from these voracious animals, but for their often finely varnished to protect them from destruction. The method most in use the wet and cold, are the principal boconsists in sticking into the trunk of tanical subjects for observation in Januthe tree old blades of knives, standing up- ary, and their structure is particularly wards, scythes, and pieces of pointed iron, worthy of notice; to the practical gardisposed circularly round it, when the dener an attention to their appearance is tree is straight, or at the place of bending, indispensable, as by them alone can he when the trunk is crooked. The bear has prune with safety.

Buds are always commonly dexterity enough to avoid formed in the spring preceding that in these points in climbing up the tree; but which they open, and are of two kinds, when he descends, as he always does, leaf buds and flower buds, distinguished backwards, he gets on these sharp hooks, by a difference of shape and figure, easiand receives such deep wounds, that hé ly discernible by the observing eye; the usually dies

Old bears frequently take fruit buds being thicker, rounder, and the precaution to bend down these blades shorter, than the others-hence the garwith their fore-paws as they mount, and

dener can judge of the probable quantity thereby render all this offensive armour of blossom that will appear,”useless.

Lines on Buds, by Cowper. Another destructive apparatus has some When all this uniform uncoloured scene similitude to the catapulta of the ancients. Shall be dismantled of its fleecy load, It is fixed in such a manner that, at the And flush into variety again. instant the bear prepares to climb the From dearth to plenty, and from death to life, tree, he pulls a string that lets go the ma

Is Nature's progress, when she lectures man chine, whose elasticity strikes a dart into In heavenly truth ; evincing, as she makes the animal's breast. A further mode is The grand transition, that there lives and

works to suspend a platform by long ropes to

A soul in all things, and that soul is God. the farthest extremity of a branch of the

He sets the bright procession on its way, tree. The platform is disposed horizon- And marshals all the order of the year ; tally before the hive, and there tied fast He marks the bounds which winter may not to the trunk of the tree with a cord made

pass, of bark. The bear, who finds the seat And blunts his pointed fury; in its case, very convenient for proceeding to the Russet and rude, folds up the tender germ, opening of the hive, begins by tearing Uninjured, with inimitable art ; the cord of bark which holds the plat

And ere one flowery season fades and dies, form to the trunk, and hinders him from Designs the blooming wonders of the next. executing his purpose. Upon this the “ Buds possess a power analogous to platform immediately quits the tree, and that of seeds, and have been called the swings in the air with the animal seated viviparous offspring of vegetables, inasupon it. If, on the first shock, the bear much as they admit of a removal from is not tumbled out, he must cither take a their original connection, and, its action very dangerous leap, or remain patiently being suspended for an indefinite time, in his suspended seat. If he take the can be renewed at pleasure.” leap, either involuntarily, or by his own

On Icicles, by Cowper. good will, he falls on sharp points, placed The mill-dam dushes on the restless wheel, all about the bottom of the tree; if he re- And wantons in the pebbly gulf below : solve to remain where he is, he is shot

No frost can bind ic there ; its utmost force by arrows or musket balls.

Can but arrest the light and smoky mist,
That in its fall the liquid sheet throws wide.

And see where it has hung th' embroidered

banks White butterbur. Tressilugo alba. With forms so various, that no powers of art,

The pencil, or the pen, may trace the scene !

Here glittering turrets rise, upbearing high January 27.

(Fantastic misarrangement !) on the roof St. John Chrysostom.

St. Julian of Large growth of what may seem the sparkling Mans. St. Marius.

And shrubs of fairy land. The crystal drops

That trickle down the branches, fast conIt is observed in Dr. Forster's “ Per

gealed, ennial Calendar," that “ Buds and em- Shoot into pillars of pellucid length, bryo blossoms, in their silky, downy coats, And prop the pile they but adorned before.




for a single book. He improved typeEarth Moss. Phascum cuspidatum.

metal, by giving it that degree of hardDedicated to St. Chrysostom.

ness, which has been a desideratum in founderies of this kind; and discovered a

new method of facilitating the process of January 28,

melting and casting. From his foundery St. Agnes.-Second Commemoration. he sent types to Russia, Sweden, Poland, St. Cyril, A. D. 444.

and even America. He also improved Sts. Thyrsus, Leucius, and Callinicus. St. John of

the printing-press. Reomay, a. D. 540. Blessed Margaret, and progress of the art of printing, fur

Besides this, his inquiries into the origin Princess of Hungary, A. D. 1271; nished the materials of a history, which St. Paulinus, A. D. 804. Blessed Charlemagne, Emperor, A. D. 814. lished in 1784, the first part of “ An At

he left behind in manuscript. He pubSt. Glastian, of Fife, A. D. 830.

