, for an hour or two at a ing receptacle of deranged humanity; so time. He was also the surgeon of St. that it might sometimes happen, that this Luke's hospital, and he attended all Mr. ignorant practitioner would see a person Warburton's other establishments, besides labouring under the delirium of a fever, having a fair share of private practice. or the hallucination occasioned by opium, This was the scale of medical attendance and grant a certificate under which the on the wretched sufferers; one surgeon unfortunate sufferer might, for months for an hour or two every other day, to afterwards, remain immured amidst the take charge of the health of four hundred horrors of a mad-house. There could be patients. As a proof how little attention no doubt that it was the business of the was paid to their medical treatment, he legislature to prevent, as far as possible, held in his hand one of those slips of