tempt to illustrate the origin of playingSt. Thyrsus.

cards, the introduction of paper made Several churches in Spain are dedicated from linen, and the invention of engraving to him. In 777, the queen of Oviedo and on wood in Europe ;" the latter part was Asturia presented one of them with a finished, but not published, before his silver chalice and paten, a wash-hand death. His last publication was a small basin and a pipe, which, according to

“ Treatise on Bibliography," &c. pubButler, is “ a silver pipe, or quill to suck lished in 1793, with his reasons for reup the blood of Christ at the communion, taining the present German characters. such as the pope sometimes uses it sucks With the interruption of only five or six up as a nose draws up air.”

hours in the twenty-four, which he allowed CHRONOLOGY.

for sleep, his whole life was devoted to

study and useful employment. John Gottlob Immanuel Breitkopf, a celebrated printer, letter-founder, and

FLORAL DIRECTORY. bookseller of Leipsic, died on this day, in Double Daisy. Bellis perennis plenus. the year 1794: he was born there No- Dedicated to St. Margaret of Hungary. vember 23, 1719. After the perusal of a work by Albert Durer, in which the shape of the letters is deduced from mathematical principles, he endeavoured to fashion St. Francis of Sales, A. D. 1622. St. ther according to the most beautiful Sulpicius Severus, A. D. 420. St.Gildas models in matrices cut for the pur- the Abbot, A.D. 570. St. Gildas, the pose. His printing-office and leiter- Scot, A. D. 512. foundery acquired very high reputation. This being the anniversary of the king's It contained" punches and matrices for accession to the throne, in 1820, is a 400 alphabets, and he employed the types Holiday at all the public offices, except the of Baskerville and Didot. Finding that Excise, Stamps, and Customs. engraving on wood had given birth to printing, and that the latter had contri

FLORAL DIRECTORY." buted to the improvement of engraving, Flowering Fern. Osmunda regalis.' he transferred some particulars, in the Dedicated to St. Francis of Salesa : province of the engraver, to that of the printer; and represented, by typography, all the marks and lines which occur in

Jamuary 30. the modern music, with all the accuracy KING CHARLES'S MARTYRDOM.' of engraving, and even printed maps and Holiday at the Public Omces ; except the mathematical figures with movable types;

Stamps, Customs, and Excise. though the latter he considered as a mat- St. Bathildes, Queen of Navarre, A. D. 680. ter of mere curiosity: such was also ano- St. Martina. St. Aldegondes, A. D. 660. ther attempt, that of copying portraits by St. Barsimæus, 'A.' D. 114. movable types. He likewise printed,

St. Martina. with movable types, the Chinese charac

The Jesuit Ribadeneira relates that the ters, which are, in general, cut in pieces emperor Alexander IV., having decreed of wood, so that a whole house is often that all christians should sacrifice to the necessary to contain the blocks employed Roman gods, or die, insinuated to Sle

No. 7.

January 29.



Martina, that if she would conform to the Lord Orford

one can scarce edict, he would make her his empress, conceive a greater absurdity than retain. but on her being taken to the temple, “ by ing the three holidays dedicated to the a sudden earthquake the blockish idol of house of Stuart. Was the preservation of Apollo was broken in pieces, a fourth part James I. a greater blessing to England of his temple thrown down, and, with his than the destruction of the Spanish arruins, were crushed to death; his priests mada, for which no festival is established ? and many others, and the emperor him- Are we more or less free for the execution self, began to fly." Whereupon St. of king Charles ? Are we at this day Martina taunted the emperor ; and the still guilty of his blood? When is the devil, in the idol, rolling himself in the stain to be washed out? What sense is dust, made a speech to her, and another there in thanking heaven for the restorato the emperor, and “ fled through the tion of a family, which it so soon became air in a dark cloud; but the emperor necessary to expel again?" would not understand it." Then the According to the “ Life of William emperor commanded her to be tortured. Lilly, written by himself,” Charles I. The jesuit's stories of these operations and caused the old astrologer to be consulted her escapes, are wonderfully particular. for his judgment. This is Lilly's account: Aceording to him, hooks and stakes did “ His majesty, Charles I., having inher no mischief; she had a faculty of trusted the Scots with his person, was, shining, which the pouring of hot fard for money, delivered into the hands of upon her would not quench; when in the English parliament, and, by several gaol, men in dazzling white surrounded removals, was had to Hampton-court, her; she could not feel a hundred and about July or August, 1647; for he was eighteen wounds; a fierce lion, who had there, and at that time when my house : fasted three days, would not eat her, and was visited with the plague. He was fire would not burn her; but a sword cut desirous to escape from the soldiery, and her head off in 228, and at the end of to obscure himself for some time near two days two eagles were found watching London, the citizens whereof began now her body. “That which above all con- to be unruly, and alienated in affection firmeth the truth of this relation,” says from the parliament, inclining wholly Ribadeneira," is, that there is nothing to his majesty, and very averse to the herein related but what is in brief in the army. His majesty was well informed lessons of the Roman Breviary, com- of all this, and thought to make good manded by public authority to be read use hereof: besides, the army and paron her feast by the whole church.” liament were at some odds, who should

be masters. Upon the king's intention CHRONOLOGY.

to escape, and with his consent, madam

Whorewood (whom you knew very well, On this day, in the year 1649, king worthy esquire) came to receive my Charles I. was beheaded. In the Com- judgment, viz. In what quarter of this mon Prayer Book of the Church of Eng- nation he might be most safe, and not land, it is called “ The Day of the Martyr- to be discovered until himself pleased. dom of the Blessed King Charles I.;" When she came to my door, I told and there is “ A Form of Prayer, with her I would not let her come into my Fasting, to be used yearly" upon its re- house, for I buried a maid-servant of the

plague very lately : however, up we The sheet, which received the head of went. After erection of my figure, I Charles I. after its decapitation, is care- told her about twenty miles (or there fully preserved along with the commu- abouts) from London, and in Essex, I nion plate in the church of Ashburnham, in was certain he might continue undisthis county; the blood, with which it has covered. She liked my judgment very been almost entirely covered, now appears well; and, being herself of a sharp judgnearly black. The watch of the unfor- ment, remembered a place in Essex about tunate monarch is also deposited with the that distance, where was an excellent linen, the movements of which are still house, and all conveniences for his reperfect. These relics came into the pos- ception. Away she went, early next session of lord Ashburnham immediately morning, unto Hampton-court, to acafter the death of the king.-Brighton quaint his majesty ; but see the misHerald.

fortune: he, either guided by his own


approaching hard fate, or misguided by headed January 30, 1649. After tho Ashburnham, went away in the night- execution, his body was carried to Windtime westward, and surrendered him- sor, and buried with Henry VIIIth, self to Hammond, in the Isle of Wight. in the same vault where his body was Whilst his majesty was at Hampton- lodged. Some, who saw him embowelled, court, alderman Adams sent his majesty affirm, had he not come unto this untimely one thousand pounds in gold, five hun- end, he might have lived, according unto dred whereof he gave to madam Whore- nature, even unto the height of old age. wood. I believe I had twenty pieces of Many have curiously inquired who it was that very gold for my share.” Lilly pro- that cut off his head: I have no permis. ceeds thus : “ His majesty being in sion to speak of such things; only thus Carisbrook-castle, in the Isle of Wight, much I say, he that did it is as valiant the Kentish men, in great numbers, rose and resolute a man as lives, and one of a in arms, and joined with the lord Gor- competent fortune. For my part, I do ing; a considerable number of the best believe he was not the worst, but the ships revolted from the parliament; the most unfortunate of kings." citizens of London were forward to rise Lilly elsewhere relates, “ that the next against the parliament; his majesty laid Sunday but one after Charles I. was his design to escape out of prison, by beheaded, Robert Spavin, secretary unto sawing the iron bars of his chamber win- lieutenant-general Cromwell at that time, dow; a small ship was provided, and invited himself to dine with me, and anehored not far from the castle to bring brought Anthony Pierson, and several him into Sussex; horses were provided others, along with him to dinner. Their ready to carry him through Sussex into principal discourse all dinner-time was, Kent, that so he might be at the head of who it was beheaded the king: one said the army in Kent, and from thence to it was the common bangman; another, march immediately to London, where Hugh Peters ; others also were nomithousands then would have armed for Dated, but none concluded. Robert Spahim. The lady Whorewood came to me, vin, so soon as dinner was done, took me acquaints me herewith. I got G. Farmer by the hand, and carried me to the south (who was a most ingenious locksmith, window; saith he,These are all mistaken, and dwelt in Bow-lane) to make a saw they have not named the man that did to cut the iron bars in sunder, I mean to the fact; it was lieutenant-colonel Joice : saw them, and aqua fortis besides. His I was in the room when he fitted himself majesty in a small time did his work; for the work, stood behind him when he the bars gave liberty for him to go out; did it; when done, went in again with he was out with-bis body till he came to him. There is no man knows this but my his breast; but then his heart failing, he master, viz. Cromwell, commissary Ireproceeded no farther : when this was ton, and myself.'--Doth not Mr. Rushdiscovered, as soon after it was, he was worth know it?' said I. No, he doth narrowly looked after, and no oppor- not know it,' saith Spavin. The same tunity after that could be devised to en- thing Spavin since hath often related large him.”

unto me when we were alone.”. Lilly goes on to say, “ He was be


SAROVE TUESDAY regulates most of the list, the introduction of which on the next moveable feasts. Shrove Tuesday itself page puts the reader in possession of sera is the next after the first new moon in the viceable knowledge on this point, and month of February. If such new moon affords an opportunity for affirming, should happen on a Tuesday, the next that Mr. Nicolas's book contains a vaTuesday following is Shrove Tuesday. A riety of correct and valuable informarecently published volume furnishes a tion not elsewhere in a collected form:

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Pentecost or Whit Sunday, is the fifNOVEABLE FEASTS

: tieth day and seventh Sunday after FROM

Easter day. « Tables, Calendars, &c. for the use of His Quinquagesima Sunday, is so named

torians, Antiquaries, and the Legal Pro- from its being about the fiftieth day fession, by N. H. Nicolas, Esq."

before Easter. It is also called Shrove Advent Sunday, is the nearest Sunday to Sunday.

the feast of St. Andrew, November Relick Sunday, is the third Sunday after 30th, whether before or after.

Midsummer-day. Ascension Day, or Holy Thursday, is the Rogation Sunday, is the fifth Sunday af

Thursday in Rogation week, i.e. the ter Easter day.

week following Rogation Sunday. Rogation Days are the Monday, Tuesday, Ash Wednesday, or the first day in lent, and Wednesday following Rogation is the day after Shrove Tuesday.

Sunday. Carle, or Care Sunday, or the fifth Sun- Shrove Sunday, is the Sunday next be

day in lent, is the fifth Sunday after fore Shrove Tuesday. It is also called Shrove Tuesday.

Quinquagesima Sunday. Corpus Christi, or Body of Christ, is a Septuagesima Sunday, so called from festival kept on the Thursday after

B its being about the seventieth day beTrinity Sunday; and was instituted in fore Easter, is the third Sunday before the year 1264.

Lent. Easter Day. - The Paschal Sabbath. The Sexagesima Sunday, is the second Sun

Eucharist, or Lord's Supper, is the day before Lent, or the next to Shrove seventh Sunday after Shrove Tuesday, Sunday, so called as being about the and is always the first Sunday after sixtieth day before Easter. the first full moon, which happens on Trinity Sunday, or the Feast of the Holy or next after the 21st of March.

Trinity, is the next Sunday after PenEaster Monday

are the Monday and tecost or Whitsuntide.

Tuesday Easter Tuesday

following Whit Sunday. See Pentecost.

Easter day.
Ember Days, are the Wednesdays, Fri-

Whit Monday

are the Monday and

Tuesday following days, and Saturdays, after the first Sun

Whit Tuesday

Whit Sunday. day in lent; after the Feast of Pente

Whitsuntide, is the three days abovecost; after Holy-rood Day, or the Feast mentioned. of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross,

viz. 14th September ; and after St. Lucia's day, viz. 15th December. The Vigil or Eve of a feast, is the day Ember Weeks, are those weeks in which

before it occurs. Thus the Vigil of the the Ember days fall.

feast of St. John the Baptist is the 23d The Eucharist. See Easter day.

of June. If the feast-day falls upon a Good Friday, is the Friday in Passion

Monday, then the Vigil or the Eve is Week, and the next Friday before Eas

kept upon the Saturday preceding. ter day.

The Morrow of a feast, is the day followHoly Thursday. See Ascension day.

ing: thus the feast of All Souls, is NoLent, a Fast from Ash Wednesday, to

vember 2d, and the Morrow of All the Feast of Easter, viz. forty days.

Souls is consequently the 3d of NovemLord's Supper. See Easter day.

ber. Low Sunday, is the Sunday next after The Octave or Utas of each feast, is alEaster day.

ways the eighth day after it occurs ; Maunday Thursday, is the day before Good Friday.

for example, the feast of St. Hillary, is

the 13th of February, hence the Octave Midlent, or the fourth Sunday in Lent, is

of St. Hillary, is the 20th of that the fourth Sunday after Shrove Tues

month. day.

In the Octaves, means within the eight Palm Sunday, or the sixth Sunday in

days following any particular feast. Lent, is the sixth Sunday after Shrove

Paschal Sabbath. See Easter day.
Passion Week, is the week next ensuing

SEPTUAGESIMA after Palm Sunday.

Is the ninth Sunday before Easter Sunday.

